Tag Archives: Southeast Asia

Allium hookeri

Botanical Name : Allium hookeri
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. hookeri
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Allium tsoongii

Common Names: Hooker chives, Phulun Zung (in India), Kuan ye jiu (in China)

Habitat : Allium hookeri is native to E. Asia – Southern China, India, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. The plant is widely cultivated outside its native range, and valued as a food item in much of South and Southeast Asia. It grows in forests, forest margins, moist places and meadows at elevations from 1400 – 4200 metres.

Description:

Allium hookeri is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It produces thick, fleshy roots and a cluster of thin bulbs. Scapes are up top 60 cm tall. Leaves are flat and narrow, about the same length as the scapes but only 1 cm across. Umbels are crowded with many white or greenish-yellow flowers. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors at least in the milder parts of the country. The plant is cultivated as a food crop in southern China. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Bulb – raw or cooked. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_hookeri
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+hookeri

Iris decora

Botanical Name: Iris decora
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Synonyms: Evansia nepalensis (Klatt), Iris nepalensis (D.Don), Iris nepalensis var. khasiana (Baker), Iris sulcata (Wall.), Iris yunnanensis (H.Lév.), Junopsis decora (Wall.) Wern.Schulze, Neubeckia decora (Wall.) Klatt and Neubeckia sulcata (Klatt).
Habitat :Iris decora is native to E. AsiaHimalayasPakistan to S.W. China. It grows in the drier inner valleys, 1800 – 4000 metres. Grassy hillsides on plateaux, open stony pastures and cliffs at elevations of 2800 – 3100 metres.
Description:
Iris decora is a perennial plant. It has a rhizome covered in bristly fibres. It is similar in form to the roots of Hemerocallis. It reaches a height of 10–30 cm tall. It has 3–7 flowers per stem, in the summer, June -July, which are approximately 4–5 cm in diameter. They come in a range of colours between pale bluish lavender and deep reddish purple. The perianth tube measures 3.5–5 cm. The falls are up to 3.5 cm long. The blade has an orange-yellow central ridge that becomes white or purple at the apex. It has a whitish claw with purple veins.
The leaves reach up to 30 cm at flowering time and then grow up to 45–60 cm tall later, growing to longer than the flowering stem. The strongly ribbed leaves can be 2–8 mm wide.
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained rich soil in a sunny position. Plants are best lifted in October, stores in dry sand in a cool frost-free place over the winter and planted out in March. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. There has been some confusion over the name of this species. Iris decora Wall. should apply to a beardless species with the synonym of Iris nepalensis D.Don., whilst Iris nepalensis Wall. applies to a bearded species with the synonym Iris deflexa Knowle.&Wetc.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It does not require cold stratification. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division, best done after flowering in late summer. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Medicinal Uses:
The root is aperient, deobstruent, diuretic and purgative. It is useful in the treatment of bilious obstructions and is also applied externally to small sores and pimples.

Known Hazards: Many plants in this genus are thought to be poisonous if ingested, so caution is advised. The roots are especially likely to be toxic. Plants can cause skin irritations and allergies in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_subg._Nepalensis
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+decora

Albizia procera

Botanical Name: Albizia procera
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Genus: Albizia
Species: Albizia procera
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Acacia procera (Roxb.) Willd. Mimosa elata Roxb. Mimosa procera Roxb.

Common Names: White Siris, Tall Albizia, Forest Siris, Albizia procera, Brown Albizia. And Silver Bark Rain Tree.
Bengali Name: Sada Sirish.

Other Names :
Akleng-parang, Bellate, Doon siris, Karo, Karunthagara, Kinhai, Konda vagei, Koroi, Raom tree, Soros-tree, Safed Siris, Silver bark rain tree, Tella chinduga, Tram kang, Weru, White siris, Women’s Tongues.

International Common Names:
English: red siris; safed siris; tall albizia

Local Common Names:
Bangladesh: silkorai
Cuba: albizia; algarrobo de la India
Indonesia: ki hiyang; wangkul; weru
Malaysia: oriang
Myanmar: kokko-sit; sit
Nepal: seto siris
Papua New Guinea: brown albizia
Philippines: akleng parang

Trade name: Forest siris
Habitat : Albizia procera is native to E. Asia – Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. It grows in monsoon forest, mixed deciduous forest, savannah woodlands, pyrogenic grassland, roadsides and dry gullies, to stunted, seasonal swamp forest. It is commonly found in open secondary forest.

Dscription:
Albizia procera is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. It has a 9 m long straight or crooked bole 35-60 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth, pale grey-green, yellowish-green or brown with horizontal grooves, sometimes flaky in thin, small scales. The underside of the bark is green, changing to orange just below the surface; inner bark pinkish or straw-coloured. It is described and illustrated in many texts, including Brandis (1972), Verdcourt (1979), Nielsen (1985), ICFRE (1995), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and Valkenburg (1997). The compound leaves have 2-5 (-8) pairs of sub-opposite pinnae, with a petiole 5.5-12 cm long with a large, brown, oblong gland near the base; gland narrowly elliptical, 4-10 mm long, flat and disc-like or concave with raised margins. The pinnae are 12-20 cm long, with elliptical glands below the junction of the 1-3 distal pairs of petiolules, 1 mm in diameter. Leaflets are in 5-12 pairs on each pinna, opposite, asymmetrically ovate to sub-rhomboid, 2-4.5 (-6) cm x 1-2.2 (-3.3) cm, base asymmetrical, often emarginate, apex rounded or sub-truncate, both surfaces sparsely puberulous or finely pubescent, rarely glabrous above (Valkenburg, 1997). The inflorescence is a large terminal panicle, to 30 cm long, with sessile, white or greenish-white, sessile flowers in small 15-30 flowered heads, 13 mm in diameter on stalks 8-30 mm long; the corolla funnel-shaped, 6-6.5 mm long, with elliptical lobes. The fruit is a flat, papery pod, dark red-brown, linear-oblong, 10-25 cm long by 2-3 cm broad with distinctive long points at both ends and distinctive marks over each seed. It contains 6-12 brown, ellipsoid seeds, 7.5-8 mm x 4.5-6.5 mm and 1.5 mm thick that are arranged more or less transversely in the pod (Valkenburg, 1997). At maturity the pod splits open to release the seeds which are smooth, greenish brown with a leathery testa. It is frost tender. and are pollinated by Insects.It can fix Nitrogen.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones at elevations from sea level to around 1,500 metres. It tolerates areas with a mean annual temperature ranging from a minimum of 1 – 18 up to 37 – 46?c and a mean annual rainfall of 100 – 5,000 mm. Plants are susceptible to frost[. Grows well on fertile soils, but is also able to succeed on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils. Trees can succeed in both moderately saline and alkaline soils. Established plants are drought tolerant. Adult plants succeed in full sun and light shade, though young trees require more shade. Succeeds in areas with a pronounced dry season. Because of its aggressive growth, the tree is a potential weed. This is particularly true in the Caribbean, where it grows faster than many native species. If the area is not burned, A. Procera will colonize alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) grassland. Trees can attain a mean annual increment in diameter of 1 – 4 cm; attaining a dbh of 40-60 cm in 30 years. Spacing of 2-3 x 0.5 m in pure stands results in canopy closure in about 3 years. Due to the light crown, regular weeding and control of the undergrowth are required. Therefore the tree is often mixed with other species. Mixed planting and pruning in open stands can improve stem form and give a bushy crown. Seedlings, saplings and larger trees all coppice vigorously when damaged. Farmers sometimes leave the trees untouched when clearing land for crops, since the trees cast only a light shade, add nitrogen to the soil and conserve water. They also function as a cash reserve since the wood is sought after by local wood carvers. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. The application of phosphorus fertilizer can improve nodulation and nitrogen fixation, particularly on infertile soils. Found In: Africa, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, Cuba, East Africa, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Jamaica, Laos, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, North Africa, North America, Pacific, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome & Principe, SE Asia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Uganda, USA, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.

Propagation:
Fresh seed has a rapid germination rate of 90-100%. Seeds that have been stored for 4 – 5 months or longer should be soaked in boiling water for 5 seconds, then removed from direct heat and soaked in cool water overnight, and then sown immediately. This doubles the germination rate. Manual scarification of the seed coat before boiling seeds could also assist germination. Direct sowing in the field has proved more successful than planting out from a nursery, provided there is an abundance of soil moisture and that weeding and loosening of the soil are done regularly. Line sowing to facilitate weeding has given great success. Healthy seedlings produce a thick, long taproot. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Clean seed can be stored at room temperature for 10 months with minimal loss of viability. However, germination can drop to below 50% after storage. Seeds survive 10 years or more at room temperature. Viability is maintained for more than 3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature with 13 + or – 2% mc. Plants can be propagated quite successfully by stem or root cuttings provided that this is not done during the peak of the rainy or the dry season. Vegetative propagation also occurs through layering. Root suckers are readily produced when roots are exposed.

Edible Uses :
Edible portion: Leaves, Pods, Vegetable . The cooked leaves are eaten as a vegetable. In times of scarcity the bark can be ground into a powder, mixed with flour and eaten.
Medicinal Uses:
White siris is commonly used in traditional medicines. Some research has been carried out into the medical activities of the plant and a number of active compounds have been recorded. All parts of the plant are reported to show anti-cancer activity. The roots contain alpha-spinasterol and a saponin that has been reported to possess spermicidal activity at a dilution of 0.008%. A decoction of the bark is given for the treatment of rheumatism and haemorrhage. It is also considered useful in treating problems of pregnancy and for stomach-ache. The leaves are poulticed onto ulcers.

Other Uses:
The tree is widely planted for its good soil-binding capacity. It is occasionally cultivated as shade tree for tea and coffee plantations, where it also acts as a wind and firebreak. It is popular for the rehabilitation of seasonally dry, eroded and degraded soils. Its ability to grow on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils makes it a useful species for reforestation of difficult sites. Good survival and rapid early growth have been reported in reforestation trials on both saline and alkaline soils, which are widely cultivated in agroforestry systems. Other Uses The bark can provide tanning material. It is used in India for tanning and dyeing. However, its low tannin content (12-17%), considerable weight loss in drying, and difficult harvesting have limited its importance. When injured, the stem exudes large amounts of a reddish-brown gum that is chemically similar to, and used as a substitute for, gum arabic (obtained from Acacia senegal and other species). The leaves are known to have insecticidal and piscicidal properties. The branches (twigs) are used by tea planters as stakes for laying out tea gardens. These are found to split well. The species is popular along field borders. Pods and fallen leaves should be considered not as undesirable litter but as potential energy sources. It seems probable that if the pods of the related species A. Lebbeck can yield 10 barrels of ethanol per hectare, then this species could as well. The timber has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown with light and dark bands. Due to the broadly interlocked nature of the grain, it is more suitable for use in large sections where a bolder effect is desired, such as in large-sized panels and tabletops. It seasons and polishes well. The wood is used chiefly for construction, furniture, veneer, cabinet work, flooring, agricultural implements, moulding, carts, carriages, cane crushers, carvings, boats, oars, oil presses and rice pounders. It is resistant to several species of termites. The chemical analysis of the wood indicates that it is a suitable material for paper pulp. Bleached pulp in satisfactory yields (50.3%) can be prepared from A. Procera wood by the sulphate process. It is suitable for writing and printing paper (mean fibre length is 0.9 mm, mean fibre diameter is 0.021 mm). The calorific value of dried sapwood is 4870 kcal/kg, and that of heartwood 4865 kcal/kg. An excellent charcoal (39.6%) can be prepared from the wood, and it is widely used as a fuel.

Known Hazards: The seeds contain proceranin A, which is toxic to mice and rats when administered parenterally and orally; the interperitoneal LD50 for mice is 15 mg/kg body weight. Hydrocyanic acid has been identified as occurring in the tree.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Albizia+procera
http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/4021

Syzygium polyanthum

Botanical Name: Syzygium polyanthum
Family:    Myrtaceae
Subfamily:Myrtoideae
Tribe:    Syzygieae
Genus:    Syzygium
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Myrtales

Synonyms: Eugenia balsamea, Eugenia nitida, Eugenia polyantha

Common Names:Indonesian bay leaf, daun salam

Habitat : Syzygium polyanthum is native to  Southeast Asia.:  Indochina, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia (GRIN).It grows in tropical climate.

Description:
Syzygium polyanthum is a medium-sized evergreen perennial tree,it grows up to 30 m tall with dense crown, bole up to 60 cm in diameter; bark surface fissured and scaly, grey. Leaves opposite, simple, glabrous; petiole up to 12 mm long; blade oblong-elliptical, narrowly elliptical or lanceolate, 5-16 cm x 2.5-7 cm, with 6-11 pairs of secondary veins distinct below and a distinct intramarginal vein, dotted with minute oil glands, petiole up to 12 mm long. Inflorescence a panicle, 2-8 cm long, usually arising below the leaves, sometimes axillary, but trees flower very profusely; flowers sessile, bisexual, regular, fragrant, white, in threes on ultimate branchlets of the panicle; calyx cup-shaped, about 4 mm long, with 4 broad persistent lobes; petals 4, free, 2.5-3.5 mm long, white; stamens numerous, arranged in 4 groups, about 3 mm long; disk quadrangular, orange-yellow. Fruit a 1-seeded berry, depressed globose to globose, up to 12 mm in diameter, dark red to purplish-black when ripe”
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Propagation: Through Seed

Edible Uses:
Syzygium polyanthum has been known as a seasoning in various culinary nations Indonesia.  In addition, there are also benefits in terms of bay leaves as a natural treatment.

Medicinal Uses:
Syzygium polyanthum is used in Gastrointestinal disorders  and other disorders.

Forv diarrhea
Wash 15 fresh bay leaves. Boil in two cups water to boil for 15minutes. Add a little salt. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well

For diabetes
7-15 Wash fresh bay leaves, then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well before eating. Apply 2 times a day.

For Lowering high cholesterol levels:
Wash 10-15 fresh bay leaves, and then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well at night. Do it every day.

For lowering high blood pressure:
Wash 7-10 bay leaves then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water 2 times a day, each half a glass.

For ulcers:
Rinse 15-20 fresh bay leaves. Boil with 1 / 2 litter of water to boil for 15 minutes. Add palm sugar to taste. After chilling, drinking water as a tea. Do it every day until the pain disappeared and a full stomach.

During Hangover
Wash 1 handful of ripe fruit greeting, then mash until smooth. Squeeze and strain, the water collected while drunk.

For Scabies, itch
for external treatment, simply grab a leaf, bark, stems, or roots regards as necessary. Rinse, then milled until smooth dough like mush. And apply to the itchy spot, then wrapped.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium
http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Syzygium_polyanthum.htm
http://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Syzygium-Polyanthum-Cid644
http://herbalmedicinalplant01.blogspot.in/2011/09/efficacy-syzygium-polyanthum.html

Boesenbergia rotunda

Botanical Name : Boesenbergia rotunda
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Boesenbergia
Species: B. rotunda
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Zingiberales

Synonyms:Boesenbergia pandurata,Kaempferia pandurata

Common Names: Chinese keys, Fingerroot, Lesser galangal or Chinese ginger

(In English, the root has traditionally been called fingerroot, because the shape of the rhizome resembles that of fingers growing out of a center piece.)

It is known as temu kunci in Indonesian  and in Manipuri, it is called Yai-macha .

Habitat :Boesenbergia rotunda is native to China and Southeast Asia.(Cambodia; China (Yunnan); Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand)

This species is a rhizome geophyte which grows in humid forest and deciduous forest. It is cultivated throughout Indo-China. Zingiberaceae species grow naturally in damp, shaded parts of the low-land or on hill slopes, as scattered plants or thickets.

Description:
Boesenbergia rotunda is a small perennial plant of about 15–40 cm in height. Its leaves are broad and light green while the leaf sheath is red. Each shoot consists of 3–5 elliptic-oblong-red sheathed leaves of about 7–9 cm in width and 10–20cm in length. The underground portion of the plant consists of a small globular shaped central subterraneous rhizome (1.5–2.0?cm in diameter) from which several slender and long tubers sprout all in the same direction like the fingers of a hand, thus the common name fingerroot. The tubers are about 1.0–1.5cm thick in diameter and 5–10cm long. The tissue of the tuber is looser, softer, and more watery than the central rhizome. Both the colour of the central rhizome and the tubers are dependent on the variety of B. rotunda. The yellow variety produces bright yellow rhizomes, while other varieties produce red and black rhizomes. They are strongly aromatic although different from each other. The flowers are scarlet and bloom throughout the year in tropical countries. These beautiful flowers are usually hidden at the base of the foliage, making them unnoticeable....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:  Boesenbergia rotunda is very easy  to grow. It is found it to be just as successful in the ground as it is in containers. The plant prefers rich, well drained soil. Simply plant the rhizome 1″ deep, and keep evenly moist. It will emerge in approximately two weeks.

Edible Uses:
It is widely used in Javanese cuisine in Indonesia. In Thai cooking it is called krachai  and is an ingredient of dishes such as kaeng tai pla. It is used in some kroeung pastes of Cambodian cuisine and is known as k’cheay (Khmer). In the west it is usually found pickled or frozen. It is sometimes confused with Alpinia officinarum, another plant in the family Zingiberaceae which is also known as lesser galangal.

Medicinal Uses:
Boesenbergia rotunda root is used  to treat colic and diarrhoea  in China.

Advancement in drug design and discovery research has led to the development of synthetic drugs from B. rotunda metabolites via bioinformatics and medicinal chemistry studies. Furthermore, with the advent of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, new insights on the biosynthetic pathways of B. rotunda metabolites can be elucidated, enabling researchers to predict the potential bioactive compounds responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. The vast biological activities exhibited by the compounds obtained from B. rotunda warrant further investigation through studies such as drug  discovery, polypharmacology, and drug delivery using nanotechnology.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is  always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fingerroot
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/49521/
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/44392164/0
http://www.randys-tropicalplants.com/Boesenbergia-rotunda.html
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/473637/
http://www.allrareherbs.com.au/products/Chinese-Keys%2C-500ml-pot.html