Tag Archives: Biomedical research

Grow Your Own Teeth

Scientists have made teeth from stem cells in a world first that could make dentures a thing of the past.
They looked like normal teeth, were sensitive to pain and chewed food easily.
While the experiments were on mice, they pave the way for people to ‘grow their own teeth’ as required.

………………………………..THE NEW TOOTH

The new tooth at full size, seen at the back of the mouse’s mouth.

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The technique could also be adapted to other organs, allowing hearts, lungs and kidneys to be grown inside the body to replace parts worn by age or damaged by disease.
The Japanese study focused on stem cells – ‘master cells’ with the ability to turn into other cell types.
The researchers from the Tokyo University of Science identified two types of stem cell, which together contain all the instructions for a fully grown tooth.
The cells were grown in the laboratory for five days until they formed a tiny tooth ‘bud’.
This was then transplanted deep into the jawbone of a mouse that had had a tooth removed.
Five weeks later, the tip of the tooth broke through the gum. And after seven weeks, it was fully-grown, the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports.
The researchers, who repeated the experiment many times, also showed that the new, bioengineered teeth were fully-functional.
Dr Kazuhisa Nakao said: ‘Every bio- engineered tooth erupted through the gum and had every tooth component such as dentine, enamel, pulp, blood vessels, nerve fibres, crown and root.’
Importantly, the rodent recipients had no trouble eating.
The cells used were take from mouse embryos, but the researchers believe it should be possible to make teeth from other types of cell as well.
They are now looking for suitable cells in people. Possibilities include skin cells and cells from the pulp inside teeth.
They also have to work out how to control the size of the bio-engineered teeth, as those grown in the experiments were slightly smaller than usual.
The process would also have to be speeded up if it was to be used on people as human teeth take years to form.

How the new tooth grown

However, the pioneering technology could one day allow those with teeth missing to fill the gaps in their smile without having to resort to false teeth, bridges or synthetic implants.
Experts believe that using ‘living’ teeth rather than artificial ones would be better for oral health and may also provide a more natural ‘bite’. Bio- engineered teeth are likely to cost around £2,000 each – a similar price to the implants used at the moment.
But Britain’s 11 million denture wearers should not throw away their fixative creams and gels quite yet.
The technology is still at a very early stage and the Japanese researchers believe it will not be widely used by dentists for at least 15 years. Despite this, British experts said it was an important landmark.
Professor Robin Lovell-Badge, a stem cell researcher at the National Institute for Medical Research in London, said the work was ‘excellent’ and highlighted the promise of using bio-engineering to make complex structures.
But he cautioned that the researchers had yet to find cells suitable for use in people.
Professor Damien Walmsley, of the British Dental Association, said: ‘If you lose a tooth at the moment, one of the options is a metal implant. If you could have a natural replacement, that would be good.’

Natural-looking replacements-also have massive psychologicalbenefits for self-conscious patients.
The technique of creating cell ‘buds’ could be applied more widely to grow other organs, such as hearts, kidneys and livers, inside the body.
Lead researcher Professor Takashi Tsuji said: ‘The ultimate goal of regenerative therapy is to develop fully-functioning bioengineered organs that can replace lost or damaged organs following disease, injury or ageing.
‘Our study makes a substantial contribution to the development of bio- engineering technology for future organ replacement therapy.’

Source:Mailonline. Dated: Aug.4.2009.

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Healthy Secret of Red Wine Uncorked

Resveratrol in red wine is known for controlling inflammation and promoting health. However, how the ingredient works was not known to  scientists – up till now.
………….RED WINE
In the FASEB Journal, scientists from Scotland and Singapore have unravelled how resveratrol works as an effective therapy for life-threatening inflammation.

The study, not only explains resveratrol’s one-two punch on inflammation, but also shows how it-or a derivative-can be used to treat potentially deadly inflammatory disease, such as appendicitis, peritonitis, and systemic sepsis.

“Strong acute inflammatory diseases such as sepsis are very difficult to treat and many die every day due to lack of treatment,” said Alirio Melendez, senior lecturer on the faculty of medicine at Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre in Scotland and one of the researchers involved in the work.

“Moreover, many survivors of sepsis develop a very low quality of life due to the damage that inflammation causes to several internal organs. The ultimate goal of our study was to identify a potential novel therapy to help in the treatment of strong acute inflammatory diseases,” the expert added.

To reach the conclusion, researchers administered an inflammatory agent to two groups of mice. One group was pretreated with resveratrol and the other group was not. The mice that were not pre-treated with resveratrol experienced a strong inflammatory response, simulating disease in humans, while the group pretreated with resveratrol was protected from the inflammation.

The scientists then examined the tissues of the mice to determine exactly how resveratrol was able to protect the mice from inflammation. They found that resveratrol used a one-two punch to stop inflammation in the mice by preventing the body from creating two different molecules known to trigger inflammation, sphingosine kinase and phospholipase D.

This finding suggests that resveratrol may be harnessed as a treatment for inflammatory diseases and may also lead to entirely new resveratrol-based drugs that are even more effective.

“The therapeutic potential of red wine has been bottled up for thousands of years,” said Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of The FASEB Journal, “and now that scientists have uncorked its secrets, they find that studies of how resveratrol works can lead to new treatments for life-threatening inflammation.”

Source: The Times Of India

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Phyllanthous Amarus(Bhui Amla)

Botanical Name: Phyllanthous Amarus
Family : Euphorbiaccac (Spurge family)./Phyllanthaceae

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Phyllanthus
Species: P. niruri
Common Name :Bahupatra ,Child pick-a-back, bhuiamla, gulf leafflower, black catnip, meniran, chanca piedra, shatterstone, stone breaker, quebra pedra, bahupatra, gale of wind, carry me seed, hsieh hsia chu.
Vernacular name : Kizharnelli.Kirganelli,Kizhkaynelli

Names in other Indian languages:-
Sanscrit : Bhumya malaki,Thamalaki
Hindi : Jar amla, Jangli amli
Bengali : Bhui amla, Sadhazur mani
Bihar : Mui koa. Kantara
Kannada : Nelanelli
Tamil : Kilanelli
Names in foreign languages:
Spanish : Yerba De Guinina
Franse : Herb Du Chagrin
Brazil : Erva, Pombinha
West Indies : Petit tamarin blanc
Habitat : Southern India,It is seen in Kerala commonly, in cultivated or waste places, especially in moist localities.It is a widespread tropical plant commonly found in coastal areas.

Description:
Shatterstone is a common annual weed in Suriname from the genus Phyllanthus that contains more than 700 species.

click to see the pictures…...(01)…….……….(1).……….(2)………….(3)…....………..
The plant grows up to no more than 1½ feet tall and has small yellow flowers and bears ascending herbaceous branches. The bark is smooth and light green. It bears numerous pale green flowers which are often flushed with red. The fruits are tiny, smooth capsules containing seeds.

YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURE (Phyllanthus niruri)
They have small leaves and very small (2mm) fruits that burst open and the seeds are hurled away.
When the plants are picked, the feathery leaves fold in, completely closing themselves.

The plant has long been used as an herbal remedy for urinary calculi, and has been shown in modern medical research studies to reduce the risks of stones in individuals prone to the condition. Research on the plant continues to determine if it has any other beneficial effects. It may have antiviral activity.

Shatterstone has antispasmodic – and liver protecting activity. Phyllantus Amarus and –Niruri also have anti-viral activity against chronic – and acute hepatitis-B.
Phyllanthus species are extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine.
Phyllanthus amarus, -niruri and closely related species; such as Phyllanthus urinaria, -debilis and -fraternus, seem to contain activity against the endogenous DNAp of hepadna – viruses.
They are all employed in the treatment against kidney – and gallstones as well, other kidney and liver related problems.
They are antihepatotoxic (liver protecting), antibacterial and hypoglycemic.
Other applications are against inflammation of the appendix, diabetes and for prostate problems.
An interesting aspect is the use of this plant for weight loss (slimming down).

Constituents:
Phyllanthus primarily contains lignans (e.g., phyllanthine and hypophyllanthine, 5-demethoxyniranthin, urinatetralin, dextrobursehernin, urinaligran), alkaloids (ent-norsecurinine, phyllanthoside) and flavonoids & tepenes (quercetin, quercetol, quercitrin), tannins.
Polyphenolic compounds (phyllanthusin F, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, trimethyl ester dehydrochebulic acid, n-octadecane, beta-sitosterol, ellagic acid, daucosterol, kaempferol, quercetin, gallic acid, rutin).

Empirical uses:-
The antiseptic, styptic, carminative, deobstruent, coolant, febrifugal, stomachic, astringent, and diuretic properties of this drug have been utilized in traditional medicine, since time immemorial. Its efficacy in the field of gastro intestinal disorders like dyspepsia, colic, diarrhoea, constipation,Aenimic, jaundice, Dropsy and dysentery is undisputed. In females it is used as a galactogogue, in leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and mammary abscess. In skin conditions, especially scabby or crusty lesions, bruises, wounds, scabies, offensive ulcers and sores, oedematous swellings, tubercular ulcers, and ringworm, it has been utilized with good effect since many years. It is applied effectively in intermittent fevers and gonorrhoea as well as in ophthalmia and conjunctivitis. It has a urolithic property, dissolving renal calculi. Also used in cough, asthma and other bronchial affections.

Clinical Studies:-
Clinical studies conducted with the extract of this plant, points to its great therapeutic efficacy, in the treatment of hepatitis B. Thyagarajan et a! in 1988 have done detailed clinical studies in this respect. In clinical trials, it has also been shown to be effective against infective hepatitis (hepatitis A). It’s antifungal, antiviral, and anticancerous properties have also been demonstrated in experimental animals. It is of great utility in the treatment of diabetes mellitus especially NIDDM as shown in clinical studies in Tanzania and elsewhere. The diuretic and hypotensive effects of this drug on human subjects have also been assessed by Srividya et al in 1995.

Click to see:->
Medicinal uses of Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus amarus

Phyllanthus Amarus – Herb Cure for Hepatitis

Phyllanthus amarus, a world-renowned botanical, aids the liver

Tinctura Phyllanthus amarus & niruri

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

Phyllanthus Amarus


http://www.tropilab.com/black-cat.html
http://www.similima.com/proving2.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllanthus_niruri

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