Tag Archives: Sprain

Ankle Sprain

Defination:
A sprained ankle is an injury that occurs when you roll, twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that help hold your ankle bones together.

Ligaments help stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement. A sprained ankle occurs when the ligaments are forced beyond their normal range of motion. Most sprained ankles involve injuries to the ligaments on the outer side of the ankle.

Most people have twisted an ankle at some point in their life. But if your ankle gets swollen and painful after you twist it, you have most likely sprained it. This means you have stretched and possibly torn the ligaments in your ankle.

Ankle sprains are classified as grade 1, 2, and 3. Depending on the amount of damage or the number of ligaments that are damaged, each sprain is classified from mild to severe. A grade 1 sprain is defined as mild damage to a ligament or ligaments without instability of the affected joint. A grade 2 sprain is considered a partial tear to the ligament, in which it is stretched to the point that it becomes loose. (click to see)A grade 3 (click to see)sprain is a complete tear of a ligament, causing instability in the affected joint. Bruising may occur around the ankle.

click to see the pictures..>..(1 )...(2  ).(3  )...(4 )..…(5)......(6)..

Inversion(lateral) ankle sprain:  click to see
The most common type of ankle sprain occurs when the foot is inverted too much, affecting the lateral side of the foot. When this type of ankle sprain happens, the outer, or lateral, ligaments are stretched too much. The anterior talofibular ligament is one of the most commonly involved ligaments in this type of sprain. Approximately 70-85% of ankle sprains are inversion injuries.

When the ankle becomes inverted, the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments are damaged. This is the most common ankle sprain.

Eversion (medial) ankle sprain:
A less common type of ankle sprain is called an eversion injury, affecting the medial side of the foot. When this occurs, the medial, or deltoid, ligament is stretched too much.

High ankle sprain:
A high ankle sprain is an injury to the large ligaments above the ankle that join together the two long bones of the lower leg, called the tibia and fibula. High ankle sprains commonly occur from a sudden and forceful outward twisting of the foot, which commonly occurs in contact and cutting sports such as football, rugby, ice hockey, roller derby, basketball, volleyball, lacrosse, softball, baseball, track, ultimate frisbee, gridiron, tennis and badminton and horse riding.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are :-

!.Pain, especially when you bear weight on the affected foot

2.Swelling and, sometimes, bruising

3.Restricted range of motion

Some people hear or feel a “pop” at the time of injury.

Causes:
Movements – especially twisting, turning, and rolling of the foot – are the primary cause of an ankle sprain.

The risk of a sprain is greatest during activities that involve explosive side-to-side motion, such as badminton, tennis or basketball. Sprained ankles can also occur during normal daily activities such as stepping off a curb or slipping on ice. Returning to activity before the ligaments have fully healed may cause them to heal in a stretched position, resulting in less stability at the ankle joint. This can lead to a condition known as Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI), and an increased risk of ankle sprains.

The following factors can contribute to an increased risk of ankle sprains:
Weak muscles/tendons that cross the ankle joint, especially the muscles of the lower leg that cross the outside, or lateral aspect of the ankle joint (i.e. peroneal or fibular muscles);

1.Weak or lax ligaments that join together the bones of the ankle joint – this can be hereditary or due to overstretching of ligaments as a result of repetitive ankle sprains;

2.Poor ankle flexibility;

3.Lack of warm-up and/or stretching before activity;

4.Inadequate joint proprioception (i.e. sense of joint position);

5.Slow neuron muscular response to an off-balance position;

6.Running on uneven surfaces;

6.Shoes with inadequate heel support; and

7.Wearing high-heeled shoes – due to the weak position of the ankle joint with an elevated heel, and a small base of support.

Ankle sprains occur usually through excessive stress on the ligaments of the ankle. This is can be caused by excessive external rotation, inversion or eversion of the foot caused by an external force. When the foot is moved past its range of motion, the excess stress puts a strain on the ligaments. If the strain is great enough to the ligaments past the yield point, then the ligament becomes damaged, or sprained

Diagnosis:
Your doctor will ask you how the injury occurred and if you have hurt your ankle before. He or she will check your foot and ankle, your lower leg, and even your knee to see if you are hurt anywhere else.

If the sprain is mild, your doctor may not order X-rays. But with more severe sprains, you may need X-rays to rule out a broken bone in the ankle or the foot. It is possible to break a bone in your foot or ankle at the same time as a sprain.

In most cases, doctors order X-rays in children with symptoms of an ankle sprain. This is because it is important to find and treat any damage to the growth plates in bones that support the ankle.

Treatment:
In many cases you can first use the PRINCE approach to treat your ankle:

1.Protection. Use a protective brace, such a brace with a built-in air cushion or another form of ankle support.

2.Rest. You may need to use crutches until you can walk without pain.

3.Ice. For at least the first 24 to 72 hours or until the swelling goes down, apply an ice pack for 10 to 20 minutes every hour or two during the day. Always keep a thin cloth between the ice and your skin, and press the ice pack firmly against all the curves of the affected area.

4.NSAIDs or acetaminophen. NSAIDs (such as Advil and Motrin) are medicines that reduce swelling and pain. Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) reduces pain.

5.Compression. An elastic compression wrap, such as an ACE bandage, will help reduce swelling. You wear it for the first 24 to 36 hours. Compression wraps do not offer protection. So you also need a brace to protect your ankle if you try to put weight on it.

6.Elevation. Raise your ankle above the level of your heart for 2 to 3 hours a day if possible. This helps to reduce swelling and bruising.

Proper treatment and rehabilitation (rehab) exercises are very important for ankle sprains. If an ankle sprain does not heal right, the joint may become unstable and may develop chronic pain. This can make your ankle weak and more likely to be reinjured. Before you return to sports and other activities that put stress on your ankle, it’s a good idea to wait until you can hop on your ankle with no pain. Taping your ankle or wearing a brace during exercise can help protect your ankle. Wearing hiking boots or other high-top, lace-up shoes for support may also help. But use caution. Don’t force your foot into a boot if you feel a lot of pain or discomfort.

If your ankle is still unstable after rehab, or if the ligament damage is severe, your doctor may recommend surgery to repair the torn ligaments.

Rehabilitation:
Rehab exercises can begin soon after the injury. You can try to walk or put weight on your foot while using crutches if it doesn’t hurt too much. Depending on your pain, you can also begin range-of-motion exercises pop out while you have ice on your ankle. These exercises are easy to do-you just trace the alphabet with your toe. This helps the ankle move in all directions.

Ask your doctor about other rehab. Stretching, strength training, and balance exercises may help the ankle heal totally and may prevent further injury.

Prevention:
Take the following steps to help prevent a sprained ankle:

1.Warm up before you exercise or play sports.

2.Be careful when walking, running or working on an uneven surface.

3.Wear shoes that fit well and are made for your activity.

4.Don’t wear high-heeled shoes.

5.Don’t play sports or participate in activities for which you are not conditioned.

6.Maintain good muscle strength and flexibility.

7.Practice stability training, including balance exercises.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprained_ankle
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sprained-ankle/DS01014/DSECTION=symptoms
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ankle-sprain-overview

Enhanced by Zemanta
Advertisements

Natural Remedies of Aching Muscles

If you are like millions of Americans who are constantly roused from a peaceful slumber with painful muscle cramps, backaches and stiff joints, then you know the agony these conditions can bring.

……………..click & see

Instead of turning to those toxic pills, creams and solutions that can do more harm than good, reach for a combination of these essential ingredients and feel the difference these all-natural remedies can have on your strained muscles and over-worked joints:

Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice
—This flowering plant contains key substances like aloenin, magnesium lactate, barbaloin and succinic acid, which all may help reduce inflammation.

Camphor—This ancient herbal remedy has been used for centuries to treat minor sprains and muscle inflammation by acting like an anesthetic and antimicrobial substance.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)—This essential ingredient can help increase blood supply, relieve muscle spasms, soften scar tissue and reduce inflammation.

Eucalyptus Oil—This fragrant extract has been used for centuries to ease minor pain in muscles and joints. This remarkable nutrient also has strong antiseptic and disinfectant properties.

Vitamin E—This essential vitamin has been shown to help relieve minor muscle and joint pain associated with cramps.

Methyl SalicylateThis fragrant extract from the leaves of the wintergreen tree relaxes your muscles and eases your minor joint pain. This cooling analgesic was first used by native people as a poultice for overtaxed muscles, minor joint pain, minor strains and sprains.

Menthol
—This pungent ingredient is found in peppermint oil and has been used for centuries to relieve minor muscle aches, sprains and similar muscle problems.

By adding these safe and effective solutions to your treatment regimen you can finally say goodbye to your muscle strains, backaches, joint pain and inflammation once and for all. Plus, after enjoying everyday activities again you can rejoice knowing you’ll get a good night’s rest, too!

Source:    http://www.betterhealthresearch.com/health-articles/soothe-your-aching-muscles-with-these-all-natural-remedies/

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

Sprain & Strain

Definition:
A sprain (from the French espraindre – to wring) is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by being stretched beyond their normal capacity and possibly torn. Muscular tears caused in the same manner are referred to as a strain. In cases where either ligament or muscle tissue is torn, immobilization and surgical repair may be necessary.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Sprain. A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments are tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another. Common locations for sprains are your ankles and knees.

Strain. A strain is a stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon. People commonly call strains “pulled” muscles. Hamstring and back injuries are among the most common strains.


Degrees:

Although some signs and symptoms can be used to assess the severity of a sprain, the most definitive method is with the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Sprains are graded in four degrees.

*The first degree is only a minor tear or stretch of a ligament.

*The second degree is a tear of a ligament, which is usually followed by pain or swelling.

*The third degree is a complete rupture.

*The fourth degree is the most severe and actually breaks the ligament, along with some small bones if severe enough, and requires surgery to repair.

Causes:
Sprains and strains occur commonly, and most result in minor injuries.

Sprains. A sprain occurs when you overextend or tear a ligament while severely stressing a joint. Ligaments are tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another. They help to stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement. You may sprain your knee or ankle when walking or exercising on an uneven surface. A sprain also may occur when you land awkwardly, either at the end of a jump or while pivoting during an athletic activity.

Strains. A muscle becomes strained or pulled — or may even tear — when it stretches unusually far or abruptly. This type of injury — an acute strain — often occurs when muscles suddenly and powerfully contract. A muscle strain may occur when you slip on ice, run, jump, throw, lift a heavy object or lift in an awkward position. A chronic strain results from prolonged, repetitive movement of a muscle.

Signs & Symptoms:
The typical signs and symptoms associated with a sprain are the cardinal signs of a sprain.

*Inflammation

*Localized pain

*Swelling

*Loss of function

*Loss of normal limb function

*Elasticity of ligament decrease

Joints involved:
Although any joint can experience a sprain, some of the more common include:

*The ankle. It is the most common, and has been said that sprains such as serious ankle sprains are more painful and take longer to heal than actually breaking the bones in that area. See ->sprained ankle for more details.

.

*The knee. Perhaps one of the more talked about sprains is that to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. This is a disabling sprain common to athletes, especially in basketball, football, and judo. See Anterior cruciate ligament injury.

*The fingers.

*The wrist.

*The toes.

Risk factors:
Factors contributing to sprains and strains include:

*Poor conditioning. Lack of conditioning can leave your muscles weak and more likely to sustain injury.

*Poor technique. The way you land from a jump — for example, when skiing or practicing martial arts — may affect your risk of injury to a ligament in your knee called the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Past research has shown that landing with an inward rotation at the knee (“knock-kneed” position) can predispose you to an ACL sprain.

*Fatigue. Tired muscles are less likely to provide good support for your joints. When you’re tired, you’re also more likely to succumb to forces that could stress a joint or overextend a muscle.

*Improper warm-up. Properly warming up before vigorous physical activity loosens your muscles and increases joint range of motion, making the muscles less tight and less prone to trauma and tears.

Treatment:
The first modality for a sprain can be remembered using the acronym R.I.C.E.

*Rest: The sprain should be rested. No additional force should be applied on site of the sprain. If, for example, the sprain were an ankle sprain, then walking should be kept to a minimum.

*Ice: Ice should be applied immediately to the sprain to minimize swelling and ease pain. It can be applied for 20-30 minutes at a time, 3-4 times a day. Ice can be combined with a wrapping to minimize swelling and provide support.

*Compression: Dressings, bandages, or ace-wraps should be used to immobilize the sprain and provide support.

*Elevation: Keeping the sprained joint elevated above heart level will also help to minimize swelling.

*Ice and compression (cold compression therapy) will not completely stop swelling and pain, but will help to minimize them as the sprain begins to heal itself. Careful management of swelling is critical to the healing process as additional fluid may pool in the sprained area.

Click to see :
->Sprain: First aid

Prevention:
Sprains can best be prevented by proper use of safety equipment (wrist, ankle guards), warm-ups and cool-downs (including stretching), being aware of your surroundings and maintaining strength and flexibility. Physical conditioning is the best way to avoid or lessen the degree of sprains.

Lifestyle and home remedies:
For immediate self-care of a sprain or strain, try the P.R.I.C.E. approach — protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation. In most cases beyond a minor strain or sprain, you’ll want your doctor and physical therapist to help you with this process:

*Protection. Immobilize the area to protect it from further injury. Use an elastic wrap, splint or sling to immobilize the area. If your injury is severe, your doctor or therapist may place a cast or brace around the affected area to protect it and instruct you on how to use a cane or crutches to help you get around, if necessary.

*Rest. Avoid activities that cause pain, swelling or discomfort. But don’t avoid all physical activity. Instead, give yourself relative rest. For example, with an ankle sprain you can usually still exercise other muscles to prevent deconditioning. For example, you could use an exercise bicycle, working both your arms and the uninjured leg while resting the injured ankle on a footrest peg. That way you still exercise three limbs and keep up your cardiovascular conditioning.

*Ice. Even if you’re seeking medical help, ice the area immediately. Use an ice pack or slush bath of ice and water for 15 to 20 minutes each time and repeat every two to three hours while you’re awake for the first few days following the injury. Cold reduces pain, swelling and inflammation in injured muscles, joints and connective tissues. It also may slow bleeding if a tear has occurred. If the area turns white, stop treatment immediately. This could indicate frostbite. If you have vascular disease, diabetes or decreased sensation, talk with your doctor before applying ice.

*Compression. To help stop swelling, compress the area with an elastic bandage until the swelling stops. Don’t wrap it too tightly or you may hinder circulation. Begin wrapping at the end farthest from your heart. Loosen the wrap if the pain increases, the area becomes numb or swelling is occurring below the wrapped area.

*Elevation. To reduce swelling, elevate the injured area above the level of your heart, especially at night. Gravity helps reduce swelling by draining excess fluid.

*Continue with P.R.I.C.E. treatment for as long as it helps you recover. Over-the-counter pain medications such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) also can be helpful. If you want to apply heat to the injured area, wait until most of the swelling has subsided.

After the first two days, gently begin to use the injured area. You should see a gradual, progressive improvement in the joint’s ability to support your weight or your ability to move without pain.

Mild and moderate sprains usually heal in three to six weeks. If pain, swelling or instability persists, see your doctor. A physical therapist can help you to maximize stability and strength of the injured joint or limb.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprain
MayoClinic.com

Enhanced by Zemanta

10 First Aid Mistakes

Sometimes, the first aid measures taken on the scene before a patient arrives at the hospital can make all the difference. Here are the 10 most common first aid mistakes — and what you should do instead.

……

1. Cut off finger part

Don’t try to preserve the loose part by placing it directly on ice.

Do wrap the severed part in damp gauze (saline would be ideal for wetting the cloth), place it in a watertight bag and place the bag on ice. Then be sure to bring the bag and ice to the emergency room. As for the wound on the hand or body, apply ice to reduce swelling and cover it with a clean, dry cloth.

2. Knocked-out tooth

Don’t scrub the tooth hard even if it’s dirty (a gentle rinse is OK)

Do put the tooth in milk and go straight to the ER; there’s a chance the tooth could be reimplanted.

3. Burns

Don’t apply ice or butter or any other type of grease to burns. Also, don’t cover a burn with a towel or blanket, because loose fibers might stick to the skin. When dealing with a serious burn, be careful not to break any blisters or pull off clothing stuck to the skin.

Do wash and apply antibiotic ointment to mild burns. Head to the hospital for any burns to the eyes, mouth, or genital areas, even if mild; any burn that covers an area larger than your hand; and any burn that causes blisters or is followed by a fever.

4. Electrical burns

Don’t fail to get medical attention for a jolt of electricity, even if no damage is evident. An electrical burn can cause invisible (and serious) injury deeper inside the body.

Do go to the ER immediately.

5. Sprained ankle

Don’t use a heating pad.

Do treat a sprain with ice. Go to the ER if it is very painful to bear weight; you might have a fracture.

6. Nosebleed

Don’t lean back. And after the bleeding has stopped, don’t blow your nose or bend over.

Do sit upright and lean forward and pinch your nose steadily (just below the nasal bone) for five to 10 minutes. If the bleeding persists for 15 minutes (or if you think you are swallowing a lot of blood) go to the ER.

7. Bleeding

Don’t use tourniquets!
You could cause permanent tissue damage.

Do apply steady pressure to the wound with a clean towel or gauze pack and wrap the wound securely. Go to the ER if the bleeding doesn’t stop, or if the wound is gaping or caused by an animal bite. To help prevent shock, keep the victim warm.

8. Ingestion of poison

Don’t induce vomiting or use Ipecac syrup (unless instructed to do so by emergency personnel).

Do call poison control, and bring the ingested substance with its container to the ER.

9. Being impaled

Don’t remove the object; you could cause further damage or increase the risk of bleeding.

Do stabilize the object, if possible, and go to the ER.

10. Seizures

Don’t put anything in the victim’s mouth.

Do
lay the victim on the ground if possible in an open space and roll the victim onto his or her side. Call 911.

You should also call 911 whenever you see or experience chest pain, fainting, confusion, uncontrollable bleeding or shortness of breath.

Sources:
Newsweek April 14, 2008

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

Injuries in Toe, Foot, and Ankle

The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the a...

The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Lateral aspect. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

At one time or another, everyone has had a minor toe, foot, or ankle injury that caused pain or swelling. Most of the time our body movements do not cause problems, but it’s not surprising that symptoms develop from everyday wear and tear, overuse, or an injury. Toe, foot, or ankle injuries most commonlyoccur during:

You may click to see the picture

*Sports or recreational activities.
*Work-related tasks.
*Work or projects around the home.

In children, most toe, foot, or ankle injuries occur during sports or play or accidental falls. The risk for injury is higher in sports with jumping, such as basketball, or sports with quick direction change, such as soccer or football. Any bone injury near a joint may injure the growth plate (physis) in a child and needs to be evaluated.

Certain athletes, such as dancers, gymnasts, or soccer or basketball players, have an increased risk of toe, foot, or ankle injuries.

Older adults are at higher risk for injuries and fractures because they lose muscle mass and bone strength (osteopenia) as they age. They also have more problems with vision and balance, which increases their risk for accidental injury.

Most minor injuries will heal on their own, and home treatment is usually all that is needed to relieve your symptoms and promote healing.

Sudden (acute) injury

An acute injury may occur from a direct blow, a penetrating injury, a fall, or from twisting, jerking, jamming, or bending a limb abnormally. Your pain may be sudden and severe. Bruising and swelling may develop soon after your injury. Acute injuries include:

*Bruises. After an ankle injury, bruising may extend to your toes from the effects of gravity.

See a illustration of a bruise (contusion)->

*Injuries to ligaments that support your joints. See an illustration of a ligament tear……

*Injuries to tendons, such as ruptured tendons in your heel (Achilles tendon). Young boys between 8 and 14 years old may have a condition known as Sever’s disease, which causes injury to the growing bone where the Achilles tendon is attached. This usually occurs during activity and is relieved with home treatment……

*Injuries to your joints (sprains). If a sprain does not appear to be healing, a condition known as osteochondritis dissecans may be present, causing persistent symptoms. See an illustration of a sprained ankle…….

*Pulled muscles (strains). Muscles of the foot and ankle can be strained and can also rupture.

*Broken bones (fractures), such as a broken toe.

*A bone moving out of place (dislocation).

*A crushing injury, which can lead to compartment syndrome.

Overuse injuries:

Overuse injuries occur when too much stress is placed on your joint or other tissue, often by “overdoing” an activity or repeating the same activity over and over. Overuse injuries include:

*Retrocalcaneal bursitis, which is inflammation of the bursa. This condition causes swelling and tenderness of the heel. Pain usually worsens while wearing shoes and during activity and improves during rest. See an illustration of the back of the heel and ankle.

*Achilles tendinitis or tendinosis (tendinopathy), which is the breakdown of soft tissues in and around the Achilles tendon that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone.

*Stress fracture, which is a hairline crack in a bone. See an illustration of stress fractures of the foot.
Plantar fasciitis, which is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a broad, flat ligament on the bottom of the foot that extends from the front of the heel to the base of the toes and helps maintain the arch of the foot. See an illustration of the plantar fascia.

*Metatarsalgia, which is pain in the front (ball) of the foot. See an illustration of metatarsalgia.

Treatment:
Treatment for your toe, foot, or ankle injury may include first aid measures (such as the application of a brace, splint, or cast), a special shoe (orthotic device), physical therapy, medicine, and in some cases surgery. Treatment depends on:

*The location, type, and severity of your injury.

*When the injury occurred.

*Your age, your overall health condition, and your activities (such as work, sports, or hobbies)

Review the Emergencies and Check Your Symptoms sections to determine if and when you need to see a doctor.

Click for :->Emergency

>Prevention

>Home Treatment

Sources: MSN Health.

Enhanced by Zemanta