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Herbs & Plants

Operculina turpethum

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Botanical Name :Operculina turpethum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Solanales
Family:    Convolvulaceae
Genus:    Operculina
Species :Operculina turpethum

Synonyms:Ipomoea turpethum,  Turpeth Root. Indian Jalap. Trivrit. Nisoth. Operculina Turpethum.

Common Names: Turpeth, Fue vao, and St. Thomas lidpod.

Vernacular Names: Indian Jalap, St. Thomas lidpod, transparent wood rose, turpeth root, white day glory • Hindi: nisoth, panila, pitohri • Kannada: aluthi gida, bangada balli, bilitigade, devadanti, nagadanti • Malayalam: tigade • Marathi: or  nisottar • Sanskrit: nishotra,triputa,trivrutt, trivrutha • Tamil: adimbu, caralam, civatai, kumpncan, paganrai • Telugu: tegada, trivrut tellatega • Bengali: tevudi • Arabic: turbuth.

Parts Used: Dried root, stem.

Habitat:  India. Ceylon, Pacific Islands, China, Australia

Description:
:Operculina turpethum is perennial herbaceous, hairy vines growing 4 to 5 meter in length, endemic to India. It is commonly found in North Circars and Deccan region up to 3000 ft. The leaves are alternate, very variable in shape, ovate, oblong and truncate or cordate at the base. The flowers are large, axillary and solitary. Fruit is a capsule with conspicuous enlarged sepals and thickened pedicles….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Constituents:
Resin, a fatty substance, volatile oil, albumen, starch, a yellow colouring matter, lignin, salts, and ferric oxide. The root contains 10 per cent of resin, which is a glucoside, Turpethin, insoluble in ether, but soluble in alcohol, to which it gives a brown colour not removable by animal charcoal. To obtain pure, the alcoholic solution is concentrated; the resin is precipitated by, and afterwards boiled with, water, then dried, reduced to powder, digested with ether, and finally redissolved by absolute alcohol and deposited by ether. After being treated several times in this way, it is obtained in the state of a brownish resin, yielding on pulverization a grey powder, which irritates the mucous membrane of the nostrils and mouth. It is inflammable, burning with a smoky flame and emitting irritant vapours. With strong bases it acts like jalapin, takes up water, and is transferred into a soluble acid, while with dilute acids it is decomposed into turpetholic acid, and glucose.

Medicinal  Uses: Cathartic and purgative. It is rather slow in its action, less powerful and less unpleasant than jalap.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operculina_turpethum
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/t/turpet31.html

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Herbs & Plants

Jalap Bindweed

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Botanical Name:Convolvulus Jalapa
Family: Convolvulaceae
Tribe: Ipomoeeae
Genus: Ipomoea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Syn.: Ipomea purga

Common Names: Jalap , Jalap Bindweed

Habitat :The Jalap Bindweed is a native of South America and derives its name from Xalapa Mexico, where it grows.
The genus occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, Jalap has been known in Europe since the beginning of the 17th century for it’s strong cathartic and purgative action. Jalap is prepared from the resin in the roots

Description:
Jalap Bindweed is a handsome climbing plant with crimson flowers. The dark brown, medicinal root is tuberous, wrinkled and varies in size from a walnut to an orange.It comprises annual and perennial herbaceous plants, lianas, shrubs and small trees; most of the species are twining climbing plants.
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Ipomoea  is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Convolvulaceae, with over 500 species. Most of these are called morning glories, but this can also refer to related genera.

Edible Uses:
Rcially important food items and have been for millennia. The sweet potato is one of the Polynesian “canoe plants”, transplanted by settlers on islands throughout the Pacific. Water spinach is used all over eastern Asia and the warmer regions of the Americas as a key component of well-known dishes, such as Canh chua rau mu?ng (Mekong sour soup) or callaloo; its numerous local names attest to its popularity. Other species are used on a smaller scale, e.g. the whitestar potato (I. lacunosa) traditionally eaten by some Native Americans, such as the Chiricahua Apaches, or the Australian bush potato (I. costata).

Medicinal Uses:
The drug Jalap is prepared from a resin which abounds in the roots. It has a slight smoky odour and the taste is unpleasant, followed by pungent acridity. It has strong cathartic and purgative action, and is used in constipation, pain and colic in the bowels and general intestinal torpor, being combined, in compound powder, with other laxatives, and with carminatives such as ginger, cloves, etc. It accelerates the action of rhubarb.

Jalap forms a safe purge for children, being given in sugar or jam to disguise the taste, and has been used thus with calomel or wormwood as a vermifuge. It proves an excellent purge in rheumatism.

Other Uses:
Most species have spectacular, colorful flowers and are often grown as ornamentals, and a number of cultivars have been developed. Their deep flowers attract large Lepidoptera – especially Sphingidae such as the pink-spotted hawk moth (Agrius cingulata) – or even hummingbirds.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/binwej40.html.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipomoea
]http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail411.php

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Herbs & Plants

Ipomoea purga

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Botanical Name :Ipomoea purga
Family: Convolvulaceae – Morning-glory family
Genus :Ipomoea L. – morning-glory
Species: Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne – jalap
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Solanales

Synonyms: Convolvulus purge Wender.; Ipomoea schiedeana Zucc.; Exogonium purge (Wender.) Benth. y Convolvulus officinalis Pelletan. and Convolvulus Pelletan officinalis.

Common Names:The purge, jalap, jalap root, lemongrass and umbrella (McDonald, 1994: Martinez, 1979), black Mechoacan. Tolompatl, tlanoquiloni and camotic in Nahuatl, Totonac language suyu (Martinez, 1979).

Habitat : Ipomoea purga is native to Mexico and it is naturalized in other parts of the neotropics. It grows on  woodland on the eastern slopes of the Mexican Andes.

Description:
Ipomoea purga is a Perennial herb, lying on the ground and entangled in other plants. Size: The stems of up to 7 m long.

Stem: Branching, smooth, twining climbing, green or purple, without hairs.

Leaves: Alternate, ovate, up to 12.5 cm long and 7.7 cm wide, slightly pointed, the margins entire, base cordate to aflechada, without hairs. Los pecíolos de hasta 6 cm de largo, lisos, sin pelillos. Petioles up to 6 cm long, smooth, without hairs.

Inflorescencia: De 1 a 2 flores sobre largos pedúnculos, en las axilas de las hojas. Inflorescence: 1 to 2 flowers on long stems in the axils of the leaves.

Flowers: The calyx of 5 sepals dark green, overlapping one another, somewhat unequal, the outer slightly larger than the interior, up to 10 mm long and up to 7 mm wide, the apex with a tiny notch, margins are integers and somewhat translucent; the corolla magenta-purple, trumpet-shaped tube (up to 6 cm long) very thin (slightly swollen at its middle), which widens towards the apex abruptly forming an almost limbo circular, slightly 5-angled (up to 6 cm in diameter), without hairs, stamens 5 somewhat unequal, exceeding the corolla, the filaments white, without hairs, style white, slightly longer than the stamens, without hairs.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Nuts and seeds: dried fruit, a capsule conical, up to 10 mm long and up to 8 mm wide, without hairs, which opens at maturity to release seeds. Las semillas 4, negras, globoso-triangulares, cubiertas de pelillos. Seeds 4, black, globose-triangular, covered with hairs.

Root: It has a swollen root, up to 10 cm in diameter, and additionally a small tuberculitos.

Click to see the pictuires :

Ipomoea purga is rather difficult to break down, but if triturated with cream of tartar, sugar of milk, or other hard salts, the process of pulverization is much easier, and the powder rendered much finer. When in powder form in order to ingest, the color is a pale grayish-brown.

Discovery:
Ipomoea purga was discovered by Spanish conquistadores while settling among Mexican native peoples. It was introduced to Europe in 1565 as a medical herb used to treat an array of illnesses up until the 19th century when better medical practices had been discovered.
Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained humus-rich soil in a sunny position. This species is not very frost tolerant, though it might be possible to grow it outdoors in a very sheltered position in the mildest areas of Britain. Either cut the plant back or thin out the shoots in the spring. 218245

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Semi-ripe cuttings in the summer.

Chemical constituents:
Ipomoea purga resin can be dissolved in either alcohol or diethyl ether. The resin that is insoluble in ether is odorless while the resin insoluble in alcohol does have an odor and is typically a brownish color. The convolvulinolic acid (C28H52O14)that is produced in Ipomoea purga can be broken down into a sugar molecule (C6H12O6) and a form of crystallized convolvulinolic acid (C16H30O3) when diluted.

Medicinal Uses;
Jalap is such a powerful cathartic that its medicinal value is questionable.  Even in moderate doses it stimulates the elimination of profuse watery stools, and in larger doses it causes vomiting.When applied to a wound, it is said to induce purgation.

The tuber is a resinous acrid herb with an unpleasant taste that is often used as a purgative. It is taken internally in the treatment of constipation, colic and intestinal parasites. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/convolvulaceae/ipomoea-purga/fichas/ficha.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=IPPU6

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipomoea_purga#cite_note-Jalap-2

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ipomoea+jalapa

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Morning Glory

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Morning Glory flower (Ipomoea tricolor)

Botanical Name:Ipomoea tricolor
Family:Convolvulaceae
Common Name: Morning Glory
Other Common Names: Grannyvine, Morning Glory
Plant Type: Annual
Where To Plant: Full Sun to Partly Shady
Soil Types: Average
Germination: Easy
Number of Seeds Per Pack: 25
Uses: Medicinal
Notes: Mexican Aztec halluciogenic herb. Fast growing vine with dark sky blue flowers.

Description:

The vines grow quickly to 10 feet or more only two months after seeds sprout. The leaves are heart-shaped, and the flowers are normally open from dawn to midmorning, but new varieties will stay open longer, especially on overcast days.
Lovely fast growing vine with dark sky-blue flowers. Ideal for walls, trellises or tall fences. Used by the Aztecs as a hallucinogen in religious ceremonies. Flowers open in the morning and close as the sun rises higher in the sky.

....click to see the pictures.>….(01).….(1)……....(2)..……….(3)....……

Morning glory vine forms twining vines with bell-shaped flowers, and its varieties have also become intertwined botanically under the name “morning glory.” The name comes from the flowers, which last a single day. These rapidly growing vines are closely related to the sweet potato. Flowers are white, blue, pink, purple, red, and multicolored. There are even double forms. Because they’re quick, easy, and dependably colorful, morning glory is the most popular annual vine.

Morning glory is a common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, belonging to the following genera:

*Calystegia
*Convolvulus
*Ipomoea
*Merremia
*Rivea

Habit of the flowers:
As the name implies, morning glory flowers, which are funnel-shaped, open in the morning, allowing them to be pollinated by Hummingbirds, butterflies, bees, and other daytime insects and birds as well as Hawkmoth at dusk for longer blooming variants. The flower typically lasts for a single morning and dies in the afternoon. New flowers bloom each day. The flowers usually start to fade a couple of hours before the petals start showing visible curling. They prefer full sun throughout the day and mesic soils.

In some places such as Australian bushland, morning glories develop thick roots and tend to grow in dense thickets. They can quickly spread by way of long creeping stems. By crowding out, blanketing and smothering other plants, morning glory has turned into a serious invasive weed problem.

Cultivation
In cultivation, most are treated as perennial plants in tropical areas and as annual plants in colder climates, but some species tolerate winter cold. Some moonflowers, which flower at night, are also in the morning glory family.

Because of their fast growth, twining habit, attractive flowers, and tolerance for poor, dry soils, some morning glories are excellent vines for creating summer shade on building walls when trellised, thus keeping the building cooler and reducing heating and cooling costs.

Popular varieties in contemporary western cultivation include “Sunspots”, “Heavenly Blue”, the moonflower, the cypress vine, and the cardinal climber. The cypress vine is a hybrid, with the cardinal climber as one parent.

History:
Morning glory is also called asagao (in Japanese, a compound of ? asa “morning” and ? kao “face”). A rare brownish-coloured variant known as Danjuro is very popular. It was first known in China for its medicinal uses, due to the laxative properties of its seeds. It was introduced to the Japanese in the 9th century, and they were first to cultivate it as an ornament. During the Edo Period, it became a very popular ornamental flower. Aztec priests in Mexico were also known to use the plant’s hallucinogenic properties. (see Rivea corymbosa).

Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations used the morning glory species Ipomoea alba to convert the latex from the Castilla elastica tree and also the guayule plant to produce bouncing rubber balls. The sulfur in the morning glory’s juice served to vulcanize the rubber, a process pre-dating Charles Goodyear‘s discovery by at least 3,000 years

Active constituent: d-lysergic acid amide. The seeds contain about 0.1% ergot alkaloids, including ergotmetrine, chanoclavine and lysergol.

Culinary uses
Ipomoea aquatica, known as water spinach, water morning-glory, water convolvulus, Ong-Choy, Kang-kung, or swamp cabbage, is popularly used as a green vegetable especially in East and Southeast Asian cuisines. It is a Federal Noxious Weed, however, and technically it is illegal to grow, import, possess, or sell. See: USDA weed factsheet. As of 2005, the state of Texas has acknowledged that water spinach is a highly prized vegetable in many cultures and has allowed water spinach to be grown for personal consumption. This is in part because water spinach is known to have been grown in Texas for more than fifteen years and has not yet escaped cultivation. The fact that it goes by so many names means that it easily slips through import inspections, and it is often available in Asian or specialty produce markets.

Medical use:
A root tea was used by Native Americans as a diuretic, laxitive, expectorant and for coughs. A powered tea of the leaves for headaches and indigestion. As far as we know, Morning glory nowadays is not commonly used as a medicine.

Recreational use
The seeds of many species of morning glory contain ergot alkaloids such as the hallucinogenic ergonovine and ergine (LSA). Seeds of I. tricolor and I. corymbosa (syn. R. corymbosa) are used as psychedelics. The seeds can produce similar effect to LSD when taken in the hundreds. Though the chemical LSA is illegal to possess in pure form, the seeds are found in many gardening stores, however, the seeds from gardening stores may be coated in some form of mild poison in order to prevent ingestion or methylmercury to retard spoilage. The seeds are especially dangerous if you have a history of liver disorders. During pregnancy they can cause uterine contraction that can lead to miscarriage. The seeds are vasoconstrictive, so should be left alone if you are elderly or have a history or family history of cardiovascular disease (heart attack, blood clot or stroke). The Korean morning glory Datura stramonium is also hallucinogenic, and is poisonous.

The seeds of several varieties of Morning glory (Ipomoea violacea) contain a naturally occurring tryptamine called Lysergic Acid Amide (LSA), which is closely related to LSD. Seeds are taken orally, and can be eaten whole or the active alkaloids can be extracted.
Like LSD, LSA acts as a “psychedelic” or “hallucinogen” which can have strong mental effects.

You may click to see:-> How to Trip on Morning Glory Seeds

History of Morning Glory Seeds
The seeds can be ingested as follows:
– thoroughly chew and swallow
– grind and soak in purified water for 1/2 hour, strain and drink
– sprout by soaking in purified water for 3-4 days (change water often), after which the white mushy part is removed from the shell and eaten. This is probably the best method for avoiding side effects, although there is enough reason to believe sprouting the seeds lessens their effectiveness.

The flowers of the Morning glory may be steeped in purified water for a week or two to produce a mildly alcoholic wine with a distinctively pleasant flavor and a very mild psychedelic effect, on account of hemp. Once again herbs and/or honey can be added to enhance the taste.
You must use cold purified water for these processes. Tap water contains chemicals that break down the desired alkaloids. Hot water also does this.

Warnings
Should not be taken by people with a history of liver disorders or hepatitis. Should not be taken by pregnant women. Individuals can respond differently to the same dosage. What is safe for one can be deadly for another. So please be careful, never overdose. Best is to have someone with experience with you who can act as a sitter and watch over you.

Contraindications
– Do not operate heavy machinery. Do Not Drive.
– Do not ingest morning glory seeds if you are currently taking an MAOI. MAOIs are most commonly found in the prescription anti-depressants Nardil (phenelzine), Parnate (tranylcypromine), Marplan (isocarboxazid), Eldepryl (l-deprenyl), and Aurorex or Manerix (moclobemide). Ayahuasca also contains MAOIs (harmine and harmaline). Morning glory seeds (LSA) and MAOIs are a potentially dangerous combination. Check with your doctor if you are not sure whether your prescription medication is an MAOI.

– Do not use morning glory seeds when pregnant. LSA is closely related to LSD which is a uterine contractor that can increase risk of miscarriage during pregnancy.
– Individuals currently in the midst of emotional or psychological upheaval in their everyday lives should be careful about choosing to use psychedelics such as morning glory seeds as they can trigger even more turmoil.
– Individuals with a family history of schizophrenia or early onset mental illness should be extremely careful as psychedelics have been known to trigger latent psychological and mental problems.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morning_glory
http://www.sandmountainherbs.com/morning_glory.html
http://home.howstuffworks.com/morning-glory-vine.htm

http://www.azarius.net/encyclopedia/5/Morning_glory/