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Herbs & Plants

Antirrhinum majus

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Botanical Name : Antirrhinum majus
Family: Plantaginaceae /Veronicaceae
Genus: Antirrhinum
Species: A. majus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names: Common snapdragon; often – especially in horticulture – simply Snapdragon

Habitat : Antirrhinum majus is native to Europe. Naturalized in Britain. It grows on old walls, rocks and dry places.

Description:
Antirrhinum majus is an herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 0.5–1 m tall, rarely up to 2 m at a medium rate. The leaves are spirally arranged, broadly lanceolate, 1–7 cm long and 2-2.5 cm broad. It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.

The flowers are produced on a tall spike, each flower is 3.5-4.5 cm long, zygomorphic, with two ‘lips’ closing the corolla tube; wild plants have pink to purple flowers, often with yellow lips. The fruit is an ovoid capsule 10–14 mm diameter, containing numerous small seeds. The plants are pollinated by bumblebees, and the flowers close over the insects when they enter and deposit pollen on their bodies.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Massing, Specimen, Woodland garden. Prefers a light well drained loam and a sunny position. Plants are tolerant of clay and lime soils, and also grow well on old walls. Plants are often grown as an annual since they usually degenerate in their second year. They often self sow when well-sited. There are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value. Special Features:Not North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers, Fragrant flowers.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow March in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 10 – 21 days at 18°c. Cool nights assist germination. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. The seed can also be sown in situ in July/August and will produce larger and more floriferous plants the following summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood in September in a cold frame.
Edible Uses: Oil.

An oil that is little inferior to olive oil is said to be obtained from the seeds. The report also says that the plant has been cultivated in Russia for this purpose. The seeds are very small and I wonder about the authenticity of this report.
Medicinal Uses:

Antiphlogistic; Bitter; Resolvent; Stimulant.

The leaves and flowers are antiphlogistic, bitter, resolvent and stimulant[7, 115]. They have been employed in poultices on tumours and ulcers[4]. It is effective in the treatment of all kinds of inflammation and is also used on haemorrhoids[7]. The plant is harvested in the summer when in flower and is dried for later use.
Other Uses:
Dye; Oil.

A green dye is obtained from the flowers, it does not require a mordant. Dark green and gold can also be obtained if a mordant is used.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antirrhinum_majus
http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Antirrhinum+majus

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Myricaria elegans

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Botanical Name : Myricaria elegans
Family :Tamaricaceae
Reign: Plantae
Class: Equisetopsida
Subclass: Magnoliidae
Order :Caryophyllales
Super-order: Caryophyllanae

Synonyms: Myrtama elegans, Tamaricaria elegans

Habitat : Myricaria elegans is native to E. Asia – W. Himalayas, Tibet. It grows on stony slopes, especially in Ladakh, 2700 – 4000 metres.

Description:
Myricaria elegans is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in), with reddish-brown older branches, bearing lateral leafy branches and racemes; leaves on branches of current year, elliptic to elliptic lanceolate10-15 mm long with narrowly membranous margin; racemes spike-like, usually lateral, rarely terminal, 10-15 cm long; bracts ovate, 3-5 mm long with broadly membranous margin; pedicel 2-3 mm long; sepals ovate-lanceolate to triangular-ovate, 2 mm long, margin membranous; petals white to pink, obovate to nearly rounded, 5-6 mm long, narrowed at base; capsule nearly 8-10 mm long.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a fertile well-drained soil in full sun with shelter from cold drying winds. Tolerates chalk soils.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, November to January in a sandy propagating mix in an open frame.

Medicinal Uses:...Poultice……The leaves are used externally as a poultice on bruises.
Other Uses:...Fuel……The wood is used as a fuel.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myricaria
https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/m—z/t/tamaricaceae/myricaria/myricaria-elegans
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Myricaria+elegans

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Cordyceps sinensis

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Botanical Name : Cordyceps sinensis
Family: Clavicipitaceae
Genus: Cordyceps
Kingdom: Fungi
Subkingdom: Dikarya
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
Class: Sordariomycetes
Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
Order: Hypocreales

Common Names: Winter Worm-Summer Grass,caterpillar fungus (English), dong zhong chang cao, dongchongxiacao,  semitake (Japan), zhongcao,  and chongcao (China).The fungus is known in Tibetan as yartsa gunbu or yatsa gunbu.

Habitat : Cordyceps sinensis grows wild at altitudes above 3000 meters in the mountainous regions of China. Cordyceps sinensis, first recorded as yartsa gunbu in Tibet in the 15th Century.

Edible Uses:
Cordyceps sinensis is a parasitic fungus often mistakenly referred to as a mushroom. Though in the western world cordyceps is most often taken in the form of an extract, it’s use as a food source in China dates back many millenia. It was cooked into soups, with poultry, and with meat, and was only consumed by the wealthy and among members of the Chinese Imperial Palace.

Description :
Caterpillar fungi are the result of a parasitic relationship between the fungus and the larva of the ghost moth genus Thitarodes, several species of which live on the Tibetan Plateau (Tibet, Qinghai, West-Sichuan, SW-Gansu & NW Yunnan, all in China, and the Himalayas India, Nepal, Bhutan). The fungus germinates in living organisms (in some cases the larvae), kills and mummifies the insect, and then the fungus grows from the body of the insect.
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One of the unique qualities of this parasitic fungus is it’s host organism. Most fungus and mushrooms grow out of decomposing plant matter. But cordyceps sinensis is parasitic to the larvae of moths, especially bat moths.

Once the insect has been colonized, it’s insides are filled with mycelium and the fruiting body (stroma) grows out, usually through the head of the host organism. Throughout this process, the outward form of the caterpillar is retained.

It is known as yarsha gumba in Nepal. The Latin etymology describes cord as club, ceps as head, and sinensis as Chinese. Cordyceps sinensis, known in English commonly as caterpillar fungus, is considered a medicinal mushroom in oriental medicines, such as Traditional Chinese medicines and Traditional Tibetan medicine.

Medicinal Uses:
Cordyceps has been used for about 2000 years in the Far East.  It was virtually unknown to the Western part of the world until the Chinese women’s track team broke records in 1993 and was found to be part of their dietary supplements.  It is prized as a male sexual elixir and often appears in tonic formulas, particularly herbal liquors.  It is comparable in cost to good ginseng, and like many tonic herbs, it can be cooked and consumed together with tonic foods.  Traditional sources suggest stewing a male duck with this herb stuffed into its cavities.

Some of the specific actions are: It is very effective in tonifying arrhythmia with an efficacy up to 94%. When the product was applied to 200 different ailments, no toxic side effect was detected;   It helps strengthen the immune system of tumor patients who have received radiotherapy, chemotherapy or an operation. It is remarkable for stabilizing the hemogram, increasing the blood cells and protein for producing blood plasma, and for eliminating the ill effects after various therapies. Furthermore, the product is a synergist for reinforcing the efficacy of radiotherapy.  It provides remarkable benefits for various Climatic Age Illness, Impotence, Emission, Neurasthenia, Rheumatoid arthritis, Cirrhosis, flabby waist and knee.  It is also effective in lowering the lipoproteinemia level, and in preventing Arterio-Sclerosis, Coronary heart disease as well as certain other diseases related to blood vessels of the brain.  It helps stimulate the immune system of the elderly and strengthen their resistance to illness. Frequent dosage can prevent senile disorders.  One of the reasons for aging is due to the insufficient secretion of sexual hormones. Cordyceps sinensis is, in this regard, a hormone stimulator. Morever, the aging effect is to a large extent attributed to the rise of active monoamine oxidize enzyme inside the body and Cordyceps Sinensis can effectively inhibit the rising of such enzyme. Thus, it is an anti-aging medicine which helps regenerate the organic functioning of humans.  After a three-week dose, patients with the aforesaid symptoms would feel promising improvement. In general, this product is a tonic good for bodily nourishment and for stimulating brain activity.  Long-term administration can reinforce the body against foreign attacks, improve the organic functioning, strengthen the immune system and in turn help bring longevity.

Improved insulin sensitivity due to cordyceps has been demonstrated in both normal rats and humans. These effects are presumably mediated by the polysaccharide fraction of cordyceps, and multiple polysaccharides from cordyceps which reduce blood sugar in diabetic mice have been identified. It should be noted that cordyceps should be used with caution by those with low blood sugar.

You may click to learn more about Cordyceps sinensis….(1)…..     (2)……..(3)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordyceps
http://cordyceps-sinensis.org/
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
http://image.made-in-china.com/2f0j00eBNEcqZWMoVM/Cordyceps-Sinensis-Extract.jpg
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img.tootoo.com/mytootoo/upload/26/268381/product/268381_5672087b5fa1a314dea41c74c864315e.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tootoo.com/buy-cordyceps_sinensis/&h=368&w=400&sz=47&tbnid=W7YCTkV9OdYkUM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=98&zoom=1&docid=BV0Il1lxUj0HhM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=D9MST8KeDqeYiQLtk-GoDQ&ved=0CHQQ9QEwCA&dur=3285

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News on Health & Science

Fungus of Fortune

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Tibetan nomads have found easy money in the form of the caterpillar fungus that promises to treat everything from impotence to ageing.

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Cordyceps sinensis (top) feeds on caterpillar larvae

Lhamotso never learned to read and write, and she has few marketable skills other than the ability to milk a yak.

Yet she can earn up to $1,000 a week, an unimaginable fortune for a Tibetan nomad. She has bought herself a shiny new Honda motorcycle. She and her husband gave up their tent for a house they built with solar panels, a satellite dish and television.

The worm, Lhamotso explains, “has changed our lives”.

What Tibetans call the worm is actually not a worm but a fungus — Cordyceps sinensis — that feeds on caterpillar larvae. It has a more poetic name, “winter worm, summer grass,” because its appearance changes from one to the other with the seasons. It is a prized ingredient in traditional medicines, with prices in the past few years skyrocketing such that prime specimens are worth their weight in gold, literally, about $900 an ounce.

Because the caterpillar fungus is indigenous only to the 1,600-km-long Tibetan plateau running from western China to Nepal, the money has hastened the nomads’ lurching transition into modernity.

“It is a bit like a gold rush in the Wild West. It has brought enormous wealth to these communities,” says Andrew Fischer, an economist at the London School of Economics specialising in Tibet.

For centuries, Tibetan nomads added caterpillar fungus to soups or tea, believing it boosted stamina, endurance, lung capacity, kidney function and, of course, sexual performance. Its use for medicinal purposes was documented back in the 14th century. Until recently, the fungus was cheap and abundant and the Tibetans would feed it to yaks and horses too when their energy was flagging.

The fungus’ popularity took off after the 1993 World Championships in Athletics, when Chinese female athletes broke records in nine track and field events and their coach gave partial credit to an elixir containing the fungus.

Then came the 2003 epidemic of the sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), setting Asian consumers off on a frenzy of buying anything that might boost immunity.

Last year China exported $43 million worth of caterpillar fungus, touted as a treatment for everything from impotence to ageing.

The centre of the caterpillar fungus trade is in Qinghai province. Here, the bu — Tibetan for worm — is by far the largest source of cash and dictates the pace of daily life. During the peak fungus-hunting season, schools close to allow children to help. People with jobs shirk work to prospect for riches.

The season runs for about 40 days, beginning in early spring when the mountains are brown and spongy as though covered with a dirty shag carpet. Timing is crucial. If you dig too early, you get a live, wriggling caterpillar. It’s best to dig just after the fungus has killed the larvae.

The best caterpillar fungus is found at higher elevations, such as Heitushan, the 4,267m Black Earth Mountain in Golog, Qinghai province, where Lhamotso lives.

The climb is steep. Lhamotso counts herself lucky to have the motorcycle. She and her daughters, 10 and 16, pile on and zigzag uphill until the terrain gets too rough and they must walk.

Children are useful on the hunt because their sharp eyes allow them to pick the fungus — sort of a little yellow root with a stalk — growing out of the top out of the clumps of grass and sodden earth.

“It is very boring work,” complains Hiriti, Lhamotso’s younger daughter. Reaching into the pocket of her faux leather jacket, the girl pulls out a tissue and unwraps an 8-cm-long twig, the only piece she found all day. She will sell it for about $3.

“I think people must be insane to pay so much,” Lhamotso says. “It’s only in the last two years that it has gotten so expensive. It’s crazy, but it is good for us. How else would I make so much money? I can’t read or write.”

Lhamotso expects to make at least $6,000 this season — about triple what most Chinese families earn in a year.

Lhamotso is well aware that the fungus might not be a reliable source of income for much longer. It’s growing scarcer from over-harvesting and changes in the fragile ecosystem of the Tibetan plateau.

“When I was young, somebody could walk out of the tent and dig 800 to 900 pieces in a day. Now we have to hike three hours up the mountain and the best we do is maybe 50 pieces,” says Tsering, one of Lhamotso’s companions.

“It is expensive because it is rare, and it is rare because it is over-exploited,” says Lin Zhibin, a pharmacology expert at the Peking University Health Science Centre.

Another concern is that relentless digging on the mountains is contributing to soil erosion and desertification. Although the caterpillar fungus has given the nomads a financial boost, Tibetan intellectuals remain ambivalent about its benefits to society as a whole.

The real problem is that Tibetans themselves have become used to the easy money and the creature comforts it buys.

“People can’t go backwards. For years, it’s been like digging up gold, only more valuable,” says Daodu, 31, a teacher. “People today can’t survive without it.”

Sources:Los Angles Times

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