Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric


Alternative Names: :lymph glands or lymph nodes,pharyngeal tonsil, or nasopharyngeal tonsil

Adenoids are masses of tissue located high on the posterior wall of the pharynx. They are made up of lymphatic tissue, which trap and destroy pathogens in the air that enter the nasopharynx.

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The adenoids help protect kids from getting sick. They sit high on each side of the throat behind the nose and the roof of the mouth. Although you can easily see your tonsils by standing in front of a mirror and opening your mouth wide, you can’t see your adenoids this way. A doctor has to use a small mirror or a special scope to get a peek at your adenoids.

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Like tonsils, adenoids help keep your body healthy by trapping harmful bacteria and viruses that you breathe in or swallow. Adenoids also contain cells that make antibodies to help your body fight infections. Adenoids do important work as infection fighters for babies and little kids. But they become less important once a kid gets older and the body develops other ways to fight germs.

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Some doctors believe that adenoids may not be important at all after kids reach their third birthday. In fact, adenoids usually shrink after about age 5, and by the teenage years they often practically disappear
Enlarged adenoids refers to swollen lymphatic tissue. The tissue is similar to the tonsils, but found higher up above the throat.

Enlarged adenoids, or adenoid hypertrophy, can become nearly the size of a ping pong ball and completely block airflow through the nasal passages.

Even if enlarged adenoids are not substantial enough to physically block the back of the nose, they can obstruct airflow enough so that breathing through the nose requires an uncomfortable amount of work, and inhalation occurs instead through an open mouth.

Adenoids can also obstruct the nasal airway enough to affect the voice without actually stopping nasal airflow altogether.

Adenoid facies:

Enlargement of adenoids, especially in children, causes an atypical appearance of the face, often referred to as adenoid facies.
click to see the picture
George Catlin, in his humorous and instructive book Breath of Life, published in 1861, illustrates adenoid faces in many engravings and advocates nose-breathing.

Causes of enlargement :
A child may be born with large adenoids, which have developed in the womb.

More commonly, the adenoids become enlarged during the first few years of childhood. Repeated infections of the upper respiratory system cause the adenoids to become chronically inflamed and enlarged. The tonsils are also usually enlarged.


Swollen or enlarged adenoids are common. When this happens, the tonsils get swollen, too. Swollen or infected adenoids can make it tough for a kid to breathe and cause these problems:
*Bad breath
*Cracked lips
*Dry mouth
*Mouth breathing (mostly at night)
*Mouth open during day (more severe obstruction)
*Persistent runny nose or nasal congestion
*Restlessness while sleeping
*Ear infections (because the drainage tubes from the middle ear may be blocked)
*Disruption of sleep can interfere with a child’s growth.
*Enlarged adenoids can put excessive strain on the heart.

Diagnosis :
The adenoids cannot be seen by looking in the mouth directly, but can be seen with a special mirror or using a flexible endoscope through the nose.

Tests may include:

•X-ray (side view of the throat)
•Sleep apnea studies (severe cases only)

Antibiotics may be used to treat the adenoids when they’re infected but may not have much effect on chronically enlarged adenoids.

Surgery to remove the adenoids (adenoidectomy) may relieve symptoms or prevent complications in those with frequent ear or sinus infections or fluid behind the ears. It may also be done when ear tubes have not successfully reduced infections. It is done to prevent the long-term complications of airways obstruction, such as heart failure. Surgery may lead to improved growth and development because deep sleep is restored

Prognosis: Full recovery is expected.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Health Problems & Solutions

Some Health Quaries & Answers

Say no to performance drugs :-
Popular Spanish athlete Marta Dominguez who is allegedly involved in a doping ring.
Q: I am an athlete competing at the district level in shot put and hammer throw. My coach says I am not performing to the best of my potential and that this is because I am not taking “supplements”. I saw some competitors injecting themselves a few hours before the finals. Others were taking tablets. My coach wants me to do this too.

A: The supplements your coach suggests are probably anabolic or androgenic steroids. They are abused by people in sports and bodybuilding. They can be detected in urine tests. If caught, the athlete is stripped of the medal and may be banned from the event for several years.

Performance enhancing steroids cause side effects like liver damage, jaundice, high blood pressure, rise in LDL (or “bad” cholesterol), renal failure, acne and tremors. In men, they may also cause shrinkage of the testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, development of breasts and increased risk of prostate cancer. They affect the brain, causing mood swings, and aggressive and psychotic behaviour. They may eventually result in addiction.

You should just perform to the best of your natural ability and also concentrate on your academic performance. You can then study sports at the college level and become a sincere and principled athletic coach to other youngsters.

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Q: My son was born through normal delivery, but his penis was bent sideways. The doctor says it requires surgery. I am worried.

A: Your son has a congenital condition called “chordee” where the shaft of the penis is bent. It may be an isolated defect. The reason for its occurrence is not known. Surgical correction by a paediatric surgeon is advisable between the ages of six months and a year. Following it, the penis becomes straight and normal so that the child can stand and pass urine. His sex life, too, will not be a problem.

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Q: My tonsils and adenoids were removed when I was six years old. I suffer from frequent coughs and colds. Although there is no sore throat, the situation is pretty bad. I feel I have no immunity.

A: The tonsils are composed of lymphoid tissue. They stop a bacterial or viral infection at the throat itself, preventing it from proceeding to the lungs. Tonsillectomy is advised if the tonsils are too large and are frequently infected. There are no serious ill effects from the removal of these glands. Immunity is not permanently compromised.

Awake at night:-
Q: I am 76 years old. I have mild hypertension which is controlled with medication. I have difficulty falling asleep and then wake up by 3 am or 4 am. I lie in bed till the rest of the house wakes up. Can I take medication?

A: As people get older their sleep pattern tends to change. They sleep less and wake up early. It is better to manage as long as possible without medication. All sleeping tablets are addictive, though some less than others. Try to sleep an hour later at night. Fill that time by reading or watching television. Do not sleep in the afternoon. Walk for 40 minutes morning and evening.

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Q: My child coughs whenever she lies down. I have tried all kinds of cough syrups but nothing works.


A:Sometimes the child may have a “post nasal drip”. This means the discharge irritates the throat as soon as the child lies down. It can be tackled by administering saline nasal drops at bedtime and an anti histamine an hour before bedtime. Also, check if there is something in the house or bedroom irritating her respiratory system like mosquito repellants or room fresheners.

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Q: How much calcium does one need daily?

A: Four to eight-year-olds need 800mg, nine to 18-year-olds need 1,300mg, 19 to 50-year-olds need 1,000mg, and those above 50 need 1,200mg. Pregnant or lactating women require 1,000mg every day

Source : The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Health Quaries

Some Health Quaries & Answers

Getting Rid of Body O dour
Q: I have been suffering from body odour, particularly from the armpits, for the last two years. The problem is so severe that if someone around me coughs, sneezes or looks away, I feel it’s because of my body odour.

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A: You may be becoming self-conscious and attributing all actions of others to your odour. That may not be the case. However, to tackle the problem,

• Remove all the hair from your armpits and groin area

• Bathe twice a day using a loofah

• Use an antibacterial germicidal soap like Neko

• Wear only pure cotton clothes

• Apply body spray to the armpits after bathing

At work, if you feel particularly conscious, take a fresh shirt with you (buy two identical shirts, so no one will know you have changed). Change around 2pm after washing and spraying just your armpits.

Ear discharge
Q: My son has brown-coloured blood oozing intermittently from one ear. He does not have any pain or fever when this happens. We consulted a doctor but there was no discharge at that time.

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First, you have to be sure the secretion is actually blood. At times, the ear gets filled with brown wax, which can ooze out at times. But if it is blood, it’s a dangerous sign. It may be due to an infection, injury or a foreign body that the child may have inserted into his ear. If neglected, it can affect his hearing. Consult an ENT (ear, nose, throat) surgeon immediately.

Recurrent tonsillitis
Q: My daughter is prone to tonsillitis. The doctor has to give her antibiotics at least five times a year, and these are usually sulfa drugs. Recovery, however, is hardly ever complete and she keeps coughing and complaining of pain for a long time afterwards. She has now been advised tonsillectomy.

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A: Tonsillitis is not always due to a bacterial infection. If it is because of a virus, antibiotics will not work. Bacterial infection in the tonsils is characterised by high fever and pain and difficulty in swallowing. Also, the sulfa group of drugs does not act against tonsillitis; you need to take penicillin or azithromycin. There are some age-old preventive measures for tonsillitis like regular gargling twice a day with warm, salted water.

Tonsillectomy is not advised unless one suffers from six or more attacks a year. Moreover, the child should preferably be over 10 years. The operation has its own dangers, drawbacks and after effects.

To shave or not
Q: My facial skin becomes black, rough and thick when I shave. My wife says it is because I do it with soap. Should I stop shaving?

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A: Your wife is probably right. You need to use a shaving gel or foam containing a moisturiser. The latter will soften the hair and you do not have to scrape it off with a blade. An aftershave acts like an astringent and antiseptic. It will take care of any minor cut that shaving may produce. On the other hand, if you go out into the sun, any perfume in the aftershave may produce photosensitivity and darkening of the skin.

You can apply baby oil to your face at night. This will further soften the skin. Not shaving is often not a solution, because it may impart an unkempt and unprofessional look.

Sleepy child
Q: My granddaughter is an intelligent and active three-year-old. Every time she wakes up from sleep, she asks for her mother and is very slow and lethargic. It takes her about half an hour to become fully aware of her surroundings. Does she need an energising tonic?

A: Many children behave that way. When a child is sleeping, the brain is resting, and it needs time to adjust from zero activity to high activity. Just let your granddaughter make the transition slowly, hugging her for some time. Asking for the mother is normal. She does not need a tonic.

Tongue tie
Q: My son has tongue tie. He is now nine months old. He does not have any difficulty breast-feeding or eating. Relatives say he needs surgery. Which doctor should we consult and where should we have the surgery?

A: Tongue tie is serious if the infant cannot feed. If your son is able to chew and swallow, wait till speech develops. Sometimes tongue tie may be an impediment to speech. If that is the case, you can opt for surgery then. You can wait until he is six years old, as the condition might correct itself as the face, tongue and mouth grow.

Source The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Diagnonistic Test

Throat Culture


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A throat infection with streptococcus bacteria (called strep throat) needs to be treated with an antibiotic.Throat swab culture is a laboratory test done to isolate and identify organisms that may cause infection in the throat. It is the traditional test used for identifying streptococcus bacteria on your throat surface. Throat cultures also can identify some other bacteria that can cause sore throat.


Throat swab culture is a laboratory test done to isolate and identify organisms that may cause infection in the throat.The test is performed when a throat infection is suspected, particularly strep throat.

How do you prepare for the test?
No preparation is necessary.Only do not use antiseptic mouthwashes before the test.

What happens when the test is performed?
Tilt your head back with your mouth wide open.A sterile cotton swab is rubbed against the back of your throat to gather a sample of mucus from near the tonsils.Resist gagging and closing the mouth while the swab touches the back of the throat near the tonsils. This takes only a second or two and makes some people feel a brief gagging or choking sensation.

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In order to improve the chances of detecting bacteria, the swab may be used to scrape the back of the throat several times. The mucus sample is then placed on a culture plate that helps any bacteria present in the mucus grow, so they can be examined and identified.

How the Test Will Feel :
Your throat may be sore at the time the test is taken. You may experience a gagging sensation when the back of your throat is touched with the swab, but the test only lasts a few seconds.

What risks are there from the test?
There are no risks.This test is safe and well-tolerated. In very few patients, the sensation of gagging may lead to an urge to vomit or cough.

Normal Results:
The presence of the usual mouth and throat bacteria is a normal finding.

What Abnormal Results Mean :
An abnormal result means bacteria or other organism is present. This is usually a sign of infection.

Must you do anything special after the test is over?

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
Results from a strep culture are available in two or three days.


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The Lion (Yoga Exercise)

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This exercise is generally done to clear the throat and nostrils, the calf muscles ,knees and fingers also becomes strong.
1. Increases Blood circulation to throat and tongue .
2. Strengthens face and throat muscles.
3. Improves voice.
4. Effective for sinus headache.
5.It is very beneficial in case of tonsillitis.

How to do the & see

1.Kneel on the mat and sit on your heels. Place your hands down on your Knees and look straight ahead.

2.Now breathe in deeply, through your nose, lean slightly forward and exhale forcefully, opening your mouth as wide as you can shouting ‘HAA’. At the same time stretch your tongue out and bend down so it touches your chin. Glare at the tip of your nose. Raise your hands and tighten all the muscles in your arms, hands and fingers. Hold the pose as long as you can.

3.Let all your muscles relax slowly, breathe normally for a few minutes . Then repeat 2-3 times . It can be repeated up to 6- 7 times