Tag Archives: Syzygium

Syzygium polyanthum

Botanical Name: Syzygium polyanthum
Family:    Myrtaceae
Subfamily:Myrtoideae
Tribe:    Syzygieae
Genus:    Syzygium
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Myrtales

Synonyms: Eugenia balsamea, Eugenia nitida, Eugenia polyantha

Common Names:Indonesian bay leaf, daun salam

Habitat : Syzygium polyanthum is native to  Southeast Asia.:  Indochina, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia (GRIN).It grows in tropical climate.

Description:
Syzygium polyanthum is a medium-sized evergreen perennial tree,it grows up to 30 m tall with dense crown, bole up to 60 cm in diameter; bark surface fissured and scaly, grey. Leaves opposite, simple, glabrous; petiole up to 12 mm long; blade oblong-elliptical, narrowly elliptical or lanceolate, 5-16 cm x 2.5-7 cm, with 6-11 pairs of secondary veins distinct below and a distinct intramarginal vein, dotted with minute oil glands, petiole up to 12 mm long. Inflorescence a panicle, 2-8 cm long, usually arising below the leaves, sometimes axillary, but trees flower very profusely; flowers sessile, bisexual, regular, fragrant, white, in threes on ultimate branchlets of the panicle; calyx cup-shaped, about 4 mm long, with 4 broad persistent lobes; petals 4, free, 2.5-3.5 mm long, white; stamens numerous, arranged in 4 groups, about 3 mm long; disk quadrangular, orange-yellow. Fruit a 1-seeded berry, depressed globose to globose, up to 12 mm in diameter, dark red to purplish-black when ripe”
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Propagation: Through Seed

Edible Uses:
Syzygium polyanthum has been known as a seasoning in various culinary nations Indonesia.  In addition, there are also benefits in terms of bay leaves as a natural treatment.

Medicinal Uses:
Syzygium polyanthum is used in Gastrointestinal disorders  and other disorders.

Forv diarrhea
Wash 15 fresh bay leaves. Boil in two cups water to boil for 15minutes. Add a little salt. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well

For diabetes
7-15 Wash fresh bay leaves, then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well before eating. Apply 2 times a day.

For Lowering high cholesterol levels:
Wash 10-15 fresh bay leaves, and then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well at night. Do it every day.

For lowering high blood pressure:
Wash 7-10 bay leaves then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water 2 times a day, each half a glass.

For ulcers:
Rinse 15-20 fresh bay leaves. Boil with 1 / 2 litter of water to boil for 15 minutes. Add palm sugar to taste. After chilling, drinking water as a tea. Do it every day until the pain disappeared and a full stomach.

During Hangover
Wash 1 handful of ripe fruit greeting, then mash until smooth. Squeeze and strain, the water collected while drunk.

For Scabies, itch
for external treatment, simply grab a leaf, bark, stems, or roots regards as necessary. Rinse, then milled until smooth dough like mush. And apply to the itchy spot, then wrapped.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium
http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Syzygium_polyanthum.htm
http://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Syzygium-Polyanthum-Cid644
http://herbalmedicinalplant01.blogspot.in/2011/09/efficacy-syzygium-polyanthum.html

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Kalo Jam (Eugenia Jambolana )

Botanical Name:Eugenia Jambolana
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Syzygium
Species: S. cumini
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Syn. Syzygium jambolanum, Eugenia cumini

Common Names:Kalo jaml(in bengali), jambul/jambhul/jambu/jambula/jamboola, Java plum, jamun, jaam/kalojaam, jamblang, jambolan, black plum, Damson plum, Duhat plum, Jambolan plum or Portuguese plum. Malabar plum may also refer to other species of Syzygium. This fruit is called Jamun in Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi, Neredu Pandu in Telugu, Naaval Pazham in Tamil, Naaval Pazham in Malayalam, Nerale Hannu in Kannada, Jam in Bengali, Jamukoli in Oriya and Jambu in Gujarat. In the Philippines, common names include duhat in the Tagalog-speaking regions, lomboy in the Cebuano-speaking areas and inobog in Maguindanao.  It is called Dhanbu in Maldives and Dhuwet/Juwet in Javanese. Among its names in Portuguese are jamelão, jambolão, jalão, joão-bolão, manjelão, azeitona-preta, baga-de-freira, brinco-de-viúva and guapê, always with lower case, the early four derived from the Konkani name jambulan. They are called rotra in the Malagasy language (Madagascar).

Habitat:
Kalo Jam  is  native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

The tree was introduced to Florida, USA in 1911 by the USDA, and is also now commonly grown in Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. In Brazil, where it was introduced from India during Portuguese colonization, it has dispersed spontaneously in the wild in some places, as its fruits are eagerly sought by various native birds such as thrushes, tanagers and the Great Kiskadee. This species is considered an invasive in Hawaii, USA. It is also illegal to grow, plant or transplant in Sanibel, Florida.

Description:
Kalo Jam  is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant. It is  a slow growing species, it can reach heights of up to 30 m and can live more than 100 years. Its dense foliage provides shade and is grown just for its ornamental value. At the base of the tree, the bark is rough and dark grey, becoming lighter grey and smoother higher up. The wood is water resistant. Because of this it is used in railway sleepers and to install motors in wells. It is sometimes used to make cheap furniture and village dwellings though it is relatively hard to work on.
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The leaves which are an aroma similar to turpentine, are pinkish when young, changing to a leathery, glossy dark green with a yellow midrib as they mature. The leaves are used as food for livestock, as they have good nutritional value.

Kala Jambul trees start flowering from March to April. The flowers of are fragrant and small, about 5 mm in diameter. The fruits develop by May or June and resemble large berries. The fruit is oblong, ovoid, starts green and turns pink to shining crimson black as it matures. A variant of the tree produces white coloured fruit. The fruit has a combination of sweet, mildly sour and astringent flavour and tends to colour the tongue purple.

The seed is also used in various alternative healing systems like Ayurveda (to control diabetes, for example.), Unani and Chinese medicine for digestive ailments.

The leaves and bark are used for controlling blood pressure and gingivitis. Wine and vinegar are also made from the fruit. It has a high source in vitamin A and vitamin C.

Syzygium cumini has been spread overseas from India by Indian emigrants and at present is common in former tropical British colonies.

Edible Uses:
The black ripen fruits are delicious to eat and highlt nutritius.

Medicinal Uses:
* Diabetes
Properties: * Carminative * Hypoglycemic
Constituents:  oleanolic acid,

The seed, leaf, bark, and fruit are used to make medicine.

Kalo Jam is widely used in folk medicine for diabetes.

It is also used for digestion disorders including gas (flatulence), bowel spasms, stomach problems, and severe diarrhea (dysentery).

Another use is treatment of lung problems such as bronchitis and asthma.

Some people use Kalo Jam  as an aphrodisiac to increase interest in sexual activity, and as a tonic.

In combination with other herbs, jambolan seed is used for constipation, diseases of the pancreas, stomach problems, nervous disorders, depression, and exhaustion.

Jambolan is sometimes applied directly to the mouth and throat to reduce pain due to swelling (inflammation). It is also applied directly to the skin for skin ulcers and inflammation of the skin.

The fruit and seeds of the Kalo Jam  tree have long been used in Eastern traditional medicine, and are gaining more interest here in the West for the treatment of diabetes. Practitioners of Ayurveda in India value jambul for lowering blood sugar and researchers are investigating its potential as a male contraceptive. Jambul is used in Unani and Chinese medicine for digestive ailments. The leaves and bark are used for controlling blood pressure and gingivitis. Wine and vinegar are also made from the fruit. It has a high source in vitamin A and vitamin C.

click to see to learn more :

Other Uses:
Cultural and religious significance

According to Hindu tradition, Rama subsisted on the fruit in the forest for 14 years during his exile from Ayodhya.   Because of this, many Hindus regard S. cumini as a ‘fruit of the gods,’ especially in Gujarat, India, where it is known locally as jamboon.

Lord Krishna has been described as having skin the color of S. cumini. In Hindu mythology several protagonists have been described as having the color of S. cumini.

Maharashtra:
In Maharashtra, S. cumini (locally known as j?mbh?? Marathi :??????) leaves are used in marriage pandal decorations. There is famous Marathi song “Jambhul pikalya zada khali…”. The seeds are used in tisanes for diabetes

Andhra Pradesh:
This tree is called Neredu   in Telugu. Besides the fruits, wood from Neredu tree is used in Andhra Pradesh to make bullock cart wheels and other agricultural equipment. Culturally, beautiful eyes are compared to this fruit. In the great epic of India Mahabharatha Sri Krishnas'[Lord Vishnu] body color is compared to this fruit as well.

Tamil Nadu:
There is a very famous legend that is associated with Auvaiyar (also Auvayar) in Tamil Nadu , a prominent female poets/ethicist/political activist of Sangam period (Tamil literature), and Naval Pazham(Jambu) in Tamil Nadu. Auvaiyar, believing to have achieved everything that is to be achieved, said to have been pondering over her retirement from Tamil literary work while resting under Naval Pazham tree. But she was met with and was wittily jousted by a disguised Lord Murugan (regarded as one of the guardian deities of Tamil language), who later revealed himself and made her realize that there is still a lot more to be done and learnt. Following this awakening, Auvaiyar is believed to have undertaken a fresh set of literary works, targeted at children.

Kerala:
In Malayalam the tree is called njaval and its fruit are njavalpazham. The fruit is particularly plentiful in Kollam.

Kannada:
In Kannada the tree is called Nerale mara and its fruit are Nerale Hannu Nerale hannu is widely used by diabetes patients as they thought it cures the same. The bears like this fruit. This tree is found liberally every where in village areas of Karnataka.

Known Hazards:
Kalo Jam seed and bark contains chemicals that might lower blood sugar, but extracts from jambolan leaf and fruit don’t seem to affect blood sugar. Jambolan also contains chemicals that might protect against oxidation damage, as well as chemicals that reduce swelling. so it is adviced  to Monitor blood sugar levels carefully – do not change insulin dosage without the guidance of a physician.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium_cumini
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail430.php

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-530-JAMBOLAN.aspx?activeIngredientId=530&activeIngredientName=JAMBOLAN

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Golapn jam (Syzygium jambos)

Botanical Name :Syzygium jambos
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Syzygium
Species: S. jambos
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

syn. Eugenia jambos L.; Jambosa jambos Millsp.; Jambosa vulgaris DC.; Caryophyllus jambos Stokes

Common Name :Golapn jam, Boga Jamuk , Malabar Plum, champakka, chom pu or chom-phu. Terms like “plum rose“, “water apple”, “Malay apple“, “jambrosade”,and “pomarrosa”, or the English equivalent, “rose apple”. Several of these names also are applied to other species of Syzygium, while “jambu” can also mean a guava.

Habitat :.Syzygium jambos is native to Southeast Asia but is naturalized in India, especially the state of Kerala. It has also been introduced widely on every continent except Antarctica, and it has become established and invasive in several regions. Concern has been expressed concerning the threat to several ecosystems, including those on several Hawaiian islands, Réunion, the Galápagos Islands, parts of Australia and the warmer regions of the Americas.

Description:
Syzygium jambos is a large shrub or small-to-medium-sized tree, typically three to 15 metres high, with a tendency to low branching. Its leaves and twigs are glabrous and the bark, though dark brown, is fairly smooth too, with little relief or texture. The leaves are lanceolate, 2cm to 4 cm broad, 10 cm to 20 cm long, pointed, base cuneate with hardly any petiole, lively red when growing, but dark, glossy green on attaining full size. The flowers are in small terminal clusters, white or greenish white, the long, numerous stamens giving them a diameter of 5 – 8 cm. In temperate regions the tree is summer-flowering.

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The edible fruit of Syzygium jambos is shaped like some kinds of guava, to which the plant is fairly closely related. In fact the fruit is so like the guava in appearance that people unfamiliar with it may mistake it for a guava on sight. However, the fragrance, flavour and texture are different, and instead of containing dozens of small, hard seeds set in a jelly-like tissue, as a guava does, the fruit of Syzygium jambos usually contains one or two large, unarmoured seeds about a cm in diameter, lying loose in a slightly fluffy cavity when ripe. Shaking a fruit to feel whether the seeds rattle, gives some indication whether it is ripe. The skin is thin and waxy. The flowers are described by some as fragrant, though this appears to be a variable attribute. The ripe fruit however, has a strong, pleasant floral bouquet, hence such common names as “Rose apple” and “pomarrosa”.
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There are many varieties of Syzygium jambos world wide, including nondescript feral trees. In Thailand the commonest cultivated variety bears a pale green fruit. Malaysian varieties generally have red skins. In many regions the fruit is a shade of pale yellow, often with a slight blush. The skin is thin and waxy, and the hollow core contains a small amount of insignificant fluff. The flesh is crisp and watery, and the taste is characteristic, which leads to some fanciful descriptions such as: “like a cross between nashi and bell pepper, with a very mild rose scent and a slightly bitter aftertaste.” There seems to be considerable variation in flavour if such a description has any merit; in South Africa for example, there is no noticeable bitter aftertaste, but the bouquet is decidedly assertive, whether one regards it as rose-like or not.

Edible Uses:
Rich in vitamin C, the fruit can be eaten raw or used in various regional recipes. In South-East Asian countries, rose apple fruit is frequently served with spiced sugar.

The wood is dense and accordingly is used as a source of charcoal.

The tree is variously rich in tannins that are of some antimicrobial interest. Some parts of the tree are used in regional traditional medicine.

Medicinal Uses:
Useful part : Bark,leaves & Fruits.

Plants have long been used as medicines for treating a variety of different diseases and complaints. Phytotherapy in Asia is particularly widespread. Plant preparations and medications continue to be used in the treatment of numerous disorders, including eczema, malaria, respiratory disorders and infectious diseases.

. The fruit has been used as a tonic for the brain and liver and as a diuretic.
The flowers are believed to reduce fever, and the seeds were used to treat diarrhea, dysentery and catarrh.
In South-American cultures, the seeds have additionally been used as an anesthetic,

Recent studies have shown S. jambos extracts to have a similar analgesic efficacy to morphine in rats.

S. jambos leaf decoctions were also used traditionally in the tre

Bark of the S. jambos tree is used to treat asthma, bronchitis and hoarseness.

S. jambos leaf extracts have also been shown to possess antiviral activity towards herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 and towards vesicular somatitis virus.

The antiseptic properties of some members of the genus Syzygium have been extensively studied. In the commercially most important species Syzygium aromaticum (clove), the antiseptic properties are well known. Numerous studies have reported on the antibacterial.

Aurvedic properities:
Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, diarrhea, colic, wounds, ulcers, stomatitis, arthritis, and general debility.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium_jambos
http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/index.php?option=com_zoom&Itemid=26&page=view&catid=19&key=12
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140127/

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Sisymbrium altissimum

Botanical Name :Sisymbrium altissimum
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Sisymbrium
Species: S. altissimum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms:  S. pannonicum. S. sinapistrum.

Common Name :Jim Hill mustard, after James J. Hill, a Canadian-American railroad magnate, Tall mustard, Tumble mustard, tumbleweed mustard, tall sisymbrium, and tall hedge mustard.

Habitat :Sisymbrium altissimum is native to the western part of the Mediterranean Basin in Europe and Northern Africa and is widely naturalized throughout most of the world, including all of North America. It was probably introduced into North America by a contaminant crop seed. The plant grows in soils of all textures, even sand.

Description:
Sisymbrium altissimum is an annual herb L growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). Stems is erect, branched distally, (2-)4-12(-16) dm, sparsely to densely hirsute basally, glabrous or glabrate distally. Basal leaves rosulate; petiole 1-10(-15) cm; blade broadly oblanceolate, oblong, or lanceolate (in outline), (2-)5-20(-35) cm × (10-)20-80(-100) mm, margins pinnatisect, pinnatifid, or runcinate; lobes (3-)4-6(-8) on each side, oblong or lanceolate, smaller than terminal lobe, margins entire, dentate, or lobed. Cauline leaves similar to basal; distalmost blade with linear to filiform lobes. Fruiting pedicels usually divaricate, rarely ascending, stout, nearly as wide as fruit, (4-)6-10(-13) mm. Flowers: sepals ascending or spreading, oblong, (cucullate), 4-6 × 1-2 mm; petals spatulate, (5-)6-8(-10) × 2.5-4 mm, claw 3.5-6 mm; filaments 2-6 mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2.2 mm.

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The plant germinates in winter or early spring. The blooming time is lengthy, and after maturity the plant forms a tumbleweed.

It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. Fruits narrowly linear, usually straight, smooth, stout.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Young leaves and shoots – raw or cooked. A somewhat hot flavour, they can be used as a flavouring in salads or cooked as a potherb. Seed – ground into a powder and used as a gruel or as a mustard-like flavouring in soups etc.

Medicinal Uses:

Antiscorbutic;  Astringent.

The leaves and flowers are antiscorbutic and astringent.The leaves and flowers have medicinal properties that has been used to cause tissue to contract. They also contain an agent that is effective against scurvy.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sisymbrium_altissimum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sisymbrium+altissimum
http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=1151
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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Antelope Horn

Botanical Name :Asclepias viridis
Family: Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Asclepiadoideae
Genus: Asclepias
Species: A. viridis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Name : Antelope Horn, milkweed,  Green antelopehorn and Spider milkweed

Habitat:Antelope Horn is  Native to U.S. The plant is very common in Missouri, especially in the southern half of the state. Grows in  rocky prairies and glades, fields, roadsides.

Description:
This plant is a beauty and should be cultivated more. The slightly spreading nature and big flower clusters make the plant (I think) very desirable in the garden. The plant would need no care once established. Milkweed is a Perennial herb from a thickened, cylindrical to fusiform, vertical rootstock.
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Stems – To +50cm long, erect or ascending, multiple from base, from thick roots, herbaceous, with milky sap, glabrous, often purple-green.

Leaves – Alternate, short petiolate. Petioles to 6mm long, minutely pubescent. Blade ovate-lanceolate, typically truncate at base but also slightly rounded, entire, to 12cm long, 5cm broad, sparse appressed pubescent, apex blunt to emarginate or rounded. Veins often pinkish above.

Inflorescence – Axillary and terminal umbellate cymes. Peduncles glabrous, green, to -5cm long. Pedicels to 3cm long, puberulent, subtended by linear bracts to 6mm long, -1mm broad.
Flowers – Petals 5, erect, lanceolate-ovate, -2cm long, to 8mm broad, glabrous. Hoods purple, 5-6mm long, margins infolded. Horns absent. Anther head 3mm in diameter, 3mm tall, blackish and green. Pollinia purple and gold, 2-3mm long. Carpels 2, 3.5mm long, enclosed by column. Sepals 5, 5mm long, 2mm broad, lanceolate, pubescent externally. Follicles to 13cm long, sparse pubescent. Seed to +6mm long, broadly ovate to suborbicular. Coma to 4cm long, whitish.

Medicinal Uses:
Used to relieve fever, it was drunk as a decoction of the root in cold water.  To relieve palpitation, the powdered root is rubbed over the heart area.  A poultice of the powdered root is used to treat neck and rib pains and a tea made from it is used to alleviate asthma and shortness of breath.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://www.asclepias.org/viridis.html
http://www.missouriplants.com/Greenalt/Asclepias_viridis_page.html
http://www.monarchwatch.org/milkweed/guide/viridis.htm

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