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Herbs & Plants

Calophyllum Inophyllum


Botanical names :
Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn
Family : Clusiaceae /Mangosteen
Subfamily: Kielmeyeroideae
Tribe: Calophylleae
Genus: Calophyllum
Species:C. inophyllum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Synonyms : Calophyllum Bintagor Roxb
Common names :  Punnappoovu
English :Alexandrian Laurel, Tamanu, Pannay Tree, Sweet Scented Calophyllum.
Borneo Mahagany… Bengali: Punnang… Marathi: Undi… Burmese: Pongnyet… Cutchi: Udi… Hindi: Undi, Surpan, Surpunka, Sultan Champa… Konkani: Undee-phal… Malyalam: Cherupuna, Ponnakum, Sinhalese: Domba, Dombagaha, Teldomba, Sultanchampa… Tamil:Nagam,Nameru, Pinmai,Punnagam, Punnai, Punnagum, Punnaivirai. Pinnay…Telagu: Pumagamu, Ponnvittulu, Ponnachettu…Hawaiian: Kamani

Habitat : Bitaog (as it is most usually called) is found throughout the Philippines along the seashores. It is native to Tropical Asia and its geographical distribution area also includes Melanesia and Polynesia. It grows near the sea coast throughout India. In French Polynesia, the Tamanu tree is widespread on most of the islands. It grows primarily in the coral sands and on the sea shore, although specimens may be found in valleys. Its seeds sprout easily in muddy and saline soils. The Motu (coral reefs), which surround the volcanic islands, are covered with Tamanu trees; they are very much appreciated for their fragrant flowers and elegant foliage and are thus planted along avenues. Kamani, as it is also known, was brought north to Hawai from the South Pacific islands in early migrations of Polynesian settlers. Also called Alexandrian laurel, true kamaniwas probably introduced by seed, which is how it is propagated. This native of the Pacific and of tropical Africa, grows slowly along sandy shores and in lowland forests. It was cultivated in villages, near houses and also in groves away from villages. When found growing in windy areas, it is sometimes in a picturesque form.

Cultivated for in Manila and large towns use as shade tree on lawns, avenues and boulevards, particularly along the beach.


Description:

The tree is a medium-sized to large tree, reaching a height of 20 meters  and has a thick trunk covered with a rough, black and cracked bark. Leaves are leathery, shiny, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 9-18 cm long, narrowed to a pointed base and somewhat rounded tip. Flowers are fragrant, white, 2 – 2.5 cm diameter, borne on axillary racemes 5 to 10 cm long. Flowers have a sweet, lime-like fragrance. The tree, which flowers twice a year, is said to attain a great age Fruit is round, yellow, smooth, pulpy, 3-4 cm in diameter.

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The numerous fruits, arranged in clusters, are spherical drupes. Once ripe, their smooth, yellow epidermis discloses a thin layer of pulp, which tastes somewhat of apple. The gray, ligneous and rather soft nut contains a pale yellow kernel, which is odourless when fresh.

Constituents :
*Kernels reported to contain 70-75% bitaog oil.
*Oil is reported to contain a poisonous resin to which its color and oder are due.
*Bark yields 11.9 % tannin; exudes oleoresin when cut.
*Resin reported to contain benzoic acids.
*Seeds contain coumarins: calanolide A and B.
*Study yields inocalophyllins A, B and methylesters from the seeds. source

Medicinal Uses:-
Parts Used :Kernels, bark, leaves.

Properties:

*Oil is considered vulnerary, cicatrising, rubefacient and irritant.
*Resinn considered sudorific.
*Fruit infusion is considered pectoral.
*Bark is considered astringent, emetic, purgative, demulcent.
*Considered antiinflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, antibacterial.
*Milky juice is irritant and blinding to the eye.

Folkloric :
*Gas pains, indigestion, colic: Crush some kernels and apply on abdomen.
*Infusion or decotion of leaves used for disorders of the eye.
*Balsam (oleoresin) from the bark used as cicatrizant.
*Oleoresin sometimes taken internally for lung ailments.
*Gum resin from the bark applied to wounds and old sores.
*Oil used as external application for indigestion and colic.
*Poultice of leaves or water from pressed leaves used as astringent for hemorrhoids.
*Pounded bark applied to orchitis.
*Infusion of leaves taken for heatstroke.
*Oil used externally as an antiinflammatory, for rheumatism and gout.
*Crushed kernels on affected joints in rheumatism.
*In Hawaii, bark resin used for ulcers.

*In the Netherland Indies, decoction of bark taken internally after childbirth.
*In Java, used for its diuretic properties.
*In Fiji, leaves usedas lotion for sore eyes.
*In Indo-China, pounded bark used used for orchitis; bark also used for dysentery and intestinal colds.
Astringent juice from the bark used as purgative; decoction used for internal hemorrhages.
*In Samoa, leaves used for skin inflammation, leg ulcers and wounds.
*In India, the gum from wounded branches, mixed with strips of bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and the oil that separates and surfaces is used for application to sore eyes. Also, oil is used as external applications for rheumatism and gout.
Oil used for scabies.
*In the Netherland Indies, compound decoction of the bark with other barks, used internally after childbirth, for vaginal discharges, passing of blood and gonorrhea.

*In India, leaves are used for migraines, vertigo, ophthalmia; the seed oil, for gout, leprosy, scabies and dysuria. source.


Other Uses:

*Trees are normally planted along the highways, roads to stop soil erosion.
*The tree is  a popular ornamental plant.
*Wood is hard and strong and has been used in construction or boatbuilding.
*Fragrant flowers used for boquets and wreaths; also, used to decorate women’s hair.
*The thin, rounded seed shells used as containers for “buri” sugar which are sold as confection.
*Oil used as illuminant; for making soap; also used as varnish.
*Oil used in many cosmetic products.
*Considered a biodiesel potential.
*In Samoa, the plant is used for production of arrow poison.

Studies:-
•Anti-tumor / Chemopreventive: Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum: A screening of ten 4-phenylcoumarins isolated from C inophyllum showed some of them might have a potential for cancer chemoprevention.
• Cytotoxicity: Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum: Study yielded a new prenylated xanthone, caloxanthone N, with two other known constituents. Study showed compounds with cytotoxicity against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial Activity of Fractions and Compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense: Some of the compounds isolated (protocatechuic acid and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone) showed antimicrobial activity, confirming and justifying the traditional use of the plants to treat infectious processes.
• Inophylline A / Larvicidal: Study of roots yielded a new prenylated pyranoxanthone, Inophyllin A, with triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol and suggests a potential for a natural larvicide.
• Antitumor: Study of ten 4-phenylcoumarins of Calophyllum inophyllum showed some of them with a potential as cancer chemoprotective agents.
Xanthones: Study of the leaves of C inophyllum isolated a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A and four known compounds: pancixanthone A, gerontoxanthone b, jacareubin and pyranojacareubin.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.svlele.com/undie.htm
http://www.svlele.com/undie.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calophyllum_inophyllum
http://www.stuartxchange.com/PaloMaria.html
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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Herbs & Plants

Calophyllum inophyllum

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Botanical Name : Calophyllum inophyllum
Family: Clusiaceae
Subfamily: Kielmeyeroideae
Genus: Calophyllum
Tribe: Calophylleae
Species: C. inophyllum  
Kingdom:
Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales

Common Names:-
In Sanskrit this tree is known as punnaga. In Tamil it is known as pinnai and is often found on coastal Tamil Nadu. In Malayalam, the tree is called as “Punnagam” or “Punna” and the fruit is called as Punnakka. Bats are known to feed on the fruits. In the Maldives it is known as funa, a name derived from Sanskrit. Several of the Maldive Islands are named Funadhoo in reference to this tree.

In English this tree is also often called Ballnut or, confusingly, “Alexandrian Laurel” (it is not a laurel nor native to Alexandria and not to be confused with the small shrub Danae racemosa also known as Alexandrian laurel).

In Tahiti it is called ?ati or tamanu  tree. Several species of the tree grow wild in the tropical climes in the Pacific. In Hawai?i, the tree and nuts are called kamani in Fiji the name is dilo, while it is fetau in both Samoa and Niu?, and in Tonga it is feta?u or tamanu. In Vanuatu, the natives call the oil nambagura.


Habitat :
It is native from East Africa, southern coastal India to Malesia and Australia.


Description:

Calophyllum inophyllum is a large evergreen. Nowadays it is widely cultivated in all tropical regions of the world, including several Pacific Islands. Because of its decorative leaves, fragrant flowers and spreading crown, it is best known as an ornamental plant.

It is a low-branching and slow-growing tree with a broad and irregular crown. It usually reaches 8 to 20 metres (26 to 66 ft) in height. The flower is 25 millimetres (0.98 in) wide and occurs in racemose or paniculate inflorescences consisting of 4 to 15 flowers. Flowering can occur year-round, but usually two distinct flowering periods are observed, in late spring and in late autumn. The fruit (the ballnut) is a round, green drupe reaching 2 to 4 centimetres (0.79 to 1.6 in) in diameter and having a single large seed. When ripe, the fruit is wrinkled and its color varies from yellow to brownish-red.

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This tree often grows in coastal regions as well as nearby lowland forests. However it has also been cultivated successfully in inland areas at moderate altitudes. It tolerates varied kinds of soil, coastal sand, clay or even degraded soil.

Medicinal Uses:

Common Uses:Calophyllum inophyllum fruit oil is used in  Abrasions/Cuts * Acne * Burns/SunBurn * Deodorants/Perfumes * Eczema * Facial and Skin care * Fungus Infections * Herpes * Insect Bites/Rashes * Neuralgia * Psoriasis * Rheumatoid Arthritis * Scabies *
Properties:  Anti-inflammatory* Deodorant* Emollient* Skin tonic* Vulnerary*

Pacific islanders apply Tamanu nut oil to scrapes, cuts, burns, insect bites and stings, acne and acne scars, psoriasis, diabetic sores, anal fissures, sunburn, dry or scaly skin, blisters, eczema, diaper rash and herpes sores–and even to reduce foot and body odor! It takes 100 kilograms of Tamanu nuts, the amount that one tree produces annually, to yield just 5 kilograms of cold pressed oil, which puts the somewhat the high cost of this spectacular nut oil into perspective.

Tamanu oil fades stretch marks with incredible results. It also works miracles on scar tissue, making scars look less unsightly. Can be used directly on the skin or mixed within formulations.

Other Uses
Besides being a popular ornamental plant, its wood is hard and strong and has been used in construction or boatbuilding. Traditional Pacific Islanders used Calophyllum wood to construct the keel of their canoes while the boat sides were made from breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) wood. The seeds yield a thick, dark green oil for medicinal use or hair grease. Active ingredients in the oil are believed to regenerate tissue, so is sought after by cosmetics manufacturers as an ingredient in skin cremes. The nuts should be well dried before cracking, after which the oil-laden kernel should be further dried. The first neoflavone isolated in 1951 from natural sources was calophyllolide from Calophyllum inophyllum seeds.

The fatty acid methyl ester of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil meets all of the major biodiesel requirements in the United States (ASTM D 6751-02, ASTM PS 121-99), Germany (DIN V 51606) and European Union (EN 14214). The average oil yield is 11.7 kg-oil/tree or 4680 kg-oil/hectare

The tree is regarded as sacred in some Pacific islands because of its excellent growth in sandy soil as shade tree and many uses.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calophyllum_inophyllum
http://www.hear.org/starr/images/species/?q=calophyllum+inophyllum&o=plants
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail285.php