Habitat :Potentilla cryptotaeniae is native to E. Asia – N. China, Japan. It is found in mountains all over Japan. Valleys, ravines, meadows, grassland and forest edges at elevations of 1000 – 2500 metres in China.
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.
Medicinal Uses:Anthelmintic, antidote, salve, skin, vulnerary. Used in the treatment of venereal sores.
Known Hazards : One report says that the plant is very poisonous but no more details are found.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
International Common Names:
English: red siris; safed siris; tall albizia
Local Common Names: Bangladesh: silkorai Cuba: albizia; algarrobo de la India Indonesia: ki hiyang; wangkul; weru Malaysia: oriang Myanmar: kokko-sit; sit Nepal: seto siris Papua New Guinea: brown albizia Philippines: akleng parang
Trade name: Forest siris Habitat : Albizia procera is native to E. Asia – Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. It grows in monsoon forest, mixed deciduous forest, savannah woodlands, pyrogenic grassland, roadsides and dry gullies, to stunted, seasonal swamp forest. It is commonly found in open secondary forest.
Albizia procera is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. It has a 9 m long straight or crooked bole 35-60 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth, pale grey-green, yellowish-green or brown with horizontal grooves, sometimes flaky in thin, small scales. The underside of the bark is green, changing to orange just below the surface; inner bark pinkish or straw-coloured. It is described and illustrated in many texts, including Brandis (1972), Verdcourt (1979), Nielsen (1985), ICFRE (1995), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and Valkenburg (1997). The compound leaves have 2-5 (-8) pairs of sub-opposite pinnae, with a petiole 5.5-12 cm long with a large, brown, oblong gland near the base; gland narrowly elliptical, 4-10 mm long, flat and disc-like or concave with raised margins. The pinnae are 12-20 cm long, with elliptical glands below the junction of the 1-3 distal pairs of petiolules, 1 mm in diameter. Leaflets are in 5-12 pairs on each pinna, opposite, asymmetrically ovate to sub-rhomboid, 2-4.5 (-6) cm x 1-2.2 (-3.3) cm, base asymmetrical, often emarginate, apex rounded or sub-truncate, both surfaces sparsely puberulous or finely pubescent, rarely glabrous above (Valkenburg, 1997). The inflorescence is a large terminal panicle, to 30 cm long, with sessile, white or greenish-white, sessile flowers in small 15-30 flowered heads, 13 mm in diameter on stalks 8-30 mm long; the corolla funnel-shaped, 6-6.5 mm long, with elliptical lobes. The fruit is a flat, papery pod, dark red-brown, linear-oblong, 10-25 cm long by 2-3 cm broad with distinctive long points at both ends and distinctive marks over each seed. It contains 6-12 brown, ellipsoid seeds, 7.5-8 mm x 4.5-6.5 mm and 1.5 mm thick that are arranged more or less transversely in the pod (Valkenburg, 1997). At maturity the pod splits open to release the seeds which are smooth, greenish brown with a leathery testa. It is frost tender. and are pollinated by Insects.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought. Cultivation:
Succeeds in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones at elevations from sea level to around 1,500 metres. It tolerates areas with a mean annual temperature ranging from a minimum of 1 – 18 up to 37 – 46?c and a mean annual rainfall of 100 – 5,000 mm. Plants are susceptible to frost[. Grows well on fertile soils, but is also able to succeed on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils. Trees can succeed in both moderately saline and alkaline soils. Established plants are drought tolerant. Adult plants succeed in full sun and light shade, though young trees require more shade. Succeeds in areas with a pronounced dry season. Because of its aggressive growth, the tree is a potential weed. This is particularly true in the Caribbean, where it grows faster than many native species. If the area is not burned, A. Procera will colonize alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) grassland. Trees can attain a mean annual increment in diameter of 1 – 4 cm; attaining a dbh of 40-60 cm in 30 years. Spacing of 2-3 x 0.5 m in pure stands results in canopy closure in about 3 years. Due to the light crown, regular weeding and control of the undergrowth are required. Therefore the tree is often mixed with other species. Mixed planting and pruning in open stands can improve stem form and give a bushy crown. Seedlings, saplings and larger trees all coppice vigorously when damaged. Farmers sometimes leave the trees untouched when clearing land for crops, since the trees cast only a light shade, add nitrogen to the soil and conserve water. They also function as a cash reserve since the wood is sought after by local wood carvers. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. The application of phosphorus fertilizer can improve nodulation and nitrogen fixation, particularly on infertile soils. Found In: Africa, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, Cuba, East Africa, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Jamaica, Laos, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, North Africa, North America, Pacific, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome & Principe, SE Asia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Uganda, USA, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.
Fresh seed has a rapid germination rate of 90-100%. Seeds that have been stored for 4 – 5 months or longer should be soaked in boiling water for 5 seconds, then removed from direct heat and soaked in cool water overnight, and then sown immediately. This doubles the germination rate. Manual scarification of the seed coat before boiling seeds could also assist germination. Direct sowing in the field has proved more successful than planting out from a nursery, provided there is an abundance of soil moisture and that weeding and loosening of the soil are done regularly. Line sowing to facilitate weeding has given great success. Healthy seedlings produce a thick, long taproot. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Clean seed can be stored at room temperature for 10 months with minimal loss of viability. However, germination can drop to below 50% after storage. Seeds survive 10 years or more at room temperature. Viability is maintained for more than 3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature with 13 + or – 2% mc. Plants can be propagated quite successfully by stem or root cuttings provided that this is not done during the peak of the rainy or the dry season. Vegetative propagation also occurs through layering. Root suckers are readily produced when roots are exposed.
Edible Uses :
Edible portion: Leaves, Pods, Vegetable . The cooked leaves are eaten as a vegetable. In times of scarcity the bark can be ground into a powder, mixed with flour and eaten. Medicinal Uses:
White siris is commonly used in traditional medicines. Some research has been carried out into the medical activities of the plant and a number of active compounds have been recorded. All parts of the plant are reported to show anti-cancer activity. The roots contain alpha-spinasterol and a saponin that has been reported to possess spermicidal activity at a dilution of 0.008%. A decoction of the bark is given for the treatment of rheumatism and haemorrhage. It is also considered useful in treating problems of pregnancy and for stomach-ache. The leaves are poulticed onto ulcers.
The tree is widely planted for its good soil-binding capacity. It is occasionally cultivated as shade tree for tea and coffee plantations, where it also acts as a wind and firebreak. It is popular for the rehabilitation of seasonally dry, eroded and degraded soils. Its ability to grow on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils makes it a useful species for reforestation of difficult sites. Good survival and rapid early growth have been reported in reforestation trials on both saline and alkaline soils, which are widely cultivated in agroforestry systems. Other Uses The bark can provide tanning material. It is used in India for tanning and dyeing. However, its low tannin content (12-17%), considerable weight loss in drying, and difficult harvesting have limited its importance. When injured, the stem exudes large amounts of a reddish-brown gum that is chemically similar to, and used as a substitute for, gum arabic (obtained from Acacia senegal and other species). The leaves are known to have insecticidal and piscicidal properties. The branches (twigs) are used by tea planters as stakes for laying out tea gardens. These are found to split well. The species is popular along field borders. Pods and fallen leaves should be considered not as undesirable litter but as potential energy sources. It seems probable that if the pods of the related species A. Lebbeck can yield 10 barrels of ethanol per hectare, then this species could as well. The timber has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown with light and dark bands. Due to the broadly interlocked nature of the grain, it is more suitable for use in large sections where a bolder effect is desired, such as in large-sized panels and tabletops. It seasons and polishes well. The wood is used chiefly for construction, furniture, veneer, cabinet work, flooring, agricultural implements, moulding, carts, carriages, cane crushers, carvings, boats, oars, oil presses and rice pounders. It is resistant to several species of termites. The chemical analysis of the wood indicates that it is a suitable material for paper pulp. Bleached pulp in satisfactory yields (50.3%) can be prepared from A. Procera wood by the sulphate process. It is suitable for writing and printing paper (mean fibre length is 0.9 mm, mean fibre diameter is 0.021 mm). The calorific value of dried sapwood is 4870 kcal/kg, and that of heartwood 4865 kcal/kg. An excellent charcoal (39.6%) can be prepared from the wood, and it is widely used as a fuel.
Known Hazards: The seeds contain proceranin A, which is toxic to mice and rats when administered parenterally and orally; the interperitoneal LD50 for mice is 15 mg/kg body weight. Hydrocyanic acid has been identified as occurring in the tree. Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Habitat : Prunus andersonii Desert Peach is native to Western N. America.( eastern California and western Nevada) It grows on the dry slopes and mesas, 1000 – 2200 metres in California.
Prunus andersonii is a shrub approaching two meters (80 inches) in height, its tangling branches narrowing to spiny-tipped twigs. Serrated, lance-shaped to oval leaves occur in clusters, each leaf measuring up to 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) long. The shrub is deciduous. The inflorescence is a solitary flower or pair of flowers. Each flower has usually five concave pink petals each just under a centimeter (0.4 inches) long, with many whiskerlike stamens at the center. Flowers bloom before or at the same time as the leaves appear. The fruit is a fuzzy reddish-orange drupe around a centimeter (0.4 inches) wide. The fruits are fleshy in years with ample moisture, and dry in drought years. The seed is a heart-shaped stone. The plant reproduces sexually via germination of the seed, and vegetatively by sprouting from its rhizome. One plant may sprout and resprout from its rhizomes to form a very large clone which can spread over several acres.
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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation: Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring. Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.
Fruit – raw or cooked. Considered to be a great delicacy. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity.
A decoction of the stems, leaves or roots has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea. A weak decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of rheumatism. A hot infusion of the branches or the leaves has been used in the treatment of colds. A decoction of the dried bark strips has been used as a winter tonic to ward off influenza. All members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being. Other Uses; Dye…..A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider. Resources:
Asplenium rhizophyllum is a small fern whose undivided, evergreen leaves and long, narrow leaf tips, sometimes curving back and rooting, give it a highly distinctive appearance. It grows in tufts, often surrounded by child plants formed from the leaf tips. The leaves of younger plants tend to lie flat to the ground, while older plants have leaves more erect or arching. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES:
Roots and stipes:
It does not spread and form new plants via the roots. Its rhizomes (underground stems) are upright or nearly so, short, about 1 millimetre (0.04 in) in diameter, and generally unbranched. They bear dark brown or blackish, narrowly triangular or lance-shaped scales which are strongly clathrate (bearing a lattice-like pattern). The scales are 2 to 3 millimetres (0.08 to 0.1 in) long and 0.5 to 1 millimetre (0.02 to 0.04 in) wide (occasionally as narrow as 0.2 millimetres (0.008 in)) with untoothed margins. The stipe (the part of the stem below the leaf blade) is 0.5 to 12 centimetres (0.20 to 4.7 in) long (occasionally up to 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long), and ranges from one-tenth to one and one-half times the length of the blade. The stipe is reddish-brown and sometimes shiny at the base, becoming green above, and narrowly winged. Scales like those of the rhizome are present at the stipe base, changing to tiny club-shaped hairs above.
The leaf blades are not subdivided, as in most other ferns, but are narrowly triangular to linear or lance-shaped. Their shape can be quite variable, even on the same plant. They measure from 1 to 30 centimetres (0.4 to 10 in) long and from 0.5 to 5 centimetres (0.2 to 2 in) across and have a leathery texture with sparse hairs, more abundant below than above. The rachis (leaf axis) is dull green in color and almost devoid of hairs. On the underside of the blade, the veins are difficult to see and anastomose (split and rejoin each other), forming a series of areoles (the small areas enclosed by the veins) near the rachis. Fertile fronds are usually larger than sterile fronds, but their shape is otherwise the same. The base of the blade is typically heart-shaped (with the stipe protruding from the cleft); the bulges on either side of the cleft are frequently enlarged into auricles (rounded lobes), or occasionally into sharply-pointed, tapering lobes. The leaf tips may be rounded but are typically very long and attenuate (drawn out); the attenuate tips are capable of sprouting roots and growing into a new plant when the tip touches a surface suitable for growth. On rare occasions, the auricles at the leaf base will also take on an attenuate shape and form roots at the tip. The ability of the leaf tips to root and form a new plant at some distance from the parent gives the species its common name. The young leaves forming from a bud at the leaf tip are round to pointed at their apex, not yet having developed the long-attenuate shape.
Specimens of A. rhizophyllum with forked blades have been found in Arkansas and Missouri. The fork usually occurs in the tip, perhaps due to growth after insect damage, but one specimen was found forking from the upper part of the stipe.
Sori and spores:
Fertile fronds bear a large number of sori underneath, 1 to 4 millimetres (0.04 to 0.2 in) long, which are not arranged in any particular order. The sori are often fused where veins join, and may curve to follow the vein to which they are attached. The sori are covered by inconspicuous thin, white indusia with untoothed edges. Each sporangium in a sorus carries 64 spores. The diploid sporophyte has a chromosome number of 72. Cultivation: This fern prefers light to dense shade, moist humid conditions, and thin rocky soil. It requires a sheltered location where there is protection from the wind. Medicinal Uses:
Used medicinally by the Cherokee Indians. Those that dreamt of snakes drank a decoction of liverwort (Hepatica acutiloba) and walking fern to produce vomiting, after which dreams do not return.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Habitat : Allium angulare is a species of garlic native to a wide region of central Europe and northern Asia, from France and Italy to Siberia and Kazakhstan.
Allium angulosum is a perennial herb up to 50 cm tall. It is a is a bulb which is narrow and elongated, about 5 mm in diameter. The plant produces a hemispherical umbel of small pink flowers on long pedicels. It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES Cultivation:
The plant prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.
. Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.
Bulb – raw or cooked. A winter food. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
. Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses :
Allium angulosum is cultivated as an ornamental and also as an herb for kitchen gardens.The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.
Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.
. Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.