Common Names: Hooker chives, Phulun Zung (in India), Kuan ye jiu (in China)
Habitat : Allium hookeri is native to E. Asia – Southern China, India, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. The plant is widely cultivated outside its native range, and valued as a food item in much of South and Southeast Asia. It grows in forests, forest margins, moist places and meadows at elevations from 1400 – 4200 metres.
Allium hookeri is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It produces thick, fleshy roots and a cluster of thin bulbs. Scapes are up top 60 cm tall. Leaves are flat and narrow, about the same length as the scapes but only 1 cm across. Umbels are crowded with many white or greenish-yellow flowers. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.
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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors at least in the milder parts of the country. The plant is cultivated as a food crop in southern China. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer. Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.
Bulb – raw or cooked. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system. Other Uses:
The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.
Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Botanical Name :Clerodendrum inerme (Linn.) Gaertn Family : Verbenaceae
Other Scientific Names: Clerodendrum commersonii Spreng.,Clerodendrum nerifolium Wall. ,Volkameria commersonii Poir.,Volkameria inermis Linn. ,Volkameria nereifolia Roxb.,Clerodendrum capsulare Blanco,
Common Names: Gaertn. Ang-angri (Ilk.),Baliseng (Bis.),Busel-busel (Ilk.),Mañgoñgot (Tag.),Samin-añga (Sul.),Tabang-oñgong (P. Bis.),Seaside clerodendron (Engl.) ,Garden quinine (Engl.) ,Sorcerer’s bush (Engl.),Wild jasmine (Engl.) ,Ku lang shu (Chin.)
Habitat : Mañgoñgot is found along the seashore and beside tidal streams throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Formosa, and through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.
This plant is an erect or somewhat straggling shrub 1 to 4 meters high. The leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate, or elliptic-ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, shinning, smooth, entire, and pointed at the tip. The inflorescence (cyme) is usually composed of three flowers and is borne in the axils of the leaves. The calyx is green, narrowly funnel-shaped, and furnished with 5 very short teeth. The corolla is about 3 centimeters long and comprises a slender, white tube spreading, purple-tinged lobes which are about 7 millimeters long. The stamens are long-exserted, and purple. The fruit is obovoid, about 1.5 centimeters long, and splitting into 4 pyrenes. The calyx in the fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter.
* Leaves yield a bitter principle that is entirely removed by ether; and treatment with alcohol and water yields extracts free from bitterness. The bitter principle shows a resemblance to Chiretta (Swertia chirata), a gentianaceous plant.
* Leaves also yield a fragrant stearoptin with an apple-like odor; resin; gum; brown coloring matter; and ash containing a large amount of sodium chloride (24.01% of the ash).
* Study of hexane extract of the aerial parts isolated an aliphatic glucoside characterized as pentadecanoic acid-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol extract yielded acacetin and apigenin.
*Leaves are mucilaginous and fragrant.
*Considered alterative, febrifuge and resolvent.
*In the Philippines, root decoction is used as febrifuge and alterative.
*Leaves are used in poultices as resolvent.
*Elsewhere, the root, boiled in oil, is applied like a liniment for rheumatism.
*In Guam, the bitter root, leaves and wood are used by natives as a remedy for intermittent fevers.
*Poultices of leaves used for swellings to prevent suppuration.
*Leaves and roots, in tincture and decoction, used as substitute for quinine.
*Juice of leaves and root used as alterative in scrofulous and venereal diseases.
*Poultices of leaves applied to resolve buboes.
*Leaf bath recommended for mani and for itches.
*At one time, sailors of Macassar were reported to take the fruit, seeds and roots to sea, and a decoction or pounded seeds were ingested when taken sick by ingestion of poisonous fish and crabs.
*Leaves, eaten with rice, used to increase the appetite.
*In Java, fruit used as medicine for dysentery.
*In Africa, used to treat hypertension.
*In traditional Indian medicine, leaves used for treating fever, cough, skin rahses, boils; also, for treating umbilical cord infection and cleaning the uterus.
Studies : • Megastigmane / IridoidGlucosides: Study of aerial parts of C. inerme yielded two megastimane glucosides (sammangaosides A and B) and an iridoid glucoside (sammangaoside C) with 15 known compounds. • Hepatoprotective: Study of ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in CCl4-induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase, with significant increase in glutathione level. • Hypotensive Activity: Study of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum inerme leaves showed a hypotensive effect attributted to the presence of chemical elements such as alkaloids and polyphenols. Results support its traditional use for its hypotensive effect. • Antifungal: Study of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of C. inerme and C. phlomidis showed both inhibited inhibition of all plant and human pathogenic fungi. The leaf extract of C. inerme inhibited plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes. • Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of C. inerme showed free radical scavenging activity increasing with concentration, with maximum activity at 2500 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity may be due to phenolic compounds. • Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study of methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition against 15 of 18 bacterial tested. Results clearly showed the leaves were effective in controlling bacterial pathogens, particular gram positive bacteria. Results also confirmed its utility as a wound-healing agent. • Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the methanol extract of C. inerme in animal models exhibited anti-inflammatory activty. In addition, it showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced-writhing model. The effects were attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Common Names: Mango, Mangot, Manga, Mangou. It is known as the ‘king of fruit’ throughout the world.Mangos are a good staple for your daily diet. Origin: .Mangos originated in East India, Burma and the Andaman Islands bordering the Bay of Bengal. Around the 5th century B.C., Buddhist monks are believed to have introduced the mango to Malaysia and eastern Asia – legend has it that Buddha found tranquility and repose in a mango grove. Persian traders took the mango into the middle east and Africa, from there the Portuguese brought it to Brazil and the West Indies. Mango cultivars arrived in Florida in the 1830’s .Mangos were introduced to California (Santa Barbara) in 1880.
Mango trees grow up to 35–40 m (115–131 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft), with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–13.8 in) long, and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild, sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. Over 400 varieties of mangoes are known, many of which ripen in summer, while some give double crop. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.
The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red, or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo. Mangos have recalcitrant seeds; they do not survive freezing and drying
Forms: The mango exists in two races, one from India and the other from the Philippines and Southeast Asia. The Indian race is intolerant of humidity, has flushes of bright red new growth that are subject to mildew, and bears monoembryonic fruit of high color and regular form. The Philippine race tolerates excess moisture, has pale green or red new growth and resists mildew. Its polyembryonic fruit is pale green and elongated kidney-shaped. Philippines types from Mexico have proven to be the hardiest mangos in California.
Adaptation: Mangos basically require a frost-free climate. Flowers and small fruit can be killed if temperatures drop below 40Â° F, even for a short period. Young trees may be seriously damaged if the temperature drops below 30Â° F, but mature trees may withstand very short periods of temperatures as low as 25Â° F. The mango must have warm, dry weather to set fruit. In southern California the best locations are in the foothills, away from immediate marine influence. It is worth a trial in the warmest cove locations in the California Central Valley, but is more speculative in the coastal counties north of Santa Barbara, where only the most cold adapted varieties are likely to succeed. Mangos luxuriate in summer heat and resent cool summer fog. Wet, humid weather favors anthracnose and poor fruit set. Dwarf cultivars are suitable for culture in large containers or in a greenhouse.The Mango tree plays a sacred role in India; it is a symbol of love and some believe that the Mango tree can grant wishes. In the Hindu culture hanging fresh mango leaves outside the front door during Ponggol (Hindu New Year) and Deepavali is considered a blessing to the house.
Mango leaves are used at weddings to ensure the couple bear plenty of children (though it is only the birth of the male child that is celebrated – again by hanging mango leaves outside the house).Hindus may also brush their teeth with mango twigs on holy days (be sure to rinse well and spit if you try this at home – toxic).Many Southeast Asian kings and nobles had their own mango groves; with private cultivars being sources of great pride and social standing, hence began the custom of sending gifts of the choicest mangos.The Tahis like to munch mango buds, with Sanskrit poets believing they lend sweetness to the voice.
Burning of mango wood, leaves and debris is not advised – toxic fumes can cause serious irritation to eyes and lungs. Mango leaves are considered toxic and can kill cattle or other grazing livestock.
The over 1,000 known mango cultivars are derived from two strains of mango seed – monoembryonic (single embryo) and polyembryonic (multiple embryo). Monoembryonic hails from the Indian (original) strain of mango,
polyembryonic from the Indochinese.
Mangos are an excellent source of Vitamins A and C, as well as a good source of Potassium and contain beta carotene. Mangos are high in fiber, but low in calories (approx. 110 per average sized mango), fat (only 1 gram) and sodium.
Mango Nutrient Information*
Serving size: 3 1/2 ounces mango slices
Mango is considered a very useful remedy and energizer in Ayurveda and used to balance all three humors or doshas (Vata, Kapha or and Pitta), especially Pitta dosha. Its medicinal properties are presented below.
The insoluble fiber, present in mangoes, helps the elimination of waste from the colon and prevents constipation.
The tartaric acid, malic acid, and a trace of citric acid found in the fruit help to maintain the alkali reserve of the body.
A milk-mango shake used in the summers help people gain weight.
Extracts of leaves, bark, stem and unripe mangoes are believed to possess antibacterial properties against some micro-organisms.
Dried mango flowers are used in the treatment of diarrhea, chronic dysentery and some problems of the bladder.
The stone (kernel) of the mango fruit is used widely in Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of different ailments.
Antioxidants and enzymes present in the mango fruits are believed to play an important role in the prevention/protection of cancer (colon, breast, leukemia and prostate) and heart disease. Serum cholesterol is regulated by the high content of fiber, pectin and vitamin C present in the mango.
Some of the flavonoids present in the fruit are believed to strengthen the immune system of human body. Presence of fiber and enzymes makes mangoes favorite for healthy digestion.
Every part of the mango is beneficial and has been utilized in folk remedies in some form or another. Whether the bark, leaves, skin or pit; all have been concocted into various types of treatments or preventatives down through the centuries. A partial list of the many medicinal properties and purported uses attributed to the mango tree are as follows: anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-septic, anti-tussive (cough), anti-asthmatic, expectorant, cardiotonic, contraceptive, aphrodisiac, hypotensive, laxative, stomachic (beneficial to digestion)….
Mango is regarded as a valuable article of diet and one of the effective home remedies for various ailments. The ripe mango has antiscorbutic, diuretic, laxative, invigorating, fattening and astringent properties. It has been found effective in fighting infections. All bacterial infections are due to poor epithelium. Liberal use of mangoes during the season contributes towards the formation of healthy epithelium, preventing infections like cold, rhinitis and sinusitis. Mangoes are rich source of vitamin A. Mango barks is highly beneficial in diphtheria and other throat problems. The leaves of mango tree are an anti-diabetic food that controls the blood sugar levels. Raw mango is a rich source of pectin, oxalic, citric, malic and succinic acids. It also contains vitamin C, B1 and B2 in good amounts.
Using Aqueous extract of fresh tender mango leaves in the morning, prepared after soaking overnight and filtering in morning, is believed to be useful in the beginning of diabetes.
Alternately, people also use twice a day (morning & evening) half teaspoonful of powdered leaves after drying them in the shade.
It may also provide relief in the dysentery when taken with water 2-3 times a day.Mango and Jamun (S. cumini) juice taken in equal proportion is considered useful in controlling diabetes.
Ash of mango leaves is applied on burns for relief in pain and healing whereas juice of the roasted ripe mango (on hot sand)provides relief in cough.
Tooth paste, prepared from powdered mango kernal, is believed to strengthen gums.
Boiling 20 g mango bark powder in a liter water till volume reduces merely to 250 g (ml) and using the decoction after mixing 1 g black salt is believed to cure diarrhea.
Juice extracted from fresh flowers and taken after mixing it with curd is reported to be useful in diarrhea. Paste of decorticated kernel is found useful in leucorrhoea, veginitis and also as a contraceptive.
Mangiferin – rich in splenocytes, found in the stem bark of the mango tree has purported potent immunomodulatory characteristics – believed to inhibit tumor growth in early and late stage.
Mango seeds are of great value for treating leucorrhoea. Apply 1 tsp paste of decorticated kernel of mango inside the vagina.
Mango bark is efficacious in the treatment of a sore throat and other throat disorders. Its fluid, which is extracted by grinding, can be applied locally with beneficial results. It can also be used as a throat gargle. This gargle is prepared by mixing 10 ml of the fluid extract with 125 ml of water
Mango seeds are valuable in diarrhoea. The seeds should be collected during the mango season, dried in the shade and powdered, and kept stored for use as a medicine when required. A dose of about one and a half to two grams with or without honey, should be administered twice daily.
Known Hazards: Dermatitis can result from contact with the resinous latex sap that drips from the stem end when mangos are harvested. The mango fruit skin is not considered edible. Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Extracted from,:http://freshmangos.com/aboutmangos/index.html and http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/mango.html,http://cvsingh.hubpages.com/hub/Medicinal-uses-of-mango-and-associated-benefits,