Rangan(Ixora coccinea)

Botanical Name :Ixora coccinea
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Ixora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Bengali Name :Rangan
Other Names:Jungle Geranium, Flame of the Woods,Santan-pula (Tag.) ,Tangpupo (Bis.) ,Dwarf santan (Engl  and Jungle Flame

Habitat :
Native to tropical south-east Asia, including Southern India and Sri Lanka.. Its name derives from an Indian deity.

Description:
Although there are some 400 species in the genus Ixora, only a handful are commonly cultivated, and the common name, Ixora, is usually used for I. coccinea. I. coccinea is a dense, multi-branched evergreen shrub, commonly 4–6 ft (1.2–2 m) in height, but capable of reaching up to 12 ft (3.6 m) high. It has a rounded form, with a spread that may exceed its height. The glossy, leathery, oblong leaves are about 4 in (10 cm) long, with entire margins, and are carried in opposite pairs or whorled on the stems. Small tubular, scarlet flowers in dense rounded clusters 2-5 in (5–13 cm) across are produced almost all year long. There are numerous named cultivars differing in flower colour (yellow, pink, orange) and plant size. Several popular cultivars are dwarfs, usually staying under 3 ft (1 m) in height. Ixora ‘Nora Grant’ is a popular dwarf and ‘Super King’ is a popular hybrid with much larger flower clusters than the species.
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Blooming Time: Ixoras are compact plants that bloom primarily in summer and intermittently the rest of the year with proper care.

Cultivation: Ixoras do best in at least 4 hours of direct sunlight a day. Pot in a mixture of 2 parts peat moss to 1 part potting soil and 1 part sand or perlite. Keep moist; fertilize every 2 weeks in spring and summer, monthly the rest of the year.

Propagation: Propagated by cutting in spring, preferably with 3 to 4 nodes, with bottom heat. Can also be propagated by seed when produced.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts utilized :Leaves, roots, stems and flowers


Constituents and properties:

Root contains an aromatic acrid oil, tannin, fatty acids.
Leaves yield flavonols kaemferol and quercetin, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids and ferulic acids.
Flowers contain cyanidin and flaconboids, and a coloring material related to quercitin.
Considered internally sedative, stomachic, tonic, antiseptic, cholagogue and externally astringent and antiseptic

Folkloric:-
Decoction of roots used for nausea, hiccups, and anorexia.
Flowers used for dysentery and leucorrhea.
Poulticed fresh leaves and stems for sprains, eczema, boils and contusions.
Diluted tincture of roots for mouthwash and gargles for sore throat.
Flower decoction for hypertension, amenorrhea and irregular menstruation.
Decoction of leaves for wounds and skin ulcers.
In Bengal, roots are used for dysentery.
Root, ground into pulp, mixed with water and pepper, or as tincture, used for diarrhea and dysentery.
Powdered roots used for sores and chronic ulcers.
In Indo-China, root decoction used to clarify the urine.
In India and Sri Lanka, the fruits are eaten and the flowers used as flavoring.

Studies

• Wound healing: Alcoholic extract of IC showed increase in granuloma tissue weight, tensile strength and glycosaminoglycan content. The prohealing activity was attributed to increased collagen deposition, alignment and maturation.
• Antimicrobial: Extract studies of EC for antimicrobial activity showed the ethyl fraction to be more active than the methanol fraction.
• Antioxidant:
Phytochemical screening showed the flower extract to possess flavonoids, steroids, tannin. IC showed strong reducing power and total antioxidant capacity.
• Pharmacologic evaluation / Electroconvulsive Protective: Evaluation showed that IC has protective property against electroconvulsions, antiinflammatory and hemostatic properties.
Hepatoprotective: Extract of IC flowers showed significant hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol overdose-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Chemoprotective: IC flower fraction showed chemoprotective effects on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in mice.
• Antinociceptive : Study showed the aqueous leaf extract of IC possesses considerable antinociceptive activity mediated centrally via a dopaminergic mechanism. In addition, the antioxidant activity may play a role in inducing antinociception. The dopaminergic and antioxidative activities may arise from alkaloid and flavonoid constituents, respectively.
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-mitotic: Lupeol, isolated from the leaves of IC, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Anti-mitotic activity was also noted in a preliminary cytotoxic study.
• Cytotoxic / Antitumor: Study of the active fraction of Ixora coccinea flowers showed greater activity on ascitic tumors than solid tumors. It had no toxicity to normal lymphocytes but was toxic to lymphocytes from leukemic patients.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous leaf extract of Ixora coccinea showed strong antihistamine and antioxidant activity that can account for its anti-inflammatory potential. In addition, the inhibitionn of prostaglandins and bradykinins may play a role in its antiinflammatory effect.
• Anti-Ulcer: Study of the fresh leaf extract of Ixora coccinea was found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic property and could be a potential therapeutic agent against ulcer disease.

Other Uses:

Very ornamental plant, increases the beauty of the garden.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ixora_coccinea
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Santan.html

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