Categories
Featured Herbs & Plants

Japanese Aconite (Aconitum carmichaelii )

[amazon_link asins=’B0087PWULC,B00PMLEUGW,4022645075,B0084MC7XY’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’c1c39268-48f0-11e7-83c4-11f788cb396f’]

Botanical Name: Aconitum carmichaelii
Family :  Ranunculaceae
Genus : Aconitum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Species: A. carmichaelii

Synonyms; Aconitum fischeri – Forbes.&Hemsl. non Rchb. Aconitum fortunei – Hemsl.
Common Names :Autumn monkshood, Azure monkshood (Chinese:pinyin,Japanese:Torikabuto)

Habitat: It is native to East Asia, particularly in China and Japan.  Growing in E. Asia – C. and W. China to N. America.    It grows on the forest margins, scrub, grassy  slopes and mountains at elevations of 100 – 2200 metres.Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade;

Description;
Herbaceous perennial plant  growing to 1.5m by 0.3m.
It is in flower from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
A handsome, spreading plant, this aconite has rich blue, hooded flowers that appear in late summer and last until autumn. The foliage is coloured rich green.  It is a robust plant for the back of the border. All parts of the plant are poisonous so handle with care.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline)  soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :-
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade . Plants will only  thrive in a sunny position if the soil remains moist throughout the growing season . Prefers a calcareous soil. This species is not included in the Flora  of North America and so it should be considered doubtful that its range includes this region. A very ornamental plant,  there are some named forms.

It grows well in open woodlands. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer . A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of  nearby species, especially legumes. Closely related to A. fischeri and considered to be part of that species by some botanists.

Propagation:-
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large  enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.

Medicinal Actions &  Uses:-
Anaesthetic; Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic; Cardiotonic; Vasodilator.

It is considered a medicinal herb by some and the root is most commonly used to effect circulation, restore yang and expel cold. It is sometimes used  topically in Dit Da Jow liniment. If not prepared properly by a trained person, it is deadly when taken internally.

A widely used herbal remedy in China,  it is cultivated for its root. This is harvested in the autumn as the plant dies down and is then dried  before being used. The root is anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, cardiotonic, stimulant and vasodilator  . It is used in the treatment of shock and collapse, chronic diseases with symptoms of cold, gastralgia and rheumatic arthralgia, oedema and diarrhoea due to hypofunction of  the spleen and kidney. A tincture of the root is used externally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthralgis, sprains, contusions etc. Use with great  caution, the plant contains the toxic alkaloid aconitine and is very poisonous – should not be used internally unless under the direction of a qualified practitioner. Overdoses lead to numbness of the tongue, lips and extremities, nausea, vomiting, irritability and coma.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is highly toxic.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aconitum+carmichaelii
http://www.plantpress.com/plant-encyclopedia/plantdb.php?plant=7366
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum_carmichaelii

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Bishalanguli(Gloriosa superba )

 

Botanical Name: Gloriosa superba
Family: Colchicaceae
Genus: Gloriosa
Species: G. superba
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales
Syn : Methonica superba Lamk., Gloriosa simplex Don.
Common names: flame lily, climbing lily, creeping lily, glory lily, gloriosa lily, tiger claw, and fire lily.

Names in other languages: kalihari (Hindi), Kaanthal (Tamil), lis de Malabar (French), aranha de emposse (Portuguese), bandera española [Spanish flag] (Spanish), mkalamu (Swahili), klänglilja (Swedish), riri (M?ori), and jia lan (Chinese).

English names: Malabar glory lily, Glory lily.

Sanskrit names:
Agninukhi, Agnisikha, Ailni, Garbhaghatini, Kalikari, Lanyli, Vishalya.

Vernacular names: Asm : Utatchandal; Ben: Bishalanguli, Ulatchandal; Guj : Dudhiovachnay, Varhvareli; Hin : Kalihari, Kaliari, Kulhari, Languli; Kan : Agnisikha, Akkatangaballi, Karadikanninagadde, Kolikuttuma, Sivasaktiballi, Mal: Kantal, Medoni, Mattamara, Mettonsi, Mentonni; Mar: Bachnag, Indai, Kariannag, Khadyanag, Nagharia, Nag karia; Mun : Bulung chukuru; Orn : Jhagrahi; Ori : Agnisikha, Garbhhoghhatono panjanyulia, Meherlaphulo, Panchaangula; Pun: Kariari, Mulim; Sad: Jhagar; San: Siricsamano; Tam: Akkinichilam, Kalappaikkilanku, Kalaippaikkishangu, Kannuvalikkodi, Nabhikkodi, Tel: Adabhinabhi, Agnisikha, Gangeri, Kalappagadda.

Habitat:
Bishalanguli  is native to much of Africa and Asia, but it is known worldwide as an ornamental plant, a medicine, a poison, and a noxious weed.Common in forests. Under cultivation in fairly large areas of India.Throughout tropical India ascending up to 2000 m on the hills; Indo-China, Malaysia.

Useful Parts: Tubers, leaves, and flowers.

Description:

Herbaceous, tall, stout climbing herb. Root-stock of arched, solid, fleshy-white cylindric tubers. Leaves sessile. Ovate lanceolate, tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Flowers large solitary, axillary, changing colors from greenish yellow, orange, scarlet and crimson from blooming to fading. Fruits cupsule. Flowering time July in October to Indian conditions.Fruiting: throughout the year.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Height: Climbing 1.5 m or more. Leaves:Long-lanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate.Leaf length: 10.2-12.7 cm . width:1.3-2.5 cm. Flowers: linear to narrow lanceolate. Flower length: 5.1-7.6 cm. Flower color:Yellow changing to red

Cultivation:
Kalihari is under cultivation in many states of India particularly in South India.

Propagation: From its ‘V’ shaped tubers.
Maturity: 170–180 days after sowing.

Yield:
200 kg seed and 150 kg pericarp.

Related Species: Six tuberous-rooted species in tropical Africa and Asia have been reported. Difference between two major varieties G. superba and G. rothschildiana

Chemical Constituents: Seed contain high level of colchicines. Cornigerine, 3-demethyl-N-formyl-N-deacetyl-b-lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl-g-lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl colchicines have been isolated from plant. b-sitosterol, its glucoside, a long chain fatty acid, b and g-lumiccolchicines from fresh tubers and luteolin, colchicines, N-formyldeacetylcolchicines and glucosides of 3-demethylcolchicine have been isolated from flowers.

Root: colchicine, b-sitosterol and its glucoside, band t-Iumicolchicine, 2-0H-6-MeO benzoic acid; Young leaf: cholidonic acid; Flower: luterlin and its glucosides, N-formyl-de-Ac-colchicine, lumicolchicine; Seed: colchicine.

Medicinal Properties and Uses:
In Ayurveda and Yunani systems of medicine it is a reputed medicine. According to Ayurveda, tuber is pungent, bitter, acrid, heating, anthemirtic, laxative, alexiteric, abortifacient, and useful in ulcers, leprosy, piles, iflommations, abdominal pains, itching and thirst.

Traditional use: ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF NORTH-EAST INDIA: Root: in gout, stomachache and as tonic; MUNDA AND ORAON: Tuber: for antifertility purpose; SANTAL : (i) Tuberous root: for abortion purpose, in intermittent fevers, wounds; (ii) Plant: in spleen complaints, syphilis, tumours; (ii) Leaf: in asthma; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF BIHAR: Root: in cholera, to facilitate childbirth; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF ORISSA: Tuber : as abortifacient; TRIBES OF VARANASI : Root: in gout; TRIBES OF PITHORAGARH: Tuber: in gonorrhoea, leprosy, piles; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF DEHRA DUN AND SIWALIK: Root: as anthelmintic; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF GARHWAL : Tuberous root: for abortion;

CHARAKA SAMHITA : useful in itching, skin diseases including wounds and ailments caused by vitiated kapha (phlegm) and vata (wind); SUSHRUTA SAMHITA: can be administered to a delivered mother along with spirituous drink to give relieve to her postnatal complaints, roots are poisonous; RAJANIGHANTU: it is pungent, thermogenic, eliminates deranged kapha (phlegm) and vata (wind), terminates pregnancy; DHANVANTARI NIGHANTU: in addition to the above, it is also useful in dropsy, labour pain, wounds, and as a purgative; MADANADI NIGHANTU : it is bitter, pungent, thermogenic, abortifacient, removes abdominal pain, expels the placenta, cures phlegm, skin diseases; BHAVAPRAKASHA : it is apperient, alkaline, astringent, pungent, bitter, highly potent, light, abortifacient, helps storing up energy, excites pitta (bile), it cures dropsy, piles, wounds, acute spasmodic pain, and removes worms; CHAKRADATTA : Root-paste: if smeared over’ the palms and feet of a pregnant woman, delivery of child becomes easier.

AYURVEDA : (i) roots are abortifacient, acrid, alexiteric, anthelmintic, antipyretic, bitter, depurative, digestive, emetic, expectorant, gastrointestinal irritant, highly poisonous, purgative, rejuvenating, stomachic, thermogenic, tonic, beneficial in vitiated conditions of kapha (phlegm) and vata (wind), debility, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, helminthiasis, inflammations, in promoting labour pain and expulsion of the placenta; (ii) root-paste is effective against paralysis, rheumatism, snake bite, insect bites; (iii) leaf-juice effective against lice.

Modern use: Root (aq. extract) : ecbolic in humans and other animals; Plant (50% EtOH extract) : spasmolytic, Central Nervous System depressant; Leaf-juice: piscicide. Phytography : Herbaceous tendril climber; rootstock tuberous, naked; stem 3-6 m long, sparingly branched; leaves sessile or nearly so, opposite or 3-nately whorled, tip tendrillar; flowers axillary, solitary, nearly 10 cm, at first greenish, becoming yellow and finally scarlet or red; capsules nearly 5 cm long.

Remarks: It is getting less attention in India, though extensive researches are on abroad.

Known Hazards: This plant is poisonous, toxic enough to cause human and animal fatalities if ingested. It has been used to commit murder, to achieve suicide, and to kill animals.  Every part of the plant is poisonous, especially the tuberous rhizomes. As with other members of the Colchicaceae, this plant contains high levels of colchicine, a toxic alkaloid. It also contains the alkaloid gloriocine. Within a few hours of the ingestion of a toxic amount of plant material, a victim may experience nausea, vomiting, numbness, and tingling around the mouth, burning in the throat, abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea, which leads to dehydration.  As the toxic syndrome progresses, rhabdomyolysis, ileus, respiratory depression, hypotension, coagulopathy, haematuria, altered mental status, seizures, coma, and ascending polyneuropathy may occur. Longer-term effects include peeling of the skin and prolonged vaginal bleeding in women.  Colchicine is known to cause alopecia. One case report described a patient who accidentally ate the tubers and then experienced hair loss over her entire body, including complete baldness. Poisonings can occur when the tubers are mistaken for sweet potatoes or yams and eaten. The plant can be dangerous for cats, dogs, horses, and livestock, as well.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources;
http://www.bsienvis.org/medi.htm#Euphorbia%20tirucalli
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/gloriosa.html
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GLSU2&photoID=glsu2_002_ahp.tif

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloriosa_superba

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Wolf’s bane (Indian aconite)

[amazon_link asins=’1481491784,3939212415,B078T73ZFN,B01MU03DU3,B074XNDJK8,0670867152,B073J8LBL5,B005GP8HBI,B01F6SKZYG’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’1588452e-02ad-11e8-a6d8-d7afee85ebc4′]

Botanical Name: Aconitum ferox Wall
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Aconitum
Species:A. ferox
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Syn: Aconitum virosum Don., A. napellus var. rigidum Hook, f & T.

English names: Wolf’s bane, Indian aconite.

Sanskrit names: Vatsanabha, Visa.

Vernacular names: Hin: Bish, Mahoor; Guj and Mar: Vachang; Kas: Mohra; Tam: Vasnumbi; Tel: Vasnabhi.

Trade name: Bish.

Habitat : Wolf’s bane  is  abundant at Sandakphu, which is the highest point of the Darjeeling Hills in the Indian State of West Bengal.
Alpine Himalaya including Nepal; endemic.

Descriptions: 

Wolf’s bane is  a deciduous perennial plant  . It is an erect herb growing up to 2 m in height; roots look like the navel of children; leaves alternate, simple, rounded or oval, may be palmately 5-lobed; flowers borne on branched racemes, bracts and bracteoles present, large helmet-type, helmet vaulted with short sharp beak, pale dirty blue in colour, zygomorphic, floral parts arranged spirally on an elongated receptacle; follicles erect, usually densely villose-sometimes glabrous.

Phenology: Flowering and Fruiting: July-November.
Ecology and cultivation: Temperate to alpine regions of the Himalaya in the altitude of 3300-5000 m…..CLICK & SEE

Cultivation:-
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. If the flower stems are removed after flowering the plant will normally flower again later in the season. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes. A polymorphic species. The nomenclature is very confused for this species, A. lycoctonum. L. is treated as A. septentrionale by many botanists whilst A. lycoctonum. Auct. is A. vulparia.

Propagation:-
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year

Chemical contents: Root: pseudoaconitine (a toxic alkaloid), indactonitine, chasmaconitine, bikhaconitine.
Medicinal Actions &  Uses:

Alterative; Anaesthetic; Antiarthritic; Antitussive; Deobstruent; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Sedative; Stimulant.

The root is alterative, anaesthetic, antiarthritic, antitussive, deobstruent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative and stimulant. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner

Traditional use: AYURVEDA : Root: used in the mrityunjaya rasa (used to treat the fever supposed to be caused by deranged vayu, i.e., wind, sannipatika jvara, i.e., remittent fever, hingulesware-rasa, anandabhairav agnitundi vati, etc.

Vatsanabha has been used in medicine from a very remote period. It is regarded as healing and stimulant. It is used in a great variety of affections, but is specially recommended in fever, cephalagia, affections of throat, dyspepsia and rheumatism. HOMOEOPATHY: remedy for clotting of blood in heart or in lungs, pneumonia, Iymptisis, pleurisy, eye trouble, earache, toothache and urinary trouble.

Modern use: Extremely poisonous; used in leprosy, fever, cholera, nasal catarrah, tonsillitis, sore throat, gastric disorders, debility, etc., also used as a sedative and diaphoretic; applied in the form of paste in cases of neuralgia and rheumatism.

Click to learn more about ->-………………(1).(2)...(3)

Adulterants: Indian aconite root is known as ‘bikh’ or ‘bish’, the name which is applied to aconite from more than one species, and different authors have ascribed it to different species.

Remarks: Vulnerable due to excessive collection for medicinal uses. Collection in wild state should be banned and measures for cultivation should be initiated.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Reources:

http://www.bsienvis.org/medi.htm#Aconitum%20ferox

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum_ferox

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aconitum+lycoctonum

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Aconite -( Aconitum napellus)

Unidentified Aconitum (possibly Aconitum carmi...Image via Wikipedia

[amazon_link asins=’B005P0WBG6,B001GCTWRI,B0083V5N1Y,B0006NYKFW,B013P251CQ,B00DKETMXE,B0058AA46C,B00126B9DS,B000I0JRK6′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’93639eb7-02ac-11e8-afd4-618b5965485d’]

Botanical Name: Aconitum napellus
Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercup family)
Tribe:Delphinieae
Genus:Aconitum
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:Ranunculales

Synonyms:  Monkshood. Blue Rocket. Friar’s Cap. Auld Wife’s Huid.
Common Names: Aconite, Venus’ chariot, Wolfsbane Garden, Monk’s Hood Garden

ALSO KNOWN AS:
Leopard’s bane, Women’s bane, Devil’s helmet, Queen of all Poisons, Caucasian aconite; Downy wolfsbane,Wolfsbane, Helmet Flower, Mourning Bride, Thor’s Hat, Monkshood, Blue Rocket, Friar’s Cap, Auld Wife’s Huid

Habitat :  Aconite is native to most of Europe, including Britain, east to N. W. Asia and the Himalayas.  It grows on damp shady places and moist rich meadows in southern Wales and south-western England. It is usually found in calcareous soils.

DESCRIPTION:

Alkaloid Containing Plant – Found is many colors (blues, whites, yellows, etc.). The plant is a hardy perennial, with a fleshy, spindle-shaped root, palecoloured when young, but subsequently acquiring a dark brown skin. The stem is about 3 feet high, with dark green, glossy leaves, deeply divided in palmate manner and flowers in erect clusters of a dark blue colour. The shape of the flower is specially designed to attract and utilize bee visitors, especially the humble bee. The sepals are purple – purple being specially attractive to bees – and are fancifully shaped, one of them being in the form of a hood. The petals are only represented by the two very curious nectaries within the hood, somewhat in the form of a hammer; the stamens are numerous and lie depressed in a bunch at the mouth of the flower. They are pendulous at first, but rise in succession and place their anthers forward in such a way that a bee visiting the flower for nectar is dusted with the pollen, which he then carries to the next flower he visits and thereby fertilizes the undeveloped fruits, which are in a tuft in the centre of the stamens, each carpel containing a single seed.

..click to see the pictures…>..…(01)...(1)..…...(2).…....(3)....….(4).…….…(5)..……..(6)..

In the Anglo-Saxon vocabularies it is called thung, which seems to have been a general name for any very poisonous plant. It was then called Aconite (the English form of its Greek and Latin name), later Wolf’s Bane, the direct translation of the Greek Iycotonum, derived from the idea that arrows tipped with the juice, or baits anointed with it, would kill wolves – the species mentioned by Dioscorides seems to have been Aconitum lycotonum. In the Middle Ages it became Monkshood and Helmet-flower, from the curious shape of the upper sepal overtopping the rest of the flower. This was the ordinary name in Shakespeare’s days.

The generic name is said to have been derived from, a dart, because it was used by barbarous races to poison their arrows, or from akone, cliffy or rocky, because the species grow in rocky glens. Theophrastus, like Pliny, derived the name from Aconae, the supposed place of its origin. The specific name, Napellus, signifies a little turnip, in allusion to the shape of the roots.

This perennial plant grows to about five feet high. It has deeply cut fringed glossy dark green leaves. It produces spikes (racemes) of hooded blue flowers in the summer. Following the flowers are fruits which contain glossy black triangular-shaped seeds. It is one of the ancient herbs. Traditional use of roots as one of the ingredients of witches’ brews in Europe in the Middle Ages. Traditional European folk use of dried roots as a poultice for bruises, rheumatism and snake bites.

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Massing, Woodland garden. Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Plants only thrive in a sunny position if the soil remains moist throughout the growing season. Prefers a calcareous soil. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.5. Plants take 2 – 3 years to flower when grown from seed. Grows well in open woodlands. The flowers are very attractive to bees. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. Although the plant is a perennial, individual roots only live for one year and die after flowering. Each root produces a number of ‘daughter’ roots before it dies and these can be used for propagating the plant[4]. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes. An aggregate species which is divided by some botanists into many species. Special Features:Not North American native, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Suitable for cut flowers.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate[133]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.

Edible Uses : Some reports suggest the root is edible if cooked, but these should be treated with extreme caution due to the highly toxic nature of the plant

Medicinal Properties:
There are a number of homeopathic potions and rememdies available that contain small amounts of aconite. The most common use of aconite in small proportions is for the control of fever (humans).

Sudden and intense onset, dry red skin without perspiration, unquenchable thirst for cold water, extreme restlessness, anxiety. In a moderate dose of five minims of the tincture, a sense of numbness and tingling is felt in the tongue and lips, with muscular weakness and depression; by doubling the dose these symptoms are intensified and prolonged, the pulse falls and the breathing is slowed. A poisonous dose causes tingling in the skin, pain in the joints, vertigo, dimness of vision, extreme debility, pulse forty to fifty per minute and irregular, skin cool and moist, burning heat in the esophagus and stomach, nausea, vomiting and purging. There may be severe gastric and intestinal spasms, headache, complete loss of sight, hearing and speech, while consciousness remains; pupils dilated. muscles tremulous or convulsed, pulse imperceptible; death by syncope.

Aconite acts on the vaso-motor nervous system. It is a powerful depressant of the heart, and if given in sufficient quantity will paralyze that organ. Its apparent influence is upon the terminal filaments of the sensory nerves first, and afterwards, more slowly, upon the nerve trunks. It depresses the nerve centers of the cord, and destroys reflex activity and voluntary power.

A drop of a solution of aconite in the eye causes the pupil to contract. Larger amounts induce toxic symptoms, the principal of which are increase of tingling and numbness, excessive perspiration, rapidly lowering temperature, pupillary dilation, dimness of sight, loss of hearing and sense of touch, and diminished action of the sensory filaments supplying the skin.

Muscular weakness is marked; trembling and occasional convulsions may ensue. Excessive depression comes on, and the power of standing is early lost. The feet and legs become. cold, the face pale, and the patient has a tendency to faint. There may be violent burning in the stomach with great thirst and dyspagia, and vomiting and diarrhea may occur. The pulse is weak, rapid, and almost imperceptible; acute, lancinating pain may be felt, and more or less delirium may result, though as a rule the intellect remains unimpaired.

“The manner in which aconite affects the nervous system is not yet definitely known. That it is a heart paralyzer seems to be an accepted fact. Death may result from syncope, though usually it occurs from respiratory paralysis. The action of a lethal dose is rapid, toxic symptoms showing themselves within a few moments.” (Lloyd and Felter.)


Properties:
Anodyne, febrifuge, and sedative.
Main Uses: Preparations of aconite are used for external application to the skin to relieve the pain of neuralgia, sciatica, arthritis, gout, rheumatism, measles, nervous fever, and chronic skin problems.
Preparation And Dosages:
Fresh Herb Tincture: (1:4) in 60% alcohol. Take 1 to 5 drops up to 4 times a day.

DANGEROUS PARTS OF PLANT:
All parts of aconite plant are poisonous, especially the root tubercles.

Note: contains aconitine, a highly toxic alkaloid. Note: too toxic to take internally. Note: all parts of this plant are very toxic when ingested: death may result. Note: POISONOUS. Note: if this plant is growing in your garden, be sure to wash your hands after handling it. Listed in the United States Pharmacopoeias from 1820 to 1930. Native to the mountainous regions of Europe. Cultivated as an ornamental in North America. At least three cultivars exist.

FIRST AID:
If a full toxic dose be taken, the above symptoms advance most rapidly, and no time whatever should be lost in combating the influence of the agent. It has no known physiological antidote. The conditions must be met according to their indications. If there is any reason for believing that the stomach contains any of the agent, large quantities of warm water should be swallowed and immediately evacuated. It may be vomited or siphoned out with a long stomach tube, or pumped out, but extreme nauseating emetics are contra-indicated. A mild infusion of oak bark, drunk freely, serves the double purpose of diluting the aconite and antidoting it by the tannin it contains. Tannic acid is believed to be a chemical antidote to a limited extent, and given in suspension in water is efficient.

The most immediately diffusible stimulants must then be given freely. Alcoholic stimulants, ammonia, capsicum in a hot infusion, and digitalis, strophanthus or atropine by hypodermic injection, or nitro- glycerine are most serviceable remedies. External heat continually and electricity are demanded. Lobelia should prove valuable. A pint of vinegar, diluted, saved one life.

SAFETY IN PREPARED FEEDS:

Any part of this plant should be avoided in feed until more research in done.

Extremely Toxic! Small doses of aconite can cause painful death.

You may click to learn more:.(1)…..(2)
Known Hazards: The whole plant is highly toxic, acting especially on the nerve centres. At first it stimulates the central and peripheral nervous system and then paralyzes it. Other symptoms of poisoning include a burning sensation on the tongue, vomiting, stomach pain and diarrhoea. Simple skin contact with the plant has caused numbness in some people. The root contains 90% more poison than the leaves

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.goatworld.com/health/plants/aconite.shtml
http://www.indianspringherbs.com/Aconite.htm
http://www.bottlebrushpress.com/aconite.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+napellus

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Hermal

[amazon_link asins=’B0014AYAT2,B005DST7O4,B01N9MNUX3,B00V7BOIFE,0806531118,B006SMDFI8,B004GGEX8E,B06XZ2SP2K,B01FV8RRPQ’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’f7b015fb-6a36-11e7-8762-ad95567d7f04′]

[amazon_link asins=’B0014AYAT2,B005DST7O4,B00V7BOIFE,B005DCW7J2,B006SMDFI8,B01FV8RRPQ’ template=’ProductLink’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’7d6176ed-f7fb-11e6-977c-37d07752f0dd’]

Botanical Name : Peganum Hermala
Family: Nitrariaceae
Genus: Peganum
Species:P. harmala
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Names :Syrian Rue,  Hermal, Sirski Rue, [amazon_textlink asin=’1482249561′ text=’Harmal peganum’ template=’ProductLink’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’0ccb715f-f7fb-11e6-8849-79fe62386952′]

Harmal seeds or sometimes Esphand or Espand from the Persian word where it originates from, Wild rue, Persian rue, Hermal seeds, or Harmal seeds

Habitat : Peganum Hermala  is native to Europe – Mediterranean and Southeast Europe  It grows  om dry steppes, especially where grazing is heavy, and dry waste places. It is often found in saline soils.

Description:
click to see the pictures……>...(1).…...(2)...(3)..(4)....

It is a bushy herb with leaves divided into numerous narrow segments. It has white solitary flowers, spherical fruits and brownish seeds in various shapes.

The seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.

Cultivation details
Prefers a light well-drained but moisture retentive soil and an open position in full sun.   Prefers a dry soil[ and succeeds in poor soils.

Although this species comes from dry desert areas, it responds well to cultivation so long as the soil is very well drained. It can tolerate temperatures down to about -20°c if the soil is dry.

There is speculation that this plant was the sacred ‘Soma’ plant, which was used by the ancients of India and Persia as an hallucinogenic aid to understanding the deeper meaning of life.
Propagation
Seed – sow late spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a sunny part of the greenhouse for their first winter. Be careful not to overwater, especially when the plants are dormant. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses: Condiment; Oil; Oil.

Seed – used as a spice and purifying agent. Some caution is advised because the seed has narcotic properties, inducing a sense of euphoria and releasing inhibitions. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Traditional uses:
It has been used as an entheogen in the Middle East, and in modern Western culture, it is often used as an analogue of Banisteriopsis caapi to create Ayahuasca, a South American entheogen. Syrian Rue, however, has a distinctly different chemical makeup than caapi, and a unique character of its own.

In Turkey, dried capsules from this plant are strung and hung in homes and vehicles to protect against the evil eye.

In Iran, dried capsules – mixed with other ingredients – are burnt so as to produce a light, distinctly scented smoke. It is used as an air as well as mind purifier, to be linked to its believed entheogenic properties. This practice, which roots back in pre-Islamic – Zoroastrian – times, is still used by the Iranians.

The active alkaloids of Harmal seeds are the MAOI (MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) compounds harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine (collectively known as harmala alkaloids).

Medicinal Uses:
Disclaimer

Abortifacient; Alterative; Aphrodisiac; Digestive; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Galactogogue; Hallucinogenic; Narcotic; Ophthalmic; Parasiticide; Uterine tonic; Vermifuge.

The seeds of which can be taken internally in minute doses, providing a valuable Ayurvedic remedy against depression.  They have also been taken to treat eye disorders and to stimulate breast-milk production.  In central Asia, harmala root is a popular medicinal remedy, used in the treatment of rheumatism and nervous conditions.

Alterative.
The fruit and seed are digestive, diuretic, hallucinogenic, narcotic and uterine stimulant. They are taken internally in the treatment of stomach complaints, urinary and sexual disorders, epilepsy, menstrual problems, mental and nervous illnesses. The seed has also been used as an anthelmintic in order to rid the body of tapeworms This remedy should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a qualified practitioner since excessive doses cause vomiting and hallucinations. The seeds contain the substance ‘harmine’ which is being used in research into mental disease, encephalitis and inflammation of the brain. Small quantities stimulate the brain and are said to be therapeutic, but in excess harmine depresses the central nervous system. A crude preparation of the seed is more effective than an extract because of the presence of related indoles.

Consumption of the seed in quantity induces a sense of euphoria and releases inhibitions. It has been used in the past as a truth drug.

The oil obtained from the seed is said to be aphrodisiac. The oil is also said to have galactogogue, ophthalmic, soporific and vermifuge properties.

The seed is used externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids and baldness.

The whole plant is said to be abortifacient, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue and galactogogue. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of rheumatism.

The root has been used as a parasiticide in order to kill body lice. It is also used internally in the treatment of rheumatism and nervous conditions.

Other Uses
Dye; Incense; Miscellany; Oil.
A red dye is obtained from the seed. It is widely used in Western Asia, especially as a colouring for carpets.

The ripe seed contains 3.8 – 5.8% of the alkaloids harmine, harmaline, harmalol and peganine. Ineffective as a contact poison, they are active in vapour form where they are effective against algae, in higher concentrations to water animals and lethal to moulds, bacteria and intestinal parasites.

The seed is used as an incense.

Known Hazards: Use with caution. Although the seed is used medicinally and as a condiment, it does contain hallucinogenic and narcotic alkaloids[238]. When taken in excess it causes hallucinations and vomiting.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein by is intended for educational purposes only.Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Peganum+harmala

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmal

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Peganum+harmala

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta