Physicians harkening as far back as Hippocrates have associated bone broth with gut healing. And while the importance of gut health is just now starting to fill our medical journals, this knowledge is far from new.
In fact, you could say modern medicine is just now rediscovering how the gut influences health and disease.
Many of our modern diseases appear to be rooted in an unbalanced mix of microorganisms in your digestive system, courtesy of a diet that is too high in sugars and too low in healthful fats and beneficial bacteria.
Digestive problems and joint problems, in particular, can be successfully addressed using bone broth. But as noted by Dr. Kaayla Daniel, vice president of the Weston A. Price Foundation and coauthor (with Sally Fallon Morell) of the book, Nourishing Broth, bone broth is a foundational component of a healing diet regardless of what ails you.
BENEFITS OF BONE BROTH :
Leaky gut is the root of many health problems, especially allergies, autoimmune disorders, and many neurological disorders. The collagen found in bone broth acts like a soothing balm to heal and seal your gut lining, and broth is a foundational component of the Gut and Psychology Syndrome (GAPS) diet, developed by Russian neurologist Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride.
The GAPS diet is often used to treat children with autism and other disorders rooted in gut dysfunction, but just about anyone with suboptimal gut health can benefit from it.
Bone broth is also a staple remedy for acute illnesses such as cold and flu. While there aren’t many studies done on soup, one study did find that chicken soup opened up the airways better than hot water.
Processed, canned soups may not work as well as the homemade version made from slow-cooked bone broth. If combating a cold, make the soup hot and spicy with plenty of pepper.
The spices will trigger a sudden release of watery fluids in your mouth, throat, and lungs, which will help thin down the respiratory mucus so it’s easier to expel. Bone broth contains a variety of valuable nutrients in a form your body can easily absorb and use. And these are:
1. Calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals……Components of collagen and cartilage
2.Silicon and other trace minerals………….Components of bone and bone marrow
3.Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate……….The “conditionally essential” amino acids proline, glycine, and glutamine
These nutrients account for many of the healing benefits of bone broth, which include the following:
1.Reduces joint pain and inflammation, courtesy of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and other compounds extracted from the boiled down cartilage and collagen.
2.Inhibits infection caused by cold and flu viruses etc.
Indeed, Dr. Daniel reports2 chicken soup — known as “Jewish penicillin“—has been revered for its medicinal qualities at least since Moses Maimonides in the 12th century. Recent studies on cartilage, which is found abundantly in homemade broth, show it supports the immune system in a variety of ways; it’s a potent normalizer, true biological response modifier, activator of macrophages, activator of Natural Killer (NK) cells, rouser of B lymphocytes and releaser of Colony Stimulating Factor.
3.Fights inflammation: Amino acids such as glycine, proline, and arginine all have anti-inflammatory effects. Arginine, for example, has been found to be particularly beneficial for the treatment of sepsis3 (whole-body inflammation). Glycine also has calming effects, which may help you sleep better.
4.Promotes strong, healthy bones: Dr. Daniel reports bone broth contains surprisingly low amounts of calcium, magnesium and other trace minerals, but she says “it plays an important role in healthy bone formation because of its abundant collagen. Collagen fibrils provide the latticework for mineral deposition and are the keys to the building of strong and flexible bones.”
5.Promotes healthy hair and nail growth, thanks to the gelatin in the broth. Dr. Daniel reports that by feeding collagen fibrils, broth can even eliminate cellulite too.
In the conclution it can be said :Bone Broth—A Medicinal ‘Soul Food‘
Slow-simmering bones for a day will create one of the most nutritious and healing foods there is. You can use this broth for soups, stews, or drink it straight. The broth can also be frozen for future use. Making bone broth also allows you to make use of a wide variety of leftovers, making it very economical. Bone broth used to be a dietary staple, as were fermented foods, and the elimination of these foods from our modern diet is largely to blame for our increasingly poor health, and the need for dietary supplements.
“I would like to urge people to make as much broth as possible,” Dr. Daniel says in closing. “Keep that crockpot going; eat a variety of soups, and enjoy them thoroughly.”
Definition: Rosacea has been defined as a persistent redness of the central part of the face lasting for at least three months, and often including features such as flushing, red lumps and pustules, and small dilated blood vessels. Exactly which symptoms develop defines which particular subtype of rosacea is present.
It primarily affects Caucasians of mainly northwestern European descent and has been nicknamed the ‘curse of the Celts’ by some in Britain and Ireland, but can also affect people of other ethnicities. Rosacea affects both sexes, but is almost three times more common in women. It has a peak age of onset between 30 and 60.
Rosacea typically begins as redness on the central face across the cheeks, nose, or forehead, but can also less commonly affect the neck, chest, ears, and scalp. In some cases, additional symptoms, such as semi-permanent redness, telangiectasia (dilation of superficial blood vessels on the face), red domed papules (small bumps) and pustules, red gritty eyes, burning and stinging sensations, and in some advanced cases, a red lobulated nose (rhinophyma), may develop.
There are four identified rosacea subtypes and patients may have more than one subtype present :176:
1.Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: Permanent redness (erythema) with a tendency to flush and blush easily. It is also common to have small blood vessels visible near the surface of the skin (telangiectasias) and possibly burning or itching sensations.
2.Papulopustular rosacea: Some permanent redness with red bumps (papules) with some pus filled (pustules) (which typically last 1–4 days); this subtype can be easily confused with acne.
3.Phymatous rosacea: This subtype is most commonly associated with rhinophyma, an enlargement of the nose. Symptoms include thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement. Phymatous rosacea can also affect the chin (gnathophyma), forehead (metophyma), cheeks, eyelids (blepharophyma), and ears (otophyma). Small blood vessels visible near the surface of the skin (telangiectasias) may be present.
4.Ocular rosacea: Red, dry and irritated eyes and eyelids. Some other symptoms include foreign body sensations, itching and burning.
There are a number of variants of rosacea including:689
*Pre-rosacea. Rosacea may begin as a simple tendency to flush or blush easily, and then progress to a persistent redness in the central portion of your face, particularly your nose. This redness results from the dilation of blood vessels close to your skin’s surface. This phase may sometimes be referred to as pre-rosacea.Vascular rosacea. As signs and symptoms worsen, vascular rosacea may develop — small blood vessels on your nose and cheeks swell and become visible (telangiectasia). Your skin may become overly sensitive.
*Inflammatory rosacea. Small, red bumps or pustules may appear and persist, spreading across your nose, cheeks, forehead and chin. This is sometimes known as inflammatory rosacea.
In addition, about 1 in 2 people with rosacea also experience ocular rosacea — a burning and gritty sensation in the eyes. Rosacea may cause the inner skin of the eyelids to become inflamed or appear scaly, a condition known as conjunctivitis.
Late in the course of rosacea, some people, mainly middle-aged men, may develop red, round, raised bumps (papules) and a bulbous nose, a condition known as rhinophyma.
Although the cause isn’t known, a number of factors which may play a part have been identified.
CauseTriggers that cause episodes of flushing and blushing play a part in the development of rosacea. Exposure to temperature extremes can cause the face to become flushed as well as strenuous exercise, heat from sunlight, severe sunburn, stress, anxiety, cold wind, and moving to a warm or hot environment from a cold one such as heated shops and offices during the winter. There are also some food and drinks that can trigger flushing, including alcohol, food and beverages containing caffeine (especially, hot tea and coffee), foods high in histamines and spicy food. Foods high in histamine (red wine, aged cheeses, yogurt, beer, cured pork products such as bacon, etc.) can even cause persistent facial flushing in those individuals without rosacea due to a separate condition, histamine intolerance.
Certain medications and topical irritants can quickly trigger rosacea. Some acne and wrinkle treatments that have been reported to cause rosacea include microdermabrasion and chemical peels, as well as high dosages of isotretinoin, benzoyl peroxide, and tretinoin. Steroid induced rosacea is the term given to rosacea caused by the use of topical or nasal steroids. These steroids are often prescribed for seborrheic dermatitis. Dosage should be slowly decreased and not immediately stopped to avoid a flare up.
A survey by the National Rosacea Society of 1,066 rosacea patients showed which factors affect the most people:
Richard L. Gallo and colleagues recently noticed that patients with rosacea had elevated levels of the peptide cathelicidin and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). Antibiotics have been used in the past to treat rosacea but they may only work because they inhibit some SCTEs.
Intestinal bacteria may play a role in causing the disease. A recent study subjected patients to a hydrogen breath test to detect the occurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). It was found that significantly more patients were hydrogen-positive than controls indicating the presence of bacterial overgrowth (47% v. 5%, p<0.001).
Hydrogen-positive patients were then given a 10-day course of rifaximin, a non-absorbable antibiotic that does not leave the digestive tract and therefore does not enter the circulation or reach the skin. 96% of patients experienced a complete remission of rosacea symptoms that lasted beyond 9 months. These patients were also negative when retested for bacterial overgrowth. In the 4% of patients that experienced relapse, it was found that bacterial overgrowth had returned. These patients were given a second course of rifaximin which again cleared rosacea symptoms and normalized hydrogen excretion.
In another study, it was found that some rosacea patients that tested hydrogen-negative were still positive for bacterial overgrowth when using a methane breath test instead. These patients showed little improvement with rifaximin, as found in the previous study, but experienced clearance of rosacea symptoms and normalization of methane excretion following administration of the antibiotic metronidazole, which is effective at targeting methanogenic intestinal bacteria.
These results suggest that optimal antibiotic therapy may vary between patients and that diverse species of intestinal bacteria appear to be capable of mediating rosacea symptoms.
This may also explain the improvement in symptoms experienced by some patients when given a reduced carbohydrate diet. Such a diet would restrict the available material necessary for bacterial fermentation and thereby reduce intestinal bacterial populations.
Studies of rosacea and demodex mites have revealed that some people with Rosacea have increased numbers of the mite, especially those with steroid induced rosacea. When large numbers are present they may play a role along with other triggers. On other occasions demodicidosis (mange) is a separate condition that may have “rosacea-like” appearances. Risk Factors:
Although anyone can develop rosacea, you may be more likely to develop rosacea if you:
*Have fair skin and light hair and eye color
*Are between the ages of 30 and 60, especially if you’re going through menopause
*Experience frequent flushing or blushing
*Have a family history of rosacea
In severe and rare cases, the oil glands (sebaceous glands) in your nose and sometimes your cheeks become enlarged, resulting in a buildup of tissue on and around your nose — a condition called rhinophyma (ri-no-FI-muh). This complication is much more common in men and develops slowly over a period of years.
Most people with rosacea have only mild redness and are never formally diagnosed or treated. There is no single, specific test for rosacea.
In many cases, simple visual inspection by a trained person is sufficient for diagnosis. In other cases, particularly when pimples or redness on less-common parts of the face are present, a trial of common treatments is useful for confirming a suspected diagnosis.
The disorder can be confused with, and co-exist with acne vulgaris and/or seborrhoeic dermatitis. The presence of rash on the scalp or ears suggests a different or co-existing diagnosis as rosacea is primarily a facial diagnosis, although it may occasionally appear in these other areas.
Treating rosacea varies depending on severity and subtypes. A subtype-directed approach to treating rosacea patients is recommended to dermatologists. Mild cases are often not treated at all, or are simply covered up with normal cosmetics. Therapy for the treatment of rosacea is not curative, and is best measured in terms of reduction in the amount of erythema and inflammatory lesions, decrease in the number, duration, and intensity of flares, and concomitant symptoms of itching, burning, and tenderness. The two primary modalities of rosacea treatment are topical and oral antibiotic agents. While medications often produce a temporary remission of redness within a few weeks, the redness typically returns shortly after treatment is suspended. Long-term treatment, usually one to two years, may result in permanent control of the condition for some patients. Lifelong treatment is often necessary, although some cases resolve after a while and go into a permanent remission.
Trigger avoidance can help reduce the onset of rosacea but alone will not normally cause remission for all but mild cases. It is sometimes recommended that a journal be kept to help identify and reduce food and beverage triggers..
Because sunlight is a common trigger, avoiding excessive exposure to sun is widely recommended. Some people with rosacea benefit from daily use of a sunscreen; others opt for wearing hats with broad brims.
People who develop infections of the eyelids must practice frequent eyelid hygiene. Daily, gentle cleansing of the eyelids with diluted baby shampoo or an over-the-counter eyelid cleaner and applying warm (but not hot) compresses several times a day is recommended.
A recent publication discusses how managing pre-trigger events such as prolonged exposure to cool environments can directly influence warm room flushing.
Oral tetracycline antibiotics (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline) and topical antibiotics such as metronidazole are usually the first line of defense prescribed by doctors to relieve papules, pustules, inflammation and some redness. Topical azelaic acid such as Finacea (15%) or Skinoren (20%) may help reduce inflammatory lesions, bumps and papules. Using alpha-hydroxy acid peels may help relieve redness caused by irritation, and reduce papules and pustules associated with rosacea. Oral antibiotics may help to relieve symptoms of ocular rosacea. If papules and pustules persist, then sometimes isotretinoin can be prescribed. Isotretinoin has many side effects and is normally used to treat severe acne but in low dosages is proven to be effective against papulopustular and phymatous rosacea.
The treatment of flushing and blushing has been attempted by means of the centrally acting ?-2 agonist clonidine, but this is of limited benefit on just this one aspect of the disorder. The same is true of the beta-blockers nadolol and propranolol. If flushing occurs with red wine consumption, then complete avoidance helps. There is no evidence at all that antihistamines are of any benefit in rosacea. However: people with underlying allergies and who respond strongly to foods that are high in histamine or that release a lot of histamine in the body do find sometimes that their flushing symptoms diminish with oral antihistamines (for instance loratadine). Another medication that can help some people with facial flushing and burning is mirtazapine (remeron).
Recently, a clinically-trialled product range combining plant-sourced methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and silymarin has been used to treat rosacea, skin redness and flushing.
Dermatological vascular laser (single wavelength) or intense pulsed light (broad spectrum) machines offer one of the best treatments for rosacea, in particular the erythema (redness) of the skin. They use light to penetrate the epidermis to target the capillaries in the dermis layer of the skin. The light is absorbed by oxy-hemoglobin which heat up causing the capillary walls to heat up to 70 °C (158 °F) , damaging them, causing them to be absorbed by the body’s natural defense mechanism. With a sufficient number of treatments, this method may even eliminate the redness altogether, though additional periodic treatments will likely be necessary to remove newly-formed capillaries.
CO2 lasers can be used to remove excess tissue caused by phymatous rosacea. CO2 lasers emit a wavelength that is absorbed directly by the skin. The laser beam can be focused into a thin beam and used as a scalpel or defocused and used to vaporise tissue. Low level light therapies have also been used to treat rosacea. Photorejuvenation can also be used to improve the appearance of rosacea and reduce the redness associated with it Lifestyle & Homeremedies:
One of the most important things you can do if you have rosacea is to minimize your exposure to anything that causes a flare-up. Find out what factors affect you so that you can avoid them. Keep a list of things that trigger your flare-ups, and try to avoid your triggers.
Here are other suggestions for preventing flare-ups:
*Wear broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher to protect your face from the sun.
*Protect your face in the winter with a scarf or ski mask.
*Avoid irritating your facial skin by rubbing or touching it too much.
*Wash problem areas with a gentle cleanser (Dove, Cetaphil).
*Avoid facial products that contain alcohol or other skin irritants.
*When using moisturizer and a topical medication, apply the moisturizer after the medication has dried.
*Use products that are labeled noncomedogenic. These won’t clog your oil and sweat gland openings (pores) as much.
*If you wear makeup, consider using green- or yellow-tinted pre-foundation creams and powders, because they’re designed to counter skin redness.
*Avoid drinking alcohol.
Many alternative therapies — including colloidal silver, emu oil, laurelwood, oregano oil and vitamin K — have been touted as possible ways to treat rosacea. However, there’s no conclusive evidence that any of these alternative therapies are effective.
If you’re considering dietary supplements or other alternative therapies to treat rosacea, consult your doctor. He or she can help you weigh the pros and cons of specific alternative therapies. Prognosis:
Rosacea tends to wax and wane over time but eventually, with the use of treatment, most people reach a fairly stable state of relative control of their condition.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
An elderly person’s worst nightmare is suffering a stroke. It conjures up visions of being confined to bed with the inability to move or speak and, worst of all, loss of bowel and bladder control. A cerebral stroke occurs when blood supply to a part of the brain stops for any reason. Though strokes can occur at any age, they are more common after 65 years. With the increase in life expectancy in India, the incidence of stroke has doubled from 175 to 350 per 1,00,000.
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Although it is uncommon for strokes to occur in young people, it can happen in youngsters born with a malformed blood vessel in the brain, brain tumours or those who suffer severe dehydration. Also, at any age, irregular heartbeats can lead to small clots in the brain called emboli, which can block vessels. The chances of having a stroke increase in those above 65 years if they have diabetes, hypertension, obesity, elevated blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), are smokers, take more than 60ml of alcohol a day and do not have an active life.
Pregnant women can also suffer a stroke because of an increase in clotting tendency . In fact, the number of such women having a stroke has increased internationally. This upsurge has been blamed on older age at first pregnancy, an inactive life prior to and during pregnancy and obesity.
The manifestations of a stroke are giddiness, weakness or paralysis of muscle groups, blurring of vision, inability to speak or loss of consciousness. This is followed by paralysis of a limb, or a side of the body. A stroke occurs when blood supply to an area of the brain is cut off, either as a result of a block or a bleed. CLICK & SEE
Usually, there are a few warning TIA (transient ischaemic attacks) before a stroke or cerebral attack. There can be sudden blurring of vision, inability to speak or weakness of a limb. These signs are due to spasm of a diseased vessel in the brain or to small amounts of blood leaking. Many people do not take these symptoms seriously since recovery is spontaneous and complete. But appropriate preventive treatment at this point can prevent a full-blown stroke.
In the absence of treatment, TIAs are soon followed by the real thing — a stroke. The devastation caused by it depends on the extent of damage to the brain. This in turn depends on the site and size of the block or leak. Thirty three percent of stroke victims recover, 33 per cent have permanent disability and another 33 per cent die. Cerebral stroke is responsible for 1.2 per cent of the recorded deaths in India.
The most common effect is paralysis of a part of the face or one side of the body. Muscles in the throat and mouth lose co-ordination, making it difficult for the person to swallow and talk. Speech may become slurred and distorted. If the speech centre in the brain is affected the person may understand everything that is said but be unable to reply. Memory loss may make recollection of present events a blur. Quite often though past memories are intact. A person may also lose the ability to make judgements, reason and understand concepts. This makes them appear unnecessarily stubborn. A strange numbness or pricking sensations may occur in the paralysed limb. Since all these effects are because of damage to the brain, they are difficult to treat with medication.
All injuries heal given time and treatment, the brain is no exception. It is capable of rewiring itself so that lost skills are regained to an extent. A person who is predominantly right handed can learn to write with his left hand. Physiotherapy makes the paralysed muscles flexible and stronger. Since a few muscle spindles may be still active, they can be retrained to enlarge and take over the function of the paralysed muscles. The bladder can be trained to empty itself every 3-4 hours. By speaking slowly and using simple sentences, it is often possible to be understood. The brain can be stimulated with puzzles and poetry to enable faster healing.
Better still, try to prevent a stroke. :-
• Keep diabetes and hypertension in control.
• Take medications to reduce lipid levels.
• Take aspirin and clopidogrel, usually prescribed to diabetics and those with high pressure, regularly to prevent a stroke.
• Walk, swim or cycle for at least 30 minutes a day.
• Stimulate yourself intellectually by learning new skills and doing puzzles.
When it comes to brain circuits, the correct mantra is “use it or lose it!”
There are many health problems that arise from the fact that the body’s immune system can turn on itself itself and attack its own tissues. These are called autoimmune reactions, and they can happen without warning. Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is one such reaction.
In HSP, the immune system is triggered to produce a type of antibody known as IgA which targets and attacks the blood vessels. This causes the blood vessels to become inflamed, a condition called vasculitis.
Although Henoch-Schonlein purpura can affect anyone, it’s most common in children and young adults. Henoch-Schonlein purpura usually improves on its own, but if the kidneys are affected, medical care is generally needed, as well as long-term follow-up to prevent more-serious problems.
HSP often affects various parts of the body. Most patients are mildly unwell, with a low grade fever. A triad of more specific symptoms usually occurs:
•a characteristic symmetrical skin rash on the lower extremities
•abdominal pain or kidney problems
The characteristic rash of HSP appears as purple spots on the skin, known as purpura which may rapidly merge together to look like bruises. These are usually found over the lower extremities – in particular, the buttocks and lower legs. However, the rash can also appear on the face, trunk and upper extremities – especially the outer side of the arms. It tends to be more prominent in areas where pressure on the skin occurs, from socks or waistbands for example.
When the joints are affected, they may become red, swollen and tender. This is most common in the ankles and knees, but the feet, hands and elbows may also be involved. Fortunately, this is only temporary and permanent deformity doesn’t occur.
Cramping abdominal pain, sometimes with diarrhoea and vomiting, and the passing of blood raises the alarm that the gut has become involved. In up to three percent of cases the bowel may become blocked by a condition called intussusception. Traces of blood or protein found in the urine indicates the kidneys are inflamed (called glomerulonephritis) – this affects up to 50 per cent of older children.
In Henoch-Schonlein purpura, some of the body’s small blood vessels become inflamed, which can cause bleeding in the skin, joints, abdomen and kidneys. Why this initial inflammation develops isn’t clear, although it may be the result of an overzealous immune system responding inappropriately to certain triggers.The exact cause for this disorder is unknown.
Some of these triggers may include:
*Viral and bacterial infections, such as strep throat and parvovirus infection — nearly half the children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura develop the disease after an upper respiratory infection
*Certain medicines, including some types of antibiotics and antihistamines
*Some vaccinations, including those for measles, typhoid, yellow fever and cholera
It’s thought that HSP may be triggered by a viral infection, as up to two-thirds of children will have had a respiratory tract infection (a cough or cold) one to three weeks before HSP appears.
*Age. The disease affects primarily children and young adults, with the majority of cases occurring in children between 4 and 6 years of age.
*Sex. Henoch-Schonlein purpura is slightly more common in boys than girls
*Race. White and Asian children are more likely to develop Henoch-Schonlein purpura than black children are.It’s between one and a half and two times more likey to affect boys than girls.
*Illness. Having an upper respiratory infection or other bacterial or viral illness increases a child’s risk.
*Season. Henoch-Schonlein purpura strikes mainly in autumn, winter and spring, and rarely in summer.Every year in the UK about one person in every 5,000 develops HSP
For most people, symptoms of Henoch-Schonlein purpura improve in a few weeks, leaving no lasting problems. Recurrences are fairly common, however. Children who have severe symptoms appear more likely to have a recurrence, but repeat bouts are usually milder than the initial episode.
The most serious complication of Henoch-Schonlein purpura is kidney damage, which can cause blood in the urine, swelling and high blood pressure. Most children with kidney problems recover fully, but in a very small percentage of cases, Henoch-Schonlein purpura leads to end-stage kidney disease. In that case, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be needed. Adults are at greater risk than children of developing end-stage kidney disease.
The long-term outcome for people with Henoch-Schonlein purpura appears to depend on whether they develop kidney problems and how severe those problems are.
In rare cases, Henoch-Schonlein purpura can cause a kind of bowel obstruction (intussusception) that reduces blood flow to the intestinal tract and leads to inflammation of other organs, including the pancreas.
Women who’ve had Henoch-Schonlein purpura during childhood may be at increased risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy. If you’re pregnant and have a history of Henoch-Schonlein purpura, be sure to tell your doctor about it so that you can be monitored appropriately.
The diagnosis is based on the combination of the symptoms, as very few other diseases cause the same symptoms together. Blood tests may show elevated creatinine and urea levels (in kidney involvement), raised IgA levels (in about 50%), and raised CRP or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) results; none are specific for Henoch–Schönlein purpura. The platelet count may be raised, and distinguishes it from diseases where low platelets are the cause of the purpura, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
If there is doubt about the cause of the skin lesions, a biopsy of the skin may be performed to distinguish the purpura from other diseases that cause it, such as vasculitis due to cryoglobulinemia; on microscopy the appearances are of a hypersensitivity vasculitis, and immunofluorescence demonstrates IgA and C3 (a protein of the complement system) in the blood vessel wall. However, overall serum complement levels are normal.
On the basis of symptoms, it is possible to distinguish HSP from hypersensitivity vasculitis (HV). In a series comparing 85 HSP patients with 93 HV patients, five symptoms were found to be indicative of HSP: palpable purpura, abdominal angina, digestive tract hemorrhage (not due to intussussception), hematuria and age less than 20. The presence of three or more of these indicators has an 87% sensitivity for predicting HSP.
Biopsy of the kidney may be performed both to establish the diagnosis or to assess the severity of already suspected kidney disease. The main findings on kidney biopsy are increased cells and Ig deposition in the mesangium (part of the glomerulus, where blood is filtered), white blood cells, and the development of crescents. The changes are indistinguishable from those observed in IgA nephropathy.
Microphotograph of a histological section of human skin prepared for direct immunofluorescence using an anti-IgA antibody, the skin is a biopsy of a patient with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. IgA deposits are found in the walls of small superficial capillaries (yellow arrows). The pale wavy green area on top is the epidermis, the bottom fibrous area is the dermis.HSP can develop after infections with streptococci (?-haemolytic, Lancefield group A), hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus, parvovirus B19, Coxsackievirus, adenovirus, Helicobacter pylori, measles, mumps, rubella, Mycoplasma and numerous others. Drugs linked to HSP, usually as an idiosyncratic reaction, include the antibiotics vancomycin and cefuroxime, ACE inhibitors enalapril and captopril, anti-inflammatory agent diclofenac, as well as ranitidine and streptokinase. Several diseases have been reported to be associated with HSP, often without a causative link. Only in about 35% of cases can HSP be traced to any of these causes.
The exact cause of HSP is unknown, but most of its features are due to the deposition of abnormal antibodies in the wall of blood vessels, leading to vasculitis. These antibodies are of the subclass IgA1 in polymers; it is uncertain whether the main cause is overproduction (in the digestive tract or the bone marrow) or decreased removal of abnormal IgA from the circulation. It is suspected that abnormalities in the IgA1 molecule may provide an explanation for its abnormal behaviour in both HSP and the related condition IgA nephropathy. One of the characteristics of IgA1 (and IgD) is the presence of an 18 amino acid-long “hinge region” between complement-fixating regions 1 and 2. Of the amino acids, half is proline, while the others are mainly serine and threonine. The majority of the serines and the threonines have elaborate sugar chains, connected through oxygen atoms (O-glycosylation). This process is thought to stabilise the IgA molecule and make it less prone to proteolysis. The first sugar is always N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc), followed by other galactoses and sialic acid. In HSP and IgAN, these sugar chains appear to be deficient. The exact reason for these abnormalities is not known
The condition usually settles down within six weeks, although it can go on for several months. It can recur, sometimes more than once, in as many as one in three people. There is no treatment which has been shown to shorten the duration of the disease or reduce the risk of complications, so no specific treatment is required. However, treatment can be used to relieve the symptoms. Paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (such as ibuprofen) may be prescribed to relieve any joint pain. If symptoms persist, corticosteroid therapy may be recommended.
The most serious possible consequence of Henoch-Schonlein purpura is kidney damage. Up to five percent of cases develop progressive kidney disease and ultimately kidney failure (this is more likely in older children and adults). For this reason, regular urine tests to monitor kidney function are important, even once someone has recovered from the acute illness.
Overall prognosis is good in most patients, with one study showing recovery occurring in 94% and 89% of children and adults, respectively (some having needed treatment).
In children under ten, the condition recurs in about a third of all cases and usually within the first four months after the initial attack.Recurrence is more common in older children and adults.
In general, however, the majority of people who develop HSP make a full recovery without any further problems.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose
Alternative Names:- Cold exposure – arms or legs,congelatio in medical terminology
Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by extreme cold.It causes fluid in skin cells and the tissues beneath the skin to freeze and damages blood vessels. This leads to the formation of blood clots which block the flow of blood and prevent oxygen from getting to the tissues. All cells need oxygen to function properly, as without it they die.
Frostbite is the medical condition where localized damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. Frostbite is most likely to happen in body parts farthest from the heart and those with large exposed areas. The initial stages of frostbite are sometimes called “frostnip”.
There are several classifications for tissue damage caused by extreme cold including:
*Frostnip is a superficial cooling of tissues without cellular destruction.
*Chilblains are superficial ulcers of the skin that occur when a predisposed individual is repeatedly exposed to cold
*Frostbite involves tissue destruction.
At or below 0 °C (32 °F), blood vessels close to the skin start to constrict, and blood is shunted away from the extremities via the action of glomus bodies. The same response may also be a result of exposure to high winds. This constriction helps to preserve core body temperature. In extreme cold, or when the body is exposed to cold for long periods, this protective strategy can reduce blood flow in some areas of the body to dangerously low levels. This lack of blood leads to the eventual freezing and death of skin tissue in the affected areas. There are four degrees of frostbite. Each of these degrees has varying degrees of pain.
This is called frostnip and this only affects the surface skin, which is frozen. On onset there is itching and pain, and then the skin develops white, red, and yellow patches and becomes numb. The area affected by frostnip usually does not become permanently damaged as only the skin’s top layers are affected. Long-term sensitivity to both heat and cold can sometimes happen after suffering from frostnip.
If freezing continues, the skin may freeze and harden, but the deep tissues are not affected and remain soft and normal. Second degree injury usually blisters 1–2 days after becoming frozen. The blisters may become hard and blackened, but usually appear worse than they are. Most of the injuries heal in one month but the area may become permanently insensitive to both heat and cold.
If the area freezes further, deep frostbite occurs. The muscles, tendons, blood vessels, and nerves all freeze. The skin is hard, feels waxy, and use of the area is lost temporarily, and in severe cases, permanently. The deep frostbite results in areas of purplish blisters which turn black and which are generally blood-filled. Nerve damage in the area can result in a loss of feeling. This extreme frostbite may result in fingers and toes being amputated if the area becomes infected with gangrene. If the frostbite has gone on untreated they may fall off. The extent of the damage done to the area by the freezing process of the frostbite may take several months to assess, and this often delays surgery to remove the dead tissue
The first symptoms are a “pins and needles” sensation followed by numbness. There may be an early throbbing or aching, but later on the affected part becomes insensate (feels like a “block of wood”).
Frostbitten skin is hard, pale, cold, and has no feeling. When skin has thawed out, it becomes red and painful (early frostbite). With more severe frostbite, the skin may appear white and numb (tissue has started to freeze).
Very severe frostbite(Third and Fourth degrees) may cause blisters, gangrene (blackened, dead tissue), and damage to deep structures such as tendons, muscles, nerves, and bone.
Factors that contribute to frostbite include extreme cold, inadequate clothing, wet clothes, wind chill, and poor blood circulation. Poor circulation can be caused by tight clothing or boots, cramped positions, fatigue, certain medications, smoking, alcohol use, or diseases that affect the blood vessels, such as diabetes.
Exposure to liquid nitrogen, oxygen and other cryogenic liquids can cause frostbite.
Risk factors for frostbite include using beta-blockers and having conditions such as diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.
Those with blood vessel damage caused by medical conditions, such as diabetes, or because of poor lifestyle habits such as smoking and high-fat diets, may also suffer frostbite more easily than others.
Drinking alcohol and taking certain medicines, such as beta blockers, also increases the likelihood of developing the condition.
When frostbite is suspected, the affected areas need to be warmed. However this should only be done when there’s no risk of them freezing again, which could cause further and possibly irreversible damage.
Ideally, warming should be performed under medical supervision, but this isn’t always possible.
It should be done slowly by immersing the areas in warm – not hot – water. As normal colour returns, they may appear red and swollen. Once this happens they can be removed from the water.
1. Shelter the person from the cold and move him or her to a warmer place. Remove any constricting jewelry and wet clothing. Look for signs of hypothermia (lowered body temperature) and treat accordingly.
2. If immediate medical help is available, it is usually best to wrap the affected areas in sterile dressings (remember to separate affected fingers and toes) and transport the person to an emergency department for further care.
3. If immediate care is not available, rewarming first aid may be given. Soak the affected areas in warm (never hot) water — or repeatedly apply warm cloths to affected ears, nose, or cheeks — for 20 to 30 minutes. The recommended water temperature is 104 to 108 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep circulating the water to aid the warming process. Severe burning pain, swelling, and color changes may occur during warming. Warming is complete when the skin is soft and sensation returns.
4. Apply dry, sterile dressings to the frostbitten areas. Put dressings between frostbitten fingers or toes to keep them separated.
5. Move thawed areas as little as possible.
6. Refreezing of thawed extremities can cause more severe damage. Prevent refreezing by wrapping the thawed areas and keeping the person warm. If protection from refreezing cannot be guaranteed, it may be better to delay the initial rewarming process until a warm, safe location is reached.
7. If the frostbite is extensive, give warm drinks to the person in order to replace lost fluids.
•Do NOT thaw out a frostbitten area if it cannot be kept thawed. Refreezing may make tissue damage even worse. •Do NOT use direct dry heat (such as a radiator, campfire, heating pad, or hair dryer) to thaw the frostbitten areas. Direct heat can burn the tissues that are already damaged. •Do NOT rub or massage the affected area. •Do NOT disturb blisters on frostbitten skin.
Contact your health care professional if:-
•There has been severe frostbite, or if normal feeling and color do not return promptly after home treatment for mild frostbite
•Frostbite has occurred recently and new symptoms develop, such as fever, malaise, discoloration, or drainage from the affected body part
•Do NOT smoke or drink alcoholic beverages during recovery as both can interfere with blood circulation.
Debridement and or amputation of necrotic tissue is usually delayed. This has led to the adage “Frozen in January, amputate in July” with exceptions only being made for signs of infections or gas gangrene You may click to see:Herbal treatment for frostbite
A number of long term sequelae can occur after frost bite. These include: transient or permanent changes in sensation, electric shocks, increased sweating, cancers, and bone destruction/arthritis in the area affected
Evidence is insufficient to determine whether or not hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunctive treatment can assist in tissue salvage. There have been case reports but few actual research studies to show the effectiveness.
Medical sympathectomy using intravenous reserpine has also been attempted with limited success.
While extreme weather conditions (cold and wind) increase the risk of frostbite it appears that certain individuals and population groups appear more resistant to milder forms of frostbite, perhaps due to longer term exposure and adaptation to cold weather environments. The “Hunter’s Response” or Axon reflex are examples of this type of adaptation.
Be aware of factors that can contribute to frostbite, such as extreme cold, wet clothes, high winds, and poor circulation. Poor circulation can be caused by tight clothing or boots, cramped positions, fatigue, certain medications, smoking, alcohol use, or diseases that affect the blood vessels, such as diabetes.
Wear suitable clothing in cold temperatures and protect exposed areas. In cold weather, wear mittens (not gloves); wind-proof, water-resistant, layered clothing; two pairs of socks; and a hat or scarf that covers the ears (to avoid substantial heat loss through the scalp).
If you expect to be exposed to the cold for a long period of time, don’t drink alcohol or smoke, and get adequate food and rest.
If caught in a severe snowstorm, find shelter early or increase physical activity to maintain body warmth.
Exposure to liquid nitrogen, oxygen and other cryogenic liquids should be avoided or to be handeled with care.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.