Tag Archives: Alkali soils

Crataegus caesa

 

Botanical Name: Crataegus caesa
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily:Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe:Malinae
Genus:Crataegus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Other names: Crataegus caesa Ashe

Habitat:Crataegus caesa is native to Eastern N. America. It grows in woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade.

Description:
Crataegus caesa is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species, and do not know how hardy it will be in this country, or even its country of origin. However, a specimen growing in an open position at Kew Botanical Gardens is about 3 metres tall and wide and regularly carries a heavy crop of fruit. A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.

Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. A good size fruit, about 20mm in diameter, with a sweet taste and a fair fruit to seed ratio, it has a mealy texture, is fairly juicy and makes very pleasant eating. It ripens in mid to late September and can hang on the tree for several weeks. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.

Medicinal Uses:
Cardiotonic; Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses:
Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+caesa
https://myfolia.com/plants/25777-crataegus-caesa-crataegus-caesa.

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Aralia mandschurica

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Botanical Name : Aralia mandschurica
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Aralia
Species:A. elata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : Manchurian Thorn Tree

Common Name: Manchurian Angelica Tree

Habitat :Aralia mandschurica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. It grows in forests on rich well moistened slopes, 900 – 2000 metres in N. Hupeh. Thickets and thin woods in lowland and hills in Japan.
Description:
Aralia mandschurica is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep loam and a position in semi-shade. Requires a sheltered position. Plants are hardier when grown on poorer soils. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[. This plant is very closely related to A. elata and is included in that species by many botanists.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 3 – 5 months of cold stratification. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 4 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once the plants are 25cm or more tall, they can be planted out into their permanent positions, late spring or early summer being the best time to do this. Root cuttings 8cm long, December in a cold frame. Store the roots upside down in sand and pot up in March/April. High percentage. Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Young shoots – cooked. They can also be blanched and used in salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Carminative; Tonic.

Anodyne, carminative. The root, and especially the bark, stimulates the central nervous system. The plant is said to restore the appetite, memory, vigour etc

It is used in Homeopathic medicines.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aralia_elata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aralia+mandschurica

Celtis laevigata

Botanical Name: Celtis laevigata
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Celtis
Species:C. laevigata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms :Celtis integrifolia, Celtis mississippiensis.

Common Names: Sugarberry, Hackberry, Southern hackberry, Sugar hackberry, Netleaf hackberry, Texan sugarberry, Sugar Hackberry

Habitat : Celtis laevigata is native to South-eastern N. America – Virginia to Illinois and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas. It grows in rich bottomlands along streams, in flood plains, and on rocky slopes, generally in clay soils, from sea level to 300 metres.
Description:
Celtis laevigata is a deciduous Tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in) at a medium rate.It also spreads 60.00 to 80.00 feet. The tree is short lived, probably not living more than 150 years. The tree is broad, rounded, open crown of spreading or slightly drooping branches, looking graceful. The deciduous leaves up to 4 inches long, blades ovate to narrower with a long, tapering tip, usually with smooth margins and an unequal base which is tapered on one side of the midrib and rounded on the other. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. Fruit spherical, 1/4 inch in diameter and usually dull red.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Erosion control, Pest tolerant, Aggressive surface roots possible, Street tree, Woodland garden. Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils[200]. Plants are usually found on clay soils in the wild. Established plants are very drought resistant. Trees prefer hotter summers and more sunlight than are normally experienced in Britain, they often do not fully ripen their wood when growing in this country and they are then very subject to die-back in winter. A very variable species, according to some botanists these merit varietal status whilst other botanists say that the differences are too slight. Trees are moderate to fast-growing, probably living no more than 125 – 150 years. They can be very long-lived according to another report, perhaps surviving for 1000 years. Trees fruit heavily most years. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features:North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed is best given 2 – 3 months cold stratification and then sown February/March in a greenhouse. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings

Edible Uses: ..Fruit – raw or cooked. The flesh is thin, dry and sweetish, covering a single large seed. The fruit, which is orange to brown or red when fully ripe, is 5 – 8mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses:..…A decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of sore throats. It has also been used, mixed with powdered shells, as a treatment for VD.

Other Uses : …Wood – soft, not strong, close grained. It weighs 49lb per cubic foot and is used for cheap furniture, fencing and for fuel.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis_laevigata
http://na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/celtis/laevigata.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Celtis+laevigata
http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a857
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CELA

Symplocos tinctoria

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Botanical Name : Symplocos tinctoria
Family: Symplocaceae
Genus: Symplocos
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

Common Names: Sweet Leaf, Common sweetleaf, Horse-sugar, Horsesugar

Habitat : Symplocos tinctoria is native to South-eastern N. America – Florida to Arkansas, north to Delaware.
It grows in woods, swamps and bottomlands. Rich moist soils, often in the shade of dense forests.

Description:
Symplocos tinctoria is an evergreen Shrub growing to 8 m (26ft 3in).Leaves are 3 to 6 in. alternate simple, lustrous dark green leaves; some leaves may remain until spring.Flowers are compact cluster of yellow to cream fluffy flowers in early spring on previous years growth; fragrant; orange to brown fruit. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The plant is not self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw. Thick and downy, they have a pleasant sweet smell and taste. Chewed for their pleasantly sweet, slightly acid flavour that is refreshing and helps to ease thirst.

Medicinal Uses :

Febrifuge; Tonic.

The bitter, aromatic roots have been used as a tonic. A decoction of the scraped roots has been used in the treatment of fevers.

Other Uses:... Dye; Mordant; Wood.
A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves, the bark and the fruits. We have no specific information for this species but many species in this genus contain alum and can be used as mordants when dyeing. Wood – soft, weak, light, close grained, easily worked. It weighs 33lb per cubic foot. Used for turnery

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symplocos
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Symplocos+tinctoria
https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/all/symplocos-tinctoria/

Symplocos sumuntia

Botanical Name :Symplocos sumuntia
Family: Symplocaceae
Genus: Symplocos
Species:Symplocos sumuntia
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Cycadophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Symplocos sumuntiia. Symplocos prunifolia. Sieb.&Zucc.

Common Names:

Habitat : Symplocos sumuntia is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows in woods, 1000 – 1300 metres in W. Hupeh. Mixed forests at elevations of 100 – 1800 metres.
Description:
Symplocos sumuntia is an evergreen Tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to October, and the seeds ripen from Jun to December. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

CLICK &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Detail description of the Trees: Young branchlets brown, usually glabrous. Petiole 2–10(–15) mm; leaf blade elliptic, narrowly ovate, or ovate, 2–10 X 0.7–4.5 cm, thinly leathery, both surfaces glabrous, sometimes abaxially hairy, base cuneate to rounded, margin slightly serrate, sinuolate-dentate, or rarely subentire, apex caudate, lateral veins 4–8(–10) pairs. Racemes 1–6(–9) cm, subglabrous, pilose, or pubescent; bracts and bractlets very soon deciduous, linear, broadly ovate, or obovate, 2–5 mm and 0.3–1.5 mm respectively, densely pubescent. Pedicel 0.1–1.3 cm. Ovary 1–2 mm, glabrous or sparsely short appressed hairy. Calyx lobes triangular-ovate, 0.3–1.5 mm, glabrous or sparsely appressed hairy, margin ciliate. Corolla white or yellow, may be lilac when young, 4–8 mm. Stamens 23–40. Disc glabrous, annular. Drupes ampulliform to ovoid, 6–10(–15) X 3–6 mm, apex with persistent erect calyx lobes.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in a sunny position in any well-drained fertile neutral to acid soil. Self-sterile, it needs cross-pollination with a different plant in the same species if seed and fruit are to be produced. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires stratification and is best sown in a cold frame in late winter, it can take 12 months to germinate[11]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in individual pots in a cold frame[78, 200]. Roots are formed in about 4 weeks. Good percentage.

Edible Uses:Leaves – cooked. A sweetish/sour taste. The leaves are also used as a food colouring and a flavouring. Seed. No more details are found.

Medicinal Uses: The leaves are used in the treatment of dysentery.

Other Uses:
A purplish/black dye is obtained from the plant, it does not require a mordant. No more details are given, the dye is probably obtained from the leaves. A decoction with ginger is used as a parasiticide and is effective against fleas. The part used is not specified. We have no specific information for this species but many species in this genus contain alum and can be used as mordants when dyeing.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://war.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symplocos_sumuntia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Symplocos+sumuntia
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200017695