Herbs & Plants

Pavetta indica

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Botanical Name :Pavetta indica Linn.
Family : Rubiaceae

Other  Scientific Names:
Pavetta indica Linn. ,Pavetta barnesii Elm. ,Pavetta crassicaulis  ,Pavetta tomentosa Roxb. ex Smith  ,Ixora indica (L.) Kuntze

Common Names : Bohunan-ug-puso (C. Bis.), Pangapatolen (Ilk),Galauan (Buk.),Pitak (Ig.),Gesges (Neg.), Tamayan (C. Bis.),Gusokan (C. Bis.) Tandaluli (Bag.),Kaiut-karaban (Bag.) Bride’s bush (Engl.), Kotbu (Ig.) White pavetta (Engl.) , Lankuilan (P. Bis.)

Sanskrit Synonyms
: Papata, Tiyakphala
Hindi Name : Papari
Malayalam  Name: Pavatta, Malayamotti

Habitat : Pavetta indica is found from the Batan Island and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all island and provinces often common in primary forest, at low and medium altitudes. It is also reported from India to China and through Malaya to tropical Australia.

The plant is an erect, nearly smooth or somewhat hairy shrub 2 to 4 meters or more in height. The leaves are elliptic-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. The flowers are white, rather fragrant, and borne in considerable numbers in hairy terminal panicles which are 6 to 10 centimeters long. The calyx segments are very small, and toothed. The corolla-tube is slender and about 1.5 centimeters long, with obtuse lobes about half the length of the tube. The fruit is black when dry, somewhat rounded, and about 6 millimeters in diameter.

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• Roots contain a green resin, starch, an organic acid, a bitter glucoside resembling salicin.
• Stems contain essential oil, resin, alkaloid, tannin and a pectic principle.
Petroleum ether and methanol extracts have yielded glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, flavonoids and akaloids

Properties: Bitter roots considered aperient.

Medicinal Uses:

• Bark, pulverized or in decoction, is used for visceral obstructions.
Decoction of leaves used externally for hemorrhoidal pains.
• Bitter roots used for constipation.
• Roots, pulverized and mixed with ginger and rice water, used for dropsy.
• A local fomentation of leaves used for hemorrhoidal pains.
• Roots used for urinary complaints.
• Decoction of stem used as febrifuge.
• Bark decoction used for arthritis.

Ayurvedic Properities:
Rasa    : Tikta, Kashaya
Guna   : Lakhu, Rooksha, Teekshna
Virya   : Seeta
Vipaka : Katu

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, constipation, urinary retention, and edema, and skin diseases.
Useful part : Roots, Leaves.

• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanol extract of Pavetta indica on several models of inflammation showed activity in the proliferative phase of the inflammatory process in an effect comparable to the standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin.
• Analgesic: Study of the ethanolic leaf extract of P indica showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of pain response induced by thermal and mechanical stimuli. Results showed promising potential use of the crude extract in the treatment of pain.
Antipyretic: Study of the methanol extracxt of P indica reduced the pyrexia induced by yeast, found statistically significant, and indicates a potential for the extract’s use as an agent against pyrexia.
Diuretic: Study of petroleum and ether extracts of leaves of Pavetta indica exhibited significant diuretic activity. Effect was attributed to the presence of flavonoids. Results support its use as a diuretic agent.
Essential Oil: Study yielded 24 compounds. The major constituents of the oil were ß-pinene (25.45%), ß-eudesmol (7.06%) and tricyclene (5.74%). Oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were minor components.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


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Herbs & Plants

Rangan(Ixora coccinea)

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Botanical Name :Ixora coccinea
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Ixora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Bengali Name :Rangan
Other Names:Jungle Geranium, Flame of the Woods,Santan-pula (Tag.) ,Tangpupo (Bis.) ,Dwarf santan (Engl  and Jungle Flame

Habitat :
Native to tropical south-east Asia, including Southern India and Sri Lanka.. Its name derives from an Indian deity.

Although there are some 400 species in the genus Ixora, only a handful are commonly cultivated, and the common name, Ixora, is usually used for I. coccinea. I. coccinea is a dense, multi-branched evergreen shrub, commonly 4–6 ft (1.2–2 m) in height, but capable of reaching up to 12 ft (3.6 m) high. It has a rounded form, with a spread that may exceed its height. The glossy, leathery, oblong leaves are about 4 in (10 cm) long, with entire margins, and are carried in opposite pairs or whorled on the stems. Small tubular, scarlet flowers in dense rounded clusters 2-5 in (5–13 cm) across are produced almost all year long. There are numerous named cultivars differing in flower colour (yellow, pink, orange) and plant size. Several popular cultivars are dwarfs, usually staying under 3 ft (1 m) in height. Ixora ‘Nora Grant’ is a popular dwarf and ‘Super King’ is a popular hybrid with much larger flower clusters than the species.
Blooming Time: Ixoras are compact plants that bloom primarily in summer and intermittently the rest of the year with proper care.

Cultivation: Ixoras do best in at least 4 hours of direct sunlight a day. Pot in a mixture of 2 parts peat moss to 1 part potting soil and 1 part sand or perlite. Keep moist; fertilize every 2 weeks in spring and summer, monthly the rest of the year.

Propagation: Propagated by cutting in spring, preferably with 3 to 4 nodes, with bottom heat. Can also be propagated by seed when produced.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts utilized :Leaves, roots, stems and flowers

Constituents and properties:

Root contains an aromatic acrid oil, tannin, fatty acids.
Leaves yield flavonols kaemferol and quercetin, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids and ferulic acids.
Flowers contain cyanidin and flaconboids, and a coloring material related to quercitin.
Considered internally sedative, stomachic, tonic, antiseptic, cholagogue and externally astringent and antiseptic

Decoction of roots used for nausea, hiccups, and anorexia.
Flowers used for dysentery and leucorrhea.
Poulticed fresh leaves and stems for sprains, eczema, boils and contusions.
Diluted tincture of roots for mouthwash and gargles for sore throat.
Flower decoction for hypertension, amenorrhea and irregular menstruation.
Decoction of leaves for wounds and skin ulcers.
In Bengal, roots are used for dysentery.
Root, ground into pulp, mixed with water and pepper, or as tincture, used for diarrhea and dysentery.
Powdered roots used for sores and chronic ulcers.
In Indo-China, root decoction used to clarify the urine.
In India and Sri Lanka, the fruits are eaten and the flowers used as flavoring.


• Wound healing: Alcoholic extract of IC showed increase in granuloma tissue weight, tensile strength and glycosaminoglycan content. The prohealing activity was attributed to increased collagen deposition, alignment and maturation.
• Antimicrobial: Extract studies of EC for antimicrobial activity showed the ethyl fraction to be more active than the methanol fraction.
• Antioxidant:
Phytochemical screening showed the flower extract to possess flavonoids, steroids, tannin. IC showed strong reducing power and total antioxidant capacity.
• Pharmacologic evaluation / Electroconvulsive Protective: Evaluation showed that IC has protective property against electroconvulsions, antiinflammatory and hemostatic properties.
Hepatoprotective: Extract of IC flowers showed significant hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol overdose-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Chemoprotective: IC flower fraction showed chemoprotective effects on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in mice.
• Antinociceptive : Study showed the aqueous leaf extract of IC possesses considerable antinociceptive activity mediated centrally via a dopaminergic mechanism. In addition, the antioxidant activity may play a role in inducing antinociception. The dopaminergic and antioxidative activities may arise from alkaloid and flavonoid constituents, respectively.
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-mitotic: Lupeol, isolated from the leaves of IC, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Anti-mitotic activity was also noted in a preliminary cytotoxic study.
• Cytotoxic / Antitumor: Study of the active fraction of Ixora coccinea flowers showed greater activity on ascitic tumors than solid tumors. It had no toxicity to normal lymphocytes but was toxic to lymphocytes from leukemic patients.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous leaf extract of Ixora coccinea showed strong antihistamine and antioxidant activity that can account for its anti-inflammatory potential. In addition, the inhibitionn of prostaglandins and bradykinins may play a role in its antiinflammatory effect.
• Anti-Ulcer: Study of the fresh leaf extract of Ixora coccinea was found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic property and could be a potential therapeutic agent against ulcer disease.

Other Uses:

Very ornamental plant, increases the beauty of the garden.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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