Categories
Herbs & Plants

Acer saccharum

[amazon_link asins=’B01IERZZAU,B01M05ANA0,B01GO8JD86,B01F8L2DSW,B01F8FQS84,0615825745,B00LU4TEVG,B00L9FITJ4,B00L9FK8DY’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’2488a8e7-4439-11e7-b9b2-c90b192f0b5e’]

Botanical Name : Acer saccharum
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Acer
Species: A. saccharum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms:
*Acer barbatum auct. non Michx.
*Acer barbatum f. commune Ashe
*Acer floridanum (Chapm.) Pax
*Acer hispidum Schwer.
*Acer leucoderme Small
*Acer nigrum F. Michx.
*Acer nigrum var. glaucum

Common Names: Sugar Maple, Florida Maple, Hard Maple, Rock Maple

Habitat : Acer saccharum is native to the hardwood forests of eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia west through Quebec and southern Ontario to southeastern Manitoba around Lake of the Woods, and the northern parts of the Central and eastern United States, from Minnesota eastward to the highlands of the eastern states. It is found in a variety of soil types, doing best in deep rich well-drained soils from sea level to 1600 metres. Rich usually hilly woods.

Description:
Acer saccharum is a deciduous tree normally reaching heights of 25–35 m (80–115 ft) tall, and exceptionally up to 45 m (148 ft). A 10-year-old tree is typically about 5 m (16 ft) tall. When healthy, the sugar maple can live for over 400 years.

The leaves are deciduous, up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and equally wide, with five palmate lobes. The basal lobes are relatively small, while the upper lobes are larger and deeply notched. In contrast with the angular notching of the silver maple, however, the notches tend to be rounded at their interior. The fall color is often spectacular, ranging from bright yellow through orange to fluorescent red-orange, although they look best in the northern part of its range. Sugar maples also have a tendency to color unevenly in fall. In some trees, all colors above can be seen at the same time. They also share a tendency with red maples for certain parts of a mature tree to change color weeks ahead of or behind the remainder of the tree. The leaf buds are pointy and brown-colored. The recent year’s growth twigs are green, and turn dark brown.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The flowers are in panicles of five to 10 together, yellow-green and without petals; flowering occurs in early spring after 30–55 growing degree days. The sugar maple will generally begin flowering when it is between 10 and 15 years old. The fruit is a pair of samaras (winged seeds). The seeds are globose, 7–10 mm (9?32–13?32 in) in diameter, the wing 2–3 cm (3?4–1 1?4 in) long. The seeds fall from the tree in autumn, where they must be exposed to 90 days of temperatures below ?18 °C (0 °F) to break their coating down. Germination of A. saccharum is slow, not taking place until the following spring when the soil has warmed and all frost danger is past.

Bloom Color: Green. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Rounded.

The sugar maple is also often confused with the Norway maple, though they are not closely related within the genus. The sugar maple is most easily identified by clear sap in the leaf petiole (the Norway maple has white sap), brown, sharp-tipped buds (the Norway maple has blunt, green or reddish-purple buds), and shaggy bark on older trees (the Norway maple bark has small grooves). Also, the leaf lobes of the sugar maple have a more triangular shape, in contrast to the squarish lobes of the Norway maple.

Although many people think a red sugar maple leaf is featured on the flag of Canada, the official maple leaf does not belong to any particular maple species; although it perhaps most closely resembles a sugar maple leaf of all the maple species in Canada, the leaf on the flag was specially designed to be as identifiable as possible on a flag waving in the wind without regard to whether it resembled a particular species’ foliage.

The sugar maple is the state tree of the US states of New York, Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Firewood, Screen, Specimen, Street tree, Woodland garden. Of easy cultivation, it prefers a good moist well-drained soil but succeeds on most soils, though it is more likely to become chlorotic as a result of iron deficiency on alkaline soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Trees need full light and a lot of space. This species is one of the most shade tolerant of the N. American maples. It tolerates atmospheric pollution and so is often used as a street tree, though it can suffer from soil compaction and the use of salt on the roads in frosty weather. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.3. Hardy to about -45°c when fully dormant. A fast-growing tree for its first 40 years in the wild, this species is not a great success in Britain, though it does better than once thought. It grows well in Cornwall. In cultivation it has proved to be slow growing when young. Trees can live for 250 years in the wild. A very ornamental tree but a bad companion plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants. This species is commercially exploited in America for its sap. Along with its sub-species it is the major source of maple syrup. There are some named varieties. The sap can be tapped within 10 – 15 years from seed but it does not flow so well in areas with mild winters. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it usually germinates in the following spring. A lot of the seed is non-viable, it is best to cut a few open to see if there is an embryo. An average of 95% germination can be achieved from viable seed. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours and then stratify for 2 – 4 months at 1 – 8°c. It can be slow to germinate, sometimes taking two years. The seed can be harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has dried and produced any germination inhibitors) and sown immediately. It should germinate in late winter. If the seed is harvested too soon it will produce very weak plants or no plants at all. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 20cm or more tall before planting them out in their permanent positions. Layering, which takes about 12 months, is successful with most species in this genus. Cuttings of young shoots in June or July. The cuttings should have 2 – 3 pairs of leaves, plus one pair of buds at the base. Remove a very thin slice of bark at the base of the cutting, rooting is improved if a rooting hormone is used. The rooted cuttings must show new growth during the summer before being potted up otherwise they are unlikely to survive the winter.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Inner bark; Leaves; Sap; Seed.
Edible Uses: Sweetener.

The sap contains quite a large proportion of sugar. This can be used as a refreshing drink, or be concentrated into a syrup by boiling off the water. The syrup is used as a sweetener on many foods. The sap can be harvested in late winter or early spring[, the flow is best on a warm sunny day after a frost. Trees on southern slopes in sandy soils give the best yields. It is best to make a hole about 7cm deep and about 1.3 metres above the ground. Yields of 40 – 100 litres per tree can be obtained. The best sap production comes from cold-winter areas with continental climates. The sap contains 2 – 6% sugar, thus about 32 litres are required to make a litre of maple syrup. Self-sown seedlings, gathered in early spring, are eaten fresh or dried for later use. Seeds – cooked. The wings are removed and the seeds boiled then eaten hot. The seed is about 6mm long and is produced in small clusters. Inner bark – cooked. It is dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread.
Medicinal Uses:
A tea made from the inner bark is a blood tonic, diuretic and expectorant. It has been used in the treatment of coughs, diarrhoea etc. A compound infusion of the bark has been used as drops in treating blindness. The sap has been used for treating sore eyes. The inner bark has been used as an expectorant and cough remedy. Maple syrup is used in cough syrups and is also said to be a liver tonic and kidney cleanser. The Mohegan use the inner bark as a cough remedy, and the sap as a sweetening agent and to make maple syrup.

Other Uses:
Fuel; Potash; Preservative; Wood.

The leaves are packed around apples, rootcrops etc to help preserve them. Wood – close grained, tough, hard, heavy, strong, not very durable, it takes a high polish, remains smooth under abrasion and has a high shock-resistance. It holds nails well, is fair in gluing, dries easily and shrinks moderately. The wood weighs 43lb per cubic foot. Considered by many to be the most valuable hardwood tree in N. America, the sugar maple is used for a wide range of applications including furniture, flooring, turnery, musical instruments and ship building. Accidental forms with the grain curled and contorted, known as curly maple and bird’s eye maple, are common and are highly prized in cabinet making. The wood is also a very good fuel, giving off a lot of heat and forming very hot embers. The ashes of the wood are rich in alkali and yield large quantities of potash

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acer_saccharum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Acer+saccharum

Categories
Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Viola renifolia

[amazon_link asins=’B010TVIRVI,B000ULGLYI,B012B6XJ76,B06WD59YRC,B00UCH7SBK,B000UL93HA,B00CNFPQBS,B00KWTFGCG,B071YXB73P’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’4a3f08a8-468c-11e7-a56d-7d4cd03b3a95′]

Botanical Name: Viola renifolia
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species: V. renifolia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Common names: White violet and Kidneyleaf violet
Habitat : Viola renifolia is native to northern North America, where it has a widespread distribution across Canada and the northern United States as far south as Washington, Colorado, and New York. It is grown in part shade, sun; cool coniferous swamps and woods.
Description:
Viola renifolia is a perennial herb growing up to 10 centimeters tall. It does not have stems, rhizomes, or stolons. The kidney-shaped leaf blades are 3 to 6 centimeters long and are borne on petioles up to 15 centimeters long. It is in flower during April to June. The flower is 1 to 1.5 centimeters long and white in color with purple lines on the lower three petals. The fruit is a purplish nearly spherical capsules; seeds are brown; ripening mid-summer.

This violet grows in white spruce and black spruce forests, and temperate coniferous forests. Near the Great Lakes it grows in swamps and wooded areas….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES : 

Edible & Medicinal Uses:
Violets are high in vitamins A and C; the leaves contain as much vitamin C as 4 oranges. The flowers have been used as a garnish (fresh or candied) or as a flavouring and colouring in vinegar. They have also been made into jelly and syrup.

Flower Essences: Indications: uncomfortable in closed spaces and constrained environments; fearful of losing one’s identity in a group; unable to embody one’s sensitivity in a comfortable way.

Known Hazards: The rhizomes, fruits and/or seeds of some violets are poisonous, causing severe stomach and intestinal upset, as well as nervousness and respiratory and circulatory depression. The species name renifolia, from the Latin rens, ‘a kidney’, and folium, ‘a leaf’, refers to the kidney-shaped leaves typical of this plant.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_renifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/kidney-leaved-violet
http://www.borealforest.org/herbs/herb40.htm

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum)

[amazon_link asins=’B00028NZK2,B0006NXGD4,B013LV4NQQ,B018Y65RSQ,B01AN5UDX0,B072XHLXN9,B06XZZC4D7,B0006NYIV8,B00PA3WCLM’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’1f7262d1-6a99-11e7-87b8-794b33af83f4′]

Botanical Name:Eupatorium perfoliatum
Family:    Asteraceae
Genus:    Eupatorium
Species:    E. perfoliatum
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Asterales
Other Names: Feverwort, Agueweed, Thoroughwort, Sweating plant,
Indian sage.

Related Terms:
Agueweed, Asteraceae (family), astragalin, common boneset, Compositae (family), crosswort, dendroidinic acid, eucannabinolide, eufoliatin, eufoliatorin, eupafolin, eupatorin, Eupatorium connatum Michx., Eupatorium perfoliatum, Eupatorium perfoliatum D2, euperfolide, euperfolitin, feverwort, flavonoids, gravelroot, hebenolide, helenalin, hyperoside, Indian sage, kaempferol, quercitin, rutin, sesquiterpene lactones, snakeroot, sterols, sweat plant, sweating plant, tearal, teasel, thoroughwax, thoroughwort, thorough-stem, vegetable antimony, wild Isaac, wild sage, wood boneset.

Notes: Avoid confusion with gravel root (Eupatorium purpureum), which is also known as boneset. Snakeroot is a common name used for poisonous Eupatorium species, but boneset should not be confused with Ageratina spp., which are more commonly known as snakeroot.

Range & Habitat: Moist ground; thickets. Nova Scotia to Florida; Louisiana; Texas to North Dakota. Common Boneset has been reported from most counties of Illinois, and is fairly common (see Distribution Map). However, it appears to be somewhat less common than either Eupatorium serotinum (Late Boneset) and Eupatorium altissimum (Tall Boneset). Habitats include openings in floodplain forests, poorly drained areas of black soil prairies, and various kinds of wetlands, including marshes, bogs, fens, seeps, edges of rivers, and sand flats along Lake Michigan. This plant also occurs in or near roadside ditches. Generally, it doesn’t stray far from wetland areas of one kind or another.
Description:
Boneset is a perennial plant found in swampy areas and along stream-banks in eastern North America. The rough, hairy stem grows to a height of 1 to 5 feet from a horizontal, crooked rootstock. The leaves are rough, serrate, and taper to a long point. Terminal corymbs of numerous, white flowers appear July through October. The fruit is a tufted achene. The plant has only a weak odor but a very bitter taste.

click to see the pictures….(01)..….....(1)..…...(2).…....(3)....……….
It is tall and unbranched. Except for some flowering side stems near the apex. The central stem and side stems are covered with long white hairs. The opposite leaves are up to 8″ long and 2″ across, and light or yellowish green. Their bases surround the central stem and merge together (perfoliate). In shape, they are lanceolate with long narrow tips and serrate margins. There is a conspicuous network of veins, particularly on the lower leaf surface. This lower surface is also pubescent. Some of the upper leaves near the inflorescence(s) are much smaller in size and sessile. The upper stems terminate in clusters of white flowerheads, spanning about 2-8″ across. Each flowerhead is about 1/6″ across and consists of about 15 disk florets. Each disk floret has 5 spreading lobes and a long divided style, in the manner of other Eupatorium spp. The blooming period is late summer to early fall, which typically lasts about 1-2 months for a colony of plants. There is a pleasant floral scent. The florets are replaced by achenes with small tufts of hair  they are dispersed by the wind. The root system is fibrous and produces rhizomes in abundance. Common Boneset typically forms vegetative colonies.
Common Boneset has interesting foliage and fragrant flowers. It tolerates flooded conditions better than many other Boneset species. It can be distinghished from these other species by the perfoliate leaves that surround the central stem. The other species have opposite leaves that are sessile or have distinct petioles. All of these species have spreading clusters of white flowers with a similar appearance    It is in flower in  July – October.   These flowers are quite popular with diverse kinds of insects.

History: The American Indians introduced boneset to early colonists as a sweat-inducer, an old treatment for fevers. The Indians used boneset for all fever-producing illnesses:
such as influenza, cholera, dengue (pronounced DENG-ee), malaria, and typhoid. The Indians also used boneset to relieve arthritis and treat colds, indigestion, constipation, and loss of appetite.
Boneset was listed as a treatment for fever in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from 1820 through 1916, and in the National Formulary, the pharmacists’ manual, from 1926 through 1950. But over time it fell from favor, replaced by another herbal fever-fighter, aspirin.
Contemporary herbalists continue to recommend boneset enthusiastically for fever.


Cultivation:
The preference is full or partial sun, and wet to moist conditions. The soil should contain considerable organic material so that it can retain moisture. This plant can withstand flooded conditions for short periods of time, but it is not really aquatic. The foliage appears to be little bothered by pests and disease.

Constituents: Quercetin, Kaempferol, Rutin, Eupatorin, Sesquiterpene, Volatile oil, Resin.

Medicinal Properties   & uses:
Properties: Stimulant, Tonic, Diaphoretic, Emetic, Aperient, Antispasmodic, Cathartic, and Febrifuge.

Parts used: tops and leaves. European studies show this herb helps treat minor viral and bacterial infections by stimulating white blood cells to destroy disease-causing microorganisms more effectively. In Germany, physicians currently use boneset to treat viral infections, such as colds and flu. One study shows boneset is mildly anti-inflammatory, lending some support to its traditional use in treating arthritis.
Taken in small doses it often gives relief very quickly. It reduces fever and clears up mucous build-up in the lungs. It gently empties any toxins which may be stored in the colon. It relaxes the joints and eases the terrible pain which often accompanies the flu. Some people have found it to be very useful for their rheumatism. Boneset is dual in action, depending on how it is administered, when cold a tonic, when warm emetic diaphoretic. It is extremely bitter to the taste and is disliked by children, but in these cases a thick syrup of boneset, ginger and anise is used by some for coughs of children, with good results.

The flavonoids and the sesquiterpene lactones in the essential oil appear to work together in an as yet undetermined fashion to produce the antipyretic and diaphoretic effect. The essential oil also irritates mucous membranes resulting in its expectorant effect. The irritation may also stimulate peristalsis.

Besides the bitter and aromatic components of the herb, it contains the mucilaginous polysaccharride inulin which could mitigate the harshness of the herb. Tannins are also present which tone inflamed tissue. One study also mentions the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. These are apparently of the same chemical class as the hepatoxic alkaloids found in comfrey. Flavonoids have even shown some antitumor properties.
Colds and Flu: European studies show this herb helps treat minor viral and bacterial infections by stimulating white blood cells to destroy disease-causing microorganisms more effectively. In Germany, where herbal medicine is more main-stream than it is in the United States, physicians currently use boneset to treat viral infections, such as colds and flu.
Arthritis: One study shows boneset is mildly anti-inflammatory, lending some support to its traditional use in treating arthritis.

Preparation And Dosages:
To treat colds, flu, and arthritis, and for minor inflammation, use an infusion or tincture.
Infusion: Use 1 to 2 teaspoons of dried leaves per cup of boiling water. Steep 10 to 20 minutes. Drink up to 3 cups a day. The taste will be very bitter. Add sugar or honey and lemon, or mix it with an herbal beverage tea.
Tincture: Dry plant – (1:5). 20 to 40 drops in hot water.
Clinical Effectiveness:
1. Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) is native to eastern North America and was used by Native Americans to treat fevers, including dengue fever and malaria. Today, boneset is used primarily in homeopathic medicine for fevers, influenza, digestive problems, and liver disorders.

2. In the past, boneset was used extensively for a number of conditions, including constipation, fever, and influenza. Currently, however, the use of boneset is limited because other drugs generally are more effective.

3. Boneset may be effective when used orally as an immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory agent. There is insufficient reliable information available about the effectiveness of boneset for its other uses.

4. Products containing boneset have been placed in the “Herbs of Undefined Safety” category by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
CAUTION: Do not eat fresh boneset. It contains a toxic chemical (tremerol), which causes nausea, vomiting, weakness, muscle tremors, increased respiration, and at high doses, possibly even coma and death. Drying the herb eliminates the tremerol and the possibility of poisoning.

Allergic hypersensitivity can result in contact dermatitis due to the sesquiterpene lactone constituents.

Other Uses:  Eupatorium perfoliatum is a specific Butterfly food and habitat plant.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.indianspringherbs.com/boneset.htm
http://www.naturalstandards.com/
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/prairie/plantx/cm_boneset.htm

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Environmental Pollution

Environmental pollution

Environmental pollution is the main cause for most of the human illness around the world.The time has already reached when every one of us should be well aware of it.Perhaps, the total sufferings and agony that we get by polluting the environment is much more the amount of comfort that technological advancement gives us.It is the negative effect of advancement of the human society……..click & see

Our Mother Earth.

This is what it should be looked like.

Environmental Pollution leading our Mother Earth To

Deforestation is one of the other thousands which is killing our atmosphere very fast.Some great man once said “if you cannot do any good to human,at least plant a tree which will grow big and stay on earth for hundred years and play a big role in the survival of not only humanity but all the living organism of the world.”

People interested in this subject may go to this site for more knowledge. I would also ask them to browse this site as well