Herbs & Plants

Rhus copallina

[amazon_link asins=’B071FBXHM7,B00L9F8ON0,B01ID85IGG,B071RYM1X6′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’091ddb9e-53e4-11e7-85f7-db0716cc187e’]

[amazon_link asins=’B01G0RQTLU,B01ID85IGG,B01M70BPO5,B00BT0NBPG’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’393d0b35-53e4-11e7-94bc-7fbb7469bf9b’]

Botanical Name : Rhus copallina
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Rhus
Species:R. copallinum
Order: Sapindales

Common Names: Winged sumac, Shining sumac, Dwarf sumac or Flameleaf sumac

Habitat : Rhus copallina is native to Eastern N. America – Maine to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois. It is generally found in dry soils on hillsides, along the margins of woodlands and roads, and in abandoned fields.

Rhus copallina is a deciduous tree growing to 3.5–5.5 metres (11–18 ft) tall and an equal spread with a rounded crown. A 5-year-old sapling will stand about 2.5 metres (8.2 ft). The plant is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December.
The flowers are yellow. The fruit attracts birds with no significant litter problem, is persistent on the tree and showy. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile.

The bark is thin and easily damaged from mechanical impact; branches droop as the tree grows, and will require pruning for vehicular or pedestrian clearance beneath the canopy; routinely grown with, or trainable to be grown with, multiple trunks. The tree wants to grow with several trunks but can be trained to grow with a single trunk. It has no thorns.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

The tree succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun. Tolerates poor soils. Established plants are drought resistant. A very hardy species, when fully dormant it can tolerate temperatures down to about -25°c. However, the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. A very ornamental plant. It is quite fast-growing but short-lived in the wild. In the north of its range plants are dwarf, around 1.2 metres tall, but in the south they can be up to 7 metres tall. Some botanists divide this species into separate species, whilst others see it as a single species with geographical forms. R. copallina is usually a shrub and is found in moist soils in sun or shade. R. copallina lanceolata. Gray. is more tree-like and is found in drier soils. Transplants easily. Plants have brittle branches and these can be broken off in strong winds. Plants are also susceptible to coral spot fungus. Many of the species in this genus are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species such as this one are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Attracts butterflies, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 – 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors. This soak water can be drunk and has a delicious lemon-flavour. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers in late autumn to winter.
Edible Uses:

Fruit – raw or cooked. An agreeable acid flavour. The fruit is only 3 – 5mm long with very little flesh, but it is borne on dense panicles and is thus easily harvested. When soaked for 10 – 30 minutes in hot or cold water it makes a very refreshing lemonade-like drink (without any fizz of course). The mixture should not be boiled since this will release tannic acids and make the drink astringent.
Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; Enuresis; Galactogogue; Poultice; Salve.

A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of dysentery. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of VD. A poultice of the root has been applied to sores and skin eruptions. A tea made from the bark has been drunk to stimulate milk flow in nursing mothers. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash for blisters and sunburn blisters. An infusion of the leaves has been used to cleanse and purify skin eruptions. The berries were chewed in the treatment of bed-wetting and mouth sores. Some caution is advised in the use of the leaves and stems of this plant, see the notes bolow on toxicity.

Other Uses
Dye; Hedge; Hedge; Mordant; Oil; Resin; Soil stabilization; Tannin; Varnish; Wood.

The leaves are rich in tannin, so is the bark and the fruit. The leaves can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a brown dye or as a mordant. The leaves contain 10 – 25% tannin. Up to 35.8% has been obtained from some plants. An oil is extracted from the seeds. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke. The plants extensive root system makes it useful for stabilizing soils. A black dye is obtained from the fruit. A resin, ‘copal resin’, is obtained from the sap of this plant. When dissolved in any volatile liquid, such as oil of turpentine, it makes a beautiful varnish. (Is this a mistaken entry? Perhaps it belongs with one of the toxic species). Wood – light, soft, coarse grained. It weighs 32lb per cubic foot. Sometimes used for small posts.

Shining sumac is often cultivated, where it is well-suited to natural and informal landscapes because it has underground runners which spread to provide dense, shrubby cover for birds and wildlife. This species is valued for ornamental planting because of its lustrous dark green foliage which turns a brilliant orange-red in fall. The fall color display is frequently enjoyed along interstate highways, as the plant readily colonizes these and other disturbed sites. The tiny, greenish-yellow flowers, borne in compact, terminal panicles, are followed by showy red clusters of berries which persist into the winter and attract wildlife.

Known Hazards : There are some suggestions that the sap of this species can cause a skin rash in susceptible people, but this has not been substantiated. See also notes in ‘Cultivation Details’.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Golden Ragwort

[amazon_link asins=’B0778Z5R3K,B076N5RSFY,B06XP3TWLM,B01MDRG1OS,B01MCYQ1J5,B01MCYQ28J’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’8097443f-d57b-11e7-8694-8d50edf93aab’]

Botanical Name : Packera aurea
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Packera
Species: P. aurea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Life Root,Golden Ragwort, Squaw Weed, Golden Sececio, ragwort, uncum root, waw weed, uncum, false valerian, cough weed, female regulator, cocash weed, ragweed, staggerwort, and St. James wort.

Habitat :Golden Ragwort is native to eastern North America, from Labrador to Minnesota and from North Carolina to Arkansas (with additional populations in the panhandle of Florida).Grows in swamps, wet meadows and moist woods

This is a herbaceous plant, it is a perennial which can reach 80cm in height (31inches). The plant often spreads via creeping branches or stolons. Young plant may be slightly hairy but becomes glabrous.

Leaves: The leaves are alternate. The basal leaves are heart shaped with blunt teeth and a long petioles. The stem leaves are smaller, clasping the stem or at least without petioles and deeply, pinnately lobed. The leaves are variable.

Flowers: The flowers have numerous parts and are up to 2.5cm wide (1 inches). They are golden yellow. Blooms first appear in mid spring and continue into late spring. The flowers are in a flattened terminal cluster. The phyllarys have red or purple tips

Medicinal Uses:
Herbalists have prescribed the plant for the treatment of urinary tract problems such as kidney stones.  It is used as a douche for excessive vaginal discharge.  As a uterine tonic, Life Root may be used safely wherever strengthening and aid are called for. Useful for menopausal disturbances of any kind. Also useful for delayed or suppressed menstruation. For leucorrhoea it can be used as a douche. It has a reputation as a general tonic for debilitated states and conditions such as tuberculosis.  While often stated to be completely safe to use, recent research has found that the plant contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids that, in isolation, can cause liver damage.  The roots and leaves are abortifacient, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, pectoral, stimulant and uterine tonic. It is used externally in the treatment of vaginal discharge.  A tea made from the plant was frequently used by the N. American Indians as a remedy for various female troubles, including the pain of childbirth. Pharmacologists have not reported any uterine effects, but the plant does contain an essential oil (inuline) plus the alkaloids senecine and senecionine (which are poisonous to grazing animals).

In contemporary times, P. aurea is not much used due to its saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids which can cause liver veno-occlusive disease upon metabolism. If used, a PA-free extract would be required for safe use for more than a two week course.

Life root, as it was called by the Eclectics was used as a uterine tonic. It is an ingredient in Lydia Pinkham‘s compound.

The plant was an important treatment among the Native Americans and among the Eclectic medicine physicians for reproductive conditions. Scudder wrote:

The Senecio exerts a specific influence upon the reproductive organs of the female, and to a less extent upon the male. It relieves irritation and strengthens functional activity. Hence it has acquired the reputation of a “uterine tonic.” It may be prescribed in all cases in which there is an atonic condition of ovaries or uterus, with derangement of function. It makes little difference whether it is amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea or menorrhagia, or whether it takes the form of increased mucous or purulent secretion, or displacement. The remedy acts slowly, and sufficient time must be given. In the male we prescribe it in cases of fullness and weight in the perineum, dragging sensations in the testicle, and difficult or tardy urination. in both male and female we sometimes use it with advantage in painful micturition with tenesmus.

Herbalist may still recommend a root tea from this plant for some conditions such as urinary problems. It has been studied and found to have little if any value for urinary problems. It is known to increase blood pressure and stimulate uterine contractions. In any case, this plant should not be consumed due to the toxic alkaloid pyrrolizidine it contains.

Known hazards:This plant may contain highly toxic alkaloids associated with liver damage and cancer.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Enhanced by Zemanta