Tag Archives: Baddha Konasana

Solanum Xanthocarpum

Botanical Name:Solanum Xanthocarpum
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. virginianum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Synonyms: Solanum virginianum
Popular Name: Yellow-Berried Nightshade, Choti Katheri, Kantkari, Kantakari, Kateli
Common Name : Yellow-berried Nightshade
Other Names: Choti Katheri, Kantkari, Kantakari, Kateli

Parts Used: Stems, roots, flowers, fruit

Habitat: Throughout India

Description: It is a very prickly perennial herb somewhat with woody base. Stem branched much and younger ones clothed with dense, stellate and tomentose hairs. Prickles are compressed straight, glabrous and shining, often 1 to 3 cm long. Leaves ovate or elliptic, sinuate or subpinnatifid, obtuse or subacute, stellately hairy on both sides, armed on the midrib and often on the nerves with long yellow sharp prickles. Petiole is long, stellately hairy and prickly. Flowers are in cymes or some times reduced as solitary. Calyx tube is short, globose and lobes linear-lanceolate, acute, densely hairy and prickly. Corolla purple, lobes deltoid, acute, and hairy outside. Anther filament is long, glabrous and anthers open by a pore. Ovary is ovoid and glabrous. Berry yellow, green-blotched and sorrounded by enlarged calyx. Seeds are glabrous.

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Flowers are typically conical or funnel form with five petals, usually fused. The leaves are alternate, often with a hairy or clammy surface.

This plant is  used in Ayurvedic practice. Traditionally used as a carminative, diuretic, expectorant and fever reducer. It is also used to treat asthma. The powdered fruit is mixed with honey to make a cough syrup. Produces beautiful inch long fruits. Not Hardy. Zone

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Cultivation
Propagule  Various Pollination method    Planting style    Crop spacing    Row spacing    Cold frame  Planting period    Harvesting period    Frost tolerance    Heat requirement    Fertilizer  Typical Time to harvest

Special qualities
Tolerates drought  no Tolerates high humidity  no Tolerates seaside conditions  no Insect resistant  no Disease resistant  no Deer resistant  no Best uses    Symbiosis  Attracts butterflies  no Attracts hummingbirds  no Autumn foliage  no Colorful berries  no Desirable qualities    Other interest    Other interest color  Other interest period

Uses:Fruits eaten as an anthelmintic and for indigestion. Root is an expectorant, used in Ayurvedic medicine for cough, asthma and chest pain. Also used for flatulence, sore throat, and toothache. Has high concentration of solasodine, a starting material for the manufacture of cortisone and sex hormones. It cures asthma, cough, bronchspasm, sore throat, constipation, an effective expectorant and diuretic.

Bhavamisra, an ancient physician, mentions it as promoting conception in females. Given with honey, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), datura (Datura metal), and black pepper it can be effective in cases of bronchial asthma. Stem, flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative and are prescribed for relief in burning sensation in the feet.
Leaves are applied locally to relieve pain.

Medicinal Properties :-
Action

Herb: alterative, anthelmintic, aperient, astringent, bitter, digestive, diuretic,  expectorant, stomachic

Stems, fruits, flowers-bitter, carminative

Root- diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, anodyne

The whole herb is useful for the treatment of fevers, coughs, asthma, flatulence, dropsy, heart disease, pain the chest and gonorrhea.

The roots from this herb (in the form of decoction of confection) are frequently recommended for coughs, dysuria, stone in the bladder, dropsy, asthma, catarrhal fever, pain in the chest. It is also useful for the enlargement of the liver and spleen.

This herb is one of the dashamul roots (ten roots) in ayurveda. So, it is one of the important herbs in Indian Medicine.

Herbal medicine
Medicinal properties  carminative   expectorant   decongestant Medicinal parts  Leaves   Seeds   Root Has medicinal uses  yes Do not self-administer  yes Do no use if pregnant  no Legally restricted  no Toxicity precautions  Medicinal notes  Solanum xanthocarpum is considered by some to be an herbal remedy. It’s used as a carminative, an expectorant or a decongestant. Kantakari is only to be administered with proper professional knowledge. The leaves together with the seeds and the root are considered to be the valuable parts by the herbalist.

As per Ayurveda:
The plant is bitter, acrid, thermogenic, anthelmintic.
anti-inflammatory, anodyne, digestive, carminative, appetiser, stomach depurative, sudorific, febrifuge, expectorant, laxative, stimulant, dime, rejuvenating, emmenagogue and aphrodisiac.

It is useful in vitiated conditions of velta and kapha, helminthiasis, dental caries, inflammatio arthralgia, flatulence, colic, constipation, dyspepsia, anorexia, leprosy, .skin diseases, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, fever, cough, asthma. bronchitis, pharyngitis, hiccough, strangury, urolithiasis, amenorrhoea. dysmenorrhoea, lumbago, haemorrhoids, cardiac disorders, rhinopathy : epilepsy and catarrh.

The root is pungent, bitter, heating; appetiser, laxative, stomachic, anthelmintic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, fever, “vata “, and” kapha”, ozrena, strangury, lumbago, pains, piles, thirst, urinary concretions, and diseases of the heart.-

The fruit is bitter, digestible; improves the appetite;. good in diseases of the heart, pruritus, asthma, fever; anthelmintic, anaphrodisiac; causes biliousness .

The root is an aphrodisiac.

The leaves are a good application for piles.

The fruit has a bitter bad taste; laxative; good in inflammations, chronic bronchitis, asthma, biliousness, fevers, muscular pains, dysuria, stone in the bladder, sterility in women.

The seeds are anthelmintic;’ good for boils, scabies, asthma, and cough

The root is much esteemed as an expectorant, and is used in cough, asthma, catarrhal fever and pain in the chest. Kantikari is used in medicine in various forms, such as decoction, electuary, ghrita, etc.

A decoction of the root is given with the addition of long pepper and honey, in cough and catarrh, and with rock salt and assafretida in spasmodic cough.

The roots beaten up and mixed with wine are given to check vomiting. The juice of berry is also useful in sore throat.

The stems, flowers and fruit are bitter and carminative, and are prescribed in those forms of the burning of the feet , which are attended with a vesicular, watery eruption.

Fumigations with the vapour of the burning seeds of this plant are in high repute in the cure of toothache. It acts as a powerful sialogogue, and by this means probably relief is obtained.
In the Ayurvedic tradition, kantakari leaves are taken to treat gas and constipation, and are made into a gargle for throat and gum disorders. The expectorant, anticongestive seeds may be taken to relieve asthma and to clear bronchial mucus. The root is used to treat snake scorpion bites

Traditional uses
Parts used  Traditional uses  Contemporary uses  Fragrance  Fragrance parts  Fragrance intensity    Fragrance category    Dye parts  Dye color

Adverse factors
Common pests  Poisonous parts  Poisonous indications  Internal poison  no Dermatologic poison  no Livestock poison  no Mechanical injury  no Hay fever pollen    Hay fever season    Adverse qualities

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/solanum-xanthocarpum.html
http://www.motherherbs.com/solanum-xanthocarpum.html
http://www.crescentbloom.com/plants/specimen/SO/Solanum%20xanthocarpum.htm
http://www.holisticonline.com/Herbal-Med/_Herbs/h160.htm
http://www.crimson-sage.com/shop/?shop=1&itemid=84
http://www.impgc.com/plantinfo_A.php?id=76&bc=Raw%20Herbs%20»%20Plant

http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#kanchanara

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

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Yashtimadhu – (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

 

Botanical Name : Glycyrrhiza Glabra
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Genus: Glycyrrhiza
Species: G. glabra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Family name: Leguminosae

Sanskrit: Yashtimadhu
English: Liquorice

Hindi: Mulethi
Telugu: Athimadhuramu
Common names:Liquorice, or Licorice, Yashtimadhuka, Mitilakadi, Asailasoos, Erattimadhuram, Athimadhuram, Athimadhura, Jeshtamaddu,

The word liquorice is derived (via the Old French licoresse) from the Greek    (glukurrhiza), meaning “sweet root”,   from    (glukus), “sweet”  +  (rhiza), “root”,  the name provided by Dioscorides.  It is usually spelled liquorice in British usage, but licorice in the United States and Canada. It is called erk-soos   in Arabic, athimadhuram   in Telugu, jyeshthamadhu   in Kannada,   in Urdu, athimadhuram   in Tamil, irattimadhuram   in Malayalam, yastimadhu   in Sanskrit, mulethi   in Hindi, Vel Mee  in Sinhalese, jethimadh  in Gujarati, and jyeshthamadh  in Marathi.

Other Names: Licorice, Mithi-lakdi, Mulathi, Liquorice, sweetwood.

Parts used : Roots and runners, either unpeeled or peeled.
Habitat: Glycyrrhiza Glabra is  native to southern Europe, India, and parts of Asia. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavouring compounds.It is a legume plant and grows as a shrub.This herb is found in many countries. It is believed to give contentment and harmony.

Origin: China. Licorice is a medical plant in China and India, and therefore cultivated.

Description:
The liquorice plant is a herbaceous perennial legume. It goows to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (1?3–1?2 in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (3?4–1 1?6 in) long, containing several seeds. The roots are stoloniferous.

..click to see the pictures…>……..(001)....(01)...(1)..….…...(2).……..(3).………(4)….

History:
Licorice is a traditional herbal remedy with an ancient history and world wide usage. Modern research has shown it to have effects upon, amongst other organs, the endocrine system and liver. The triterpenes of Glycyrrhiza are metabolized in the body to molecules that have a similar structure to the

Active Compounds:
*Triterpenes of the oleanane type, mainly glycyrrhizin (=glycyrrhizic or glycyrrhizinic acid), and its agylcone glycyrrhetinic acid (=glycyrrhitic acid), liquiritic acid, glycyrrhetol, glabrolide, isoglabrolide, licoric acid, & phytosterols.

* Flavonoids and isoflavonoids; liquiritigenin, liquiritin, rhamnoliquiritin, neoliquiritin, licoflavonol, licoisoflavones A and B, licoisoflavanone, formononetin, glabrol, glabrone, glyzarin, kumatakenin and others.

* Coumarins; liqcoumarin, umbelliferone, herniarin glycyrin.

*Chalcones; liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, neosoliquiritin, rhamnoisoliquiritin, licuraside, licochalcones A and B, echinatin and others.

*Polysaccharides, mainly glucans.

*Volatile oil, containing fenchone, linalool, furfuryl alcohol, benzaldehyde.

* Miscellaneous; starch, sugars, amino acid etc

In Ayurveda Yashtimadhu is known as an aphrodisiac and a rejuvenating tonic. It is an excellent natural herb that is used for treating various ailments like throat congestions, coughs, respiratory disorders and tuberculosis. Yastimadhu also helps inincreasing the appetite by facilitating proper evacuation of stools. This herb has a specialaction on kapha, which helps in expectoration of the accumulated kapha.

Some recent scientific studies have shown that Yashtimadhu also acts as a memory enhancer and mental rejuvenator.

Reduces hyperacidity and is documented for preventing gastric and duodenal ulcers. It has spasmolytic effect and is useful in treating heartburn.

Yashtimadhu is an excellent natural herb for treating throat congestions, coughs, respiratory disorders and tuberculosis. Yashtimadhu is known in Ayurvedic as an aphrodisiac and a rejuvenating tonic, it also helps in relieving hyperacidity, soothing peptic ulcers, liver diseases and abdominal aches.

The scent of liquorice root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is up to 3% of total volatiles. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant, tart, and lasting longer.
The isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavane glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice, are phytoestrogens.
Edible Uses:………..CLICK & SEE
Food and candy:
Liquorice flavour is found in a wide variety of candies or sweets. In most of these candies, the taste is reinforced by aniseed oil so the actual content of liquorice is very low. Liquorice confections are primarily purchased by consumers in the European Union.

In the Netherlands, where liquorice candy (drop) is one of the most popular forms of sweets, only a few of the many forms that are sold contain aniseed, although mixing it with mint, menthol, or with laurel is quite popular. Mixing it with ammonium chloride (salmiak) is also popular. The most popular liquorice, known in the Netherlands as zoute drop (salty liquorice), actually contains very little salt, i.e., sodium chloride. The salty taste is probably due to ammonium chloride and the blood pressure-raising effect is due to glycyrrhizin. Strong, salty sweets are popular in Nordic countries.

Pontefract in Yorkshire was the first place where liquorice mixed with sugar began to be used as a sweet in the same way it is in the modern day.[20] Pontefract cakes were originally made there. In County Durham, Yorkshire, and Lancashire, it is colloquially known as ‘Spanish’, supposedly because Spanish monks grew liquorice root at Rievaulx Abbey near Thirsk.
Liquorice root chips:

Dried sticks of liquorice root:
In Italy (particularly in the south), Spain, and France, liquorice is popular in its natural form. The root of the plant is simply dug up, washed, dried, and chewed as a mouth freshener. Throughout Italy, unsweetened liquorice is consumed in the form of small black pieces made only from 100% pure liquorice extract; the taste is bitter and intense. In Calabria a popular liqueur is made from pure liquorice extract.

Liquorice is also very popular in Syria and Egypt, where it is sold as a drink, in shops as well as street vendors. It is used for its expectorant qualities in folk medicine in Egypt.

Dried liquorice root can be chewed as a sweet. Black liquorice contains about 100 calories[dubious – discuss] per ounce (15 kJ/g).

Liquorice is used by brewers to flavour and colour porter classes of beers, and the enzymes in the root also stabilize the foam heads produced by beers brewed with it

Medicinal Uses:anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-spasmodic, demulcent, emetic, expectorant, laxative, rejuvenative, sedative, tonic.

Uses in:
abdominal pain
bronchitis
colds
cough
debility (general)
heart tonic
hyperacidity
inflammation
laryngitis
laxative
mucus membrane toner and soother
muscle spasms
sore throat
ulcers
painful urination

Yashtimadhu is an excellent natural herb for treating throat congestions, coughs, respiratory disorders and tuberculosis. Yashtimadhu is known in Ayurvedic as an aphrodisiac and a rejuvenating tonic, it also helps in relieving hyperacidity, soothing peptic ulcers, liver diseases and abdominal aches.

Various scientific studies suggest that Yashtimadhu also acts as a memory enhancer and mental rejuvenator.
As an anti-hepatotoxic licorice is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, for which it is been widely used in Japan. Much of the liver orientated research has focused upon the triterpene glycyrrhizin. This inhibits hepatocyte injury caused by carbon tetrachloride, benzene hexachloride and PCB. Antibody production is enhanced by glycyrrhizin, possibly through the production of interleukin.

Glycyrrhizin inhibits the growth of several DNA and RNA viruses, inactivating Herpes simplex virus particles irreversibly. It has a variety of uses in bronchial problems such as catarrh, bronchitis and coughs in general. Liquorice is used in allopathic medicine as a treatment for peptic ulceration, a similar use to its herbal use in gastritis and ulcers. It can be used in the relief of abdominal colic.

It nourishes the brain-increasing cranial and cerebrospinal fluid. Also improves complexion, hair, and vision.

It is used for:Sore throat with hoarseness of voice and cough.Acid peptic disease.Chronic liver diseases General tonic.

Since Hippocrates’ day licorice has been prescribed for dropsy because it does, indeed, prevent thirst–probably the only sweet thing that does. The chief medicinal action of licorice is as a demulcent and emollient. Its soothing properties make it excellent in throat and chest complaints and it is a very common ingredient in throat pastilles and cough mixtures. It is also widely used in other medicines to counteract bitter tastes and make them more palatable. Recent research has shown that it has a pain-killing effect on stomach ulcers and prolonged use raises the blood pressure. Medicinally the dried peeled root has been decocted to allay coughs, sore throat, laryngitis, and urinary and intestinal irritations. The root is expectorant, diuretic, demulcent, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and mildly laxative. It has proven helpful in inflammatory upper respiratory disease, Addison’s disease, and gastric and duodenal ulcers. Side effects may develop in ulcer treatment. Licorice may increase venous and systolic arterial pressure causing some people to experience edema, and hypertension. In some countries, licorice has been used to treat cancers. Licorice stick, the sweet earthy flavored stolons, are chewed. Licorice chew sticks blackened Napoleon’s teeth. In the 1940s Dutch physicians tested licorice’s reputation as an aid for indigestion. They came up with a derivative drug, carbenoxolone, that promised to help peptic ulcer patients by either increasing the life span of epithelial cells in the stomach or inhibiting digestive activity in general. Many cures were achieved in the experiments, but negative side effects–the patients’ faces and limbs swelled uncomfortably–outweighed the cures.

Certain agents in licorice have recently been credited with antibacterial and mild antiviral effects; licorice may be useful in treating dermatitis, colds, and infections. It also has been used in a medicinal dandruff shampoo. Other modern-day research found that the herb can reduce arthritic activity.

An extract of licorice is made by crushing the fresh or stored roots, then boiling or passing steam through them and evaporating the liquid, leaving a thick paste or solid black glossy substance with a sharp fracture. The active ingredient Glycyrrhizin may cause hypertension from potassium loss, sodium retention, and in increase of extracellular fluid and plasma volume. It is fifty times sweeter than sugar. Licorice also reportedly contains steroid hormones, but their relation to licorice’s biological activity is yet to be determined, though extracts have been shown to be estrogenic in laboratory animals. Perhaps the most common medicinal use is in cough syrups and cough drops; licorice soothes the chest and helps bring up phlegm. Licorice has also been used to treat ulcers, to relieve rheumatism and arthritis, and to induce menstruation. In this country it was used in powder form as a laxative.

Licorice root is being used today in France and China in eye drops that relieve inflammation. Sodium salts of glycyrrhinic acid are extracted from the root and added to the eye drop formula. The cortisone like action of the licorice root extract is responsible for its healing effects.

Safety:
Caution : There is a small possibility of effecting electrolyte balance with extended use of large doses of licorice. It has an ACTH like effect causing retention of sodium thus raising BP. The whole herb has constituents that counter this but it is best to avoid Licorice if the patient has hypertension, kidney disease or during pregnancy.

It may interfere with the calcium and potassium absorption. Do not use if you are suffering from osteoporosis, hypertension (increases water around heart). Take with boiled milk.

No other information about the safety of this herb is available. Use caution. Ayurvedic herbs are often taken in combination with others to neutralize the toxicity one herb with the opposing effect of other. Do not take except under the supervision of a qualified professional.
Its major dose-limiting toxicities are corticosteroid in nature, due to the inhibitory effect its chief active constituents, glycyrrhizin and enoxolone, have on cortisol degradation and include oedema, hypokalaemia, weight gain or loss, and hypertension.

The United States Food and Drug Administration believes that foods containing liquorice and its derivatives (including glycyrrhizin) are safe if not consumed excessively. Other jurisdictions have suggested no more than 100 mg to 200 mg of glycyrrhizin per day, the equivalent of about 70 to 150 g (2.5 to 5.3 oz) of liquorice.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Click to buy Suppliment
Resources:
http://www.allayurveda.com/herbalcure5.htm
http://www.india-shopping.net/india-ayurveda-products/Glycyrrhiza%20glabra-yashtimadhu.htm
http://www.herbzonline.com/safeherbs/natural-antacid.htm
http://www.holisticonline.com/Herbal-Med/_Herbs/h204.htm
http://www.ayurveda-recipes.com/yashtimadhuka.html
http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Glyc_gla.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquorice

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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Veerasana(Yoga Exercise)

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Posture : Vira means brave. The way a brave man takes position while attacking his enemy, the similar position is formed in this asana, hence it is called as Virasana.
Pre position Standing Position.

How to do the exercise:

Pre Position: Standing Position (as in the picture above)
Position -1. : Take the left foot forward and place the left foot on the floor at the maximum distance from the initial position.
Position 2: Bring both the hands together, join the palms and place them on the knees of the left leg. Bend the left leg in the knee in such a way that the thigh and the calf come in 90 degrees. Keep the right leg straight.

Position 3: Raise the joined hands up and take them back above the head and then without bending the hands in the elbows, bend the head backward and keep the sight backward down.

Asana Position : The front leg should be bent in 90 degrees angle and the back leg should be straight. Keep the toes frontward. The back leg, the back, the neck and both the hands form a very good arch in this position and this forming of arch is desirable, too. The body should be weighed backward and keeping the arms near the ears, the neck should also be bent downwards.


Releasing
:

1. Start bringing the body forward and place the hands on the knee. Keep sight to the front.
2. Straighten the knee and restore the hands to their original place.

3. Restore the left leg to its place and take up standing position.

Duration : It should be maintained for at least one minute, to have the desired strain and benefits; with practice, duration can be increased to three minutes.
Benefits : In this asana(Yoga Exercise) the joints of the legs, the waist, the spinal column and the neck get curved in opposite direction. As a result of this, the blood circulation to these joints is regulated. The spinal column becomes elastic and its functioning improves. There is pressure on the digestive organs and the belly gets stretched, which promotes their functioning.
Precaution : The process of the backward bending should be slow and controlled, else it becomes difficult to maintain the balance. The loss of balance may prove injurious to certain parts of the body. Slow and controlled movements help in having halt at the needed point and avoiding the unwanted strain.

Note: This Exercise is to be repeated for the right leg also.

Reference Book:- Yoga Pravesh