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Our body extricts

Sweat

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Defination:
Sweating (Perspiration, transpiration, or diaphoresis) is the production of a fluid consisting primarily of water as well as various dissolved solids (chiefly chlorides), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. Sweat contains the chemicals or odorants 2-methylphenol (o-cresol) and 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), as well as a small amount of urea.
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In humans, sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation, although it has been proposed that components of male sweat can act as pheromonal cues. There is widespread belief that sweating, for example, in a sauna, helps the body to remove toxins, but the belief is without scientific support. Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to the latent heat of evaporation of water. Hence, in hot weather, or when the individual’s muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced. Sweating is increased by nervousness and nausea and decreased by cold. Animals with few sweat glands, such as dogs, accomplish similar temperature regulation results by panting, which evaporates water from the moist lining of the oral cavity and pharynx. Primates and horses have armpits that sweat like those of humans. Although sweating is found in a wide variety of mammals, relatively few, such as humans and horses, produce large amounts of sweat in order to cool down..

 

A study has discovered that men, on average, start perspiring much more quickly than women, then twice as much when they are in the middle of exercising.


Mechanism :

A man sweats after exercising.Sweating allows the body to regulate its temperature. Sweating is controlled from a center in the preoptic and anterior regions of the brain’s hypothalamus, where thermosensitive neurons are located. The heat-regulatory function of the hypothalamus is also affected by inputs from temperature receptors in the skin. High skin temperature reduces the hypothalamic set point for sweating and increases the gain of the hypothalamic feedback system in response to variations in core temperature. Overall, however, the sweating response to a rise in hypothalamic (‘core’) temperature is much larger than the response to the same increase in average skin temperature. The process of sweating decreases core temperature, whereas the process of evaporation decreases surface temperature.

There are two situations in which our nerves will stimulate sweat glands, making us sweat: during physical heat and emotional stress. In general, emotionally induced sweating is restricted to palms, soles, armpits, and sometimes the forehead, while physical heat-induced sweating occurs throughout the body.

Sweat is not pure water; it always contains a small amount (0.2–1%) of solute. When a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, adaptive changes occur in the sweating mechanisms of the person. This process is referred to as acclimatisation: the maximum rate of sweating increases and its solute composition decreases. The volume of water lost in sweat daily is highly variable, ranging from 100 to 8,000 mL/day. The solute loss can be as much as 350 mmol/day (or 90 mmol/day acclimatised) of sodium under the most extreme conditions. In a cool climate and in the absence of exercise, sodium loss can be very low (less than 5 mmols/day). Sodium concentration in sweat is 30-65 mmol/l, depending on the degree of acclimatisation.

Composition:
Sweat contains mainly water. It also contains minerals, lactate, and urea. Mineral composition varies with the individual, their acclimatisation to heat, exercise and sweating, the particular stress source (exercise, sauna, etc.), the duration of sweating, and the composition of minerals in the body. An indication of the minerals content is sodium 0.9 gram/liter, potassium 0.2 gram/liter, calcium 0.015 gram/liter, magnesium 0.0013 gram/liter. Also many other trace elements are excreted in sweat, again an indication of their concentration is (although measurements can vary fifteenfold) zinc (0.4 mg/l), copper (0.3–0.8 mg/l), iron (1 mg/l), chromium (0.1 mg/l), nickel (0.05 mg/l), lead (0.05 mg/l). Probably many other less-abundant trace minerals leave the body through sweating with correspondingly lower concentrations. Some exogenous organic compounds make their way into sweat as exemplified by an unidentified odiferous “maple syrup” scented compound in several of the species in the mushroom genus Lactarius.   In humans sweat is hypoosmotic relative to plasma

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You may also click and see:
*Diaphoresis
*Hyperhidrosis
*Anhidrosis
*Hyponatremia
*Hyperthermia
*Body odor
*Hidradenitis-Suppurativa
*Pheromones
*Sweat gland
*Sweat therapy
*Eccrine gland
*Apocrine gland

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Sweat

What is Sweat?

Do you Sweat excessively? Here are the solutions

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspiration

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Health Alert

Lousy Problem

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Itchy scalp? Scratching in public? And people looking askance at you? The problem could be dandruff or seborrhic dermatitis. Or worse, it could be lice.

click to see the pictures….(1).….(2).(3).…….(4)..…..(5)....
Lice (singular: louse) are ectoparasites — that is, they live on the outside. Each insect is about the size of a sesame seed, with six legs and no wings. Human lice cannot survive on other animals such as cats, dogs and birds. They are also specific to the area they infest. They may live on the head (head lice). A slightly different variety lives in the genital area (pubic lice). A third type (body lice) lives only on the body.

School-going children are particularly likely to pick up head lice. In India, 60 per cent of girls in the age group of five to 11 are infested. This is, however, wrongly attributed to poor hygiene and low socioeconomic status. The social stigma attached to lice infestation and accusing letters from school authorities add to the psychological trauma of the child and her parents.

Lice feed on human blood and live for 30 days. If they fall off the body, they can survive on clothes, combs, crash helmets, bed sheets or pillows for two days. Each pair of lice lays about 100 eggs. These characteristics make them a tough species. They have managed to survive unchanged for more than 2,000 years. Archaeologists have found evidence of lice on Egyptian mummies, which are identical to the ones seen today.

The spread of lice occurs only if there is close contact with infested persons or their personal belongings. A louse cannot jump or fly. It has to crawl to its next victim. Once the insect has settled, it immediately starts to bite and feed. Lice release chemicals from their saliva which can cause intense scratching. This introduces bacteria to the skin which may cause secondary infection. The lymph nodes may become enlarged and appear as painful lumps in the neck.

There are many home remedies for lice. Mixtures of oils or ghee are sometimes applied in the hope that it will smother the lice. Others may shampoo frequently, thinking it will drown or wash away the insects. These, however, do not work.

The “lice comb” is a traditional and effective method. The comb may be made of metal, plastic or wood. Combing has to be done every day for two to three months. When the adult lice fall off, they have to be killed. Removing nits with a comb is difficult, tedious, time consuming and somewhat painful. Moreover, the child may not cooperate.

There is another effective method. Often in traditional families, all the members get their heads tonsured under some religious pretext. No hair, no lice.

Many chemicals are known to eradicate lice. Kerosene, for example, is effective when applied to the whole head and left for two or three hours. The head should be tied up securely in a cloth. But the method is dangerous as kerosene is highly inflammable.

Medicated “lice treatment” shampoos and lotions contain malathion, lindane and permethrin and can be applied to the hair. These chemicals paralyse the lice. The motionless insects must then be removed by washing or combing as they can recover movement in two or three hours.

The medications, however, do not remove all the lice. Only about 20 per cent are susceptible to the commonly used chemicals. The tough survivors mutate, thrive and multiply even in the presence of these chemicals. Higher concentrations offer no greater benefit. Instead, they seep through the skin and may build up to toxic levels. Also, the chemicals cannot be used in pregnant women and children under one. Treatment has to be repeated after 10 days to kill any newly hatched lice before they start to reproduce. Body and pubic lice respond poorly to lotions and shampoos.

In all the three types of lice infestation, relapse, recurrence and re-infection are common. This makes dealing with the parasite both embarrassing and frustrating.

Commercially advertised “herbal” products appear safer than chemicals and gullible sufferers opt for them. A few harmless ingredients like neem and tulasi are mentioned on the package. The rest are not. Their sale and production are not regulated. Their safety is questionable and side effects undocumented.

Lice can be effectively eradicated using an oral dose of 200 µgm/kg body weight of the tablet Ivermectin. It cannot be given to pregnant women or children whose weight is less than 15kg. The medicine acts only on live lice. A repeat dose is required on the eighth day when the eggs hatch.

Source : The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Protect Your Skin from Infections

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With the onset of the winter season large number of patients suffering from skin infection are visiting the OPD (Outdoor Patients  Department) of the Hospital these days.

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According to Sushil Chandra, head of Skin department (HOD) at Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial (GSVM) Medical College, “The cases of scabies, eczema and other fungal infections are on the rise due to changing weather. Approximately 25 per cent of the patients coming here are suffering from seasonal skin allergy.”

Scabies is a common skin infection that causes small itchy blisters due to tiny mites. The rash appears on head, face, neck and palms. Itching is the most common symptom which tends to become worse during night. Continuous scratching leads to bacterial infections and sometimes pus formation also,” he sad.

“The infection is contagious and is usually transmitted through skin-to-skin contact. The infection spreads more easily in crowded places,” he added.

About eczema, Dr S K Arora, professor in Skin department at GSVM College said that it normally occurs due to dryness. He said, “With the onset of winter season, blood supply to the skin decreases which affects the secretion of sebum (a kind of oil which keeps skin moist) from sebaceous glands. A cycle of itching and scratching begins which prolongs the xerotic eczema.”

About the preventive measures, Dr Arora said, “Scratching makes the skin infection worse. It can also lead to further bacterial infection if you break the skin. It is therefore, better to keep the nails short so that there are less chances of harming yourself accidentally by scratching with dirty fingernails. One should also use moisturiser and coconut oil regularly to keep the skin moist. Drink a lot of water to keep the body moisturised from within and take a bath daily.”

Source:The Times Of India

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Home Light Therapy Psoriasis Hope

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A specialist light treatment for psoriasis is just as effective and safe when given at home as in hospital, say Dutch researchers.

Phototherapy has been around for decades>.

Phototherapy using UVB light is rarely used in the UK because of limited availability and the number of hospital visits required.

But a study of 200 patients found the same results with home treatment.

One UK expert said the British Medical Journal study highlighted an important treatment gap in psoriasis care.

Psoriasis is a common disorder caused by too rapid production of new skin cells, causing red scaly patches.

In my area there are very large numbers of people who don’t have access to phototherapy which is a shame as it’s a very effective and safe treatment

Professor Alex Anstey, Royal Gwent Hospital, Wales
Up to 3% of the UK population is affected by the non-contagious condition which can cause significant disability.

For those who have access to UVB treatment at their local dermatology unit, a course usually entails three visits each week for between eight to 10 weeks.

It works by dampening down the immune overreaction in the skin.

One reason that the treatment is usually done in hospital is because most dermatologists believe that home phototherapy is inferior and that it carries more risks.

In the latest study, patients with psoriasis from 14 hospital dermatology departments were randomly assigned to receive either home UVB phototherapy or hospital-based treatment.

Home treatment was equivalent to hospital therapy both in terms of safety and the effectiveness of clearing the condition.

And those treated at home reported a significantly lower burden of treatment and were more satisfied.

Equal treatments
Study leader Dr Mayke Koek, from Utrecht University Medical Centre, said: “We knew a lot of dermatologists are not convinced of the safety and effectiveness of UVB phototherapy but our theory was they should be equally safe.”

“One of the most important findings was a lot of patients treated at home were more satisfied.”

Professor Alex Anstey from the Royal Gwent Hospital in Newport, Wales, said with the exception of Scotland, phototherapy in the UK was limited to people who lived near a big hospital.

“In my area there are very large numbers of people who don’t have access to phototherapy which is a shame as it’s a very effective and safe treatment.” ………Says Professor Alex Anstey, Royal Gwent Hospital, Wales

He said that the equipment – similar to a tanning bed, but a different type of light – costs between £5,000 and £10,000 but was very cheap compared with some of the new biological therapies in use and could be lent to patients for the duration of their treatment.

Gladys Edwards, chief executive of the Psoriasis Association, said the guidelines on treating psoriasis should be reviewed in light of the new research.

“Patient choice is important and for some patients managing their UV treatment at home would clearly be preferable.

“It is crucial, however, that there is absolutely clear guidance and information on when this is appropriate and how it should be managed for patients and clinicians.”

Sources
:BBC NEWS: 8TH. MAy’09

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Health & Fitness

How Can YOU Control Your Excessive Sweating and Odor?

The best way to stop excessive sweating is to find the cause. For example, if it only occurs when you are nervous or anxious, stress reduction techniques in combination with the proper use of an antiperspirant may go a long way toward getting this under control. However, if the perspiration affects multiple areas of your body no matter what the situation, you may have a form of excess sweating known as hyperhidrosis. As for the odor, it’s most likely caused by the bacteria on your skin as it comes in contact with the perspiration. But one thing is clear: The symptoms are affecting the quality of your life and it’s time to regain control with a visit to your physician.

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Sweating the small stuff:
Sweating is a part of life. Normal sweating is usually caused by one or a combination of the following:

1.Your body is too hot and needs to cool off (from fever due to an illness, hot temperatures, too many layers of clothing)…….CLICK & SEE

2.You’re anxious and stressed…..CLICK & SEE

3.You’re performing strenuous exercise……..CLICK & SEE

The pattern of perspiration may be different depending upon the situation. For instance, when you’re nervous, the sweat often appears under the armpits, the hands and even on the forehead. In contrast, when you exercise, the sweat tends to occur throughout the body.

Needless to say, the location, amount, odor and frequency that the sweating occurs are unique to each individual. For some, it’s explainable and hardly noticeable. For others, the potential for embarrassment exists and can change life experiences. This makes it especially important to speak with your physician and provide the answers to the following questions:

*Where does your sweating occur (armpits, groin, whole body, hands, feet, face)?
*At what age did it begin (early to mid teenage years) and does heavy perspiration run in your family?
*How often does it occur (everyday, a few times per week, once a month)?
*When does it occur (during the daytime, wakes you up at night, day and night)?
*How often do you need to change your clothes (shirts, socks, others) due to excessive perspiration (once, twice or several times per day)?
*Do you get skin irritations or infections in the areas where you constantly sweat?
*How often do you need to shower during the day to get rid of the odor?
*Are you afraid to shake hands because of your sweaty palms? If so, how often do you find yourself drying them off due to excess perspiration?
*Are you afraid to wear certain colors because the sweat stains will show through?
*What products have you tried (deodorants, antiperspirants) and did they provide any relief?
*Do certain situations make your sweating worse (spicy foods, when you are anxious or upset, meeting a new person)?
*Have other symptoms occurred since your sweating problem began (fever, cough, joint pains, rash)
*Are you taking any prescription, non-prescription or herbal medications?
*Does your sweating or fear of sweating keep you from certain events or social activities?

Next, It is advised to encourage you to take a look at the information at the International Hyperhidrosis Society to see how you rate on the hyperhidrosis disease severity scale. A result of 3 or 4 means you’re sweating is life-altering and may clue your physician to check for the conditions known as primary focal or secondary generalized hyperhidrosis.

Techniques to decrease perspiration:
If excess perspiration occurs only when you are stressed or nervous, relaxation techniques learned through biofeedback, hypnotherapy, yoga and/or meditation might help to decrease your anxiety induced sweating. Acupuncture may even provide some relief. However, if your sweating is made worse by a multitude of factors including hyperhydrosis, other suggestions to consider include but aren’t limited to the following:

*Avoid or decrease the consumption of caffeinated products

*Bathe daily to limit the amount of bacteria contributing to the sweaty odor

*Eliminate odor-producing foods (onions, garlic, others) from your diet

*Wear loose fitting clothes containing materials such as cotton, wool and silk. These “breathable” fabrics allow for a better flow between your skin and the surrounding air.

*Use antiperspirants daily to stop the sweat and the odor, instead of deodorants, which stop the odor, but not the sweat.
*While these products are commonly applied to the armpits, they are also effective in other areas such as the hands and feet.

*Antiperspirants are available with and without a prescription. Look for the ingredient aluminum chloride hexahydrate, a very effective agent for problem sweating. Preparations containing 10-15 percent aluminum chloride hexahydrate work well for excessive perspiration in the armpits, while those containing 30 percent tend to work better for problem sweating of the hands and feet. Apply the antiperspirant after the area has been dried (use a towel or cool air from a blow dryer) once per night (works better than a morning application as it takes six to eight hours for the antiperspirant to plug the pores and block the flow of sweat) or twice per day (morning and night).

*Consider the use of iontophoresis for extreme and uncontrolled sweating of hands and/or feet. This technique uses very low levels of electric current applied during a 15 to 20 minute session over a period of time (days or weeks). It seems to slow or shut down the flow of perspiration through the sweat glands.

*Injection of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) to the affected areas (armpits, hands, feet and even the face) where sweating is not controlled by other methods. One treatment is very effective at stopping the flow of sweat for a period of four to seven months, sometimes longer.

Fortunately, much can be done to help prevent or minimize the discomfort and embarrassment caused by your drenching underarm sweating.  If you wish you may contact  Mayo Clinic to help you.

Therapeutic  treatment of   excessive sweating  is : IONOSPHERES

You may click to see:->Excessive Sweating – Red Hands

Prickly Heat: When Sweating Hurts
Night Sweats
Can Stress Cause Body Odor?

Sources:MSN Health & Fitness

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