Tag Archives: Carl Peter Thunberg

Zanthoxylum ailanthoides

Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum ailanthoides
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. ailanthoides
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Name: Ailanthus-like prickly ash

Habitat : Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is native to E. Asia – S. China, Japan. It grows in Mountains, C. and S. Japan.

Description:
Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is a deciduous Tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in).Branchlets and inflorescence rachises glabrous, with prickles. Leaves 11-27-foliolate; leaflet blades opposite, narrowly lanceolate but subovate basally on rachis, 7-18 × 2-6 cm, abaxially grayish green or glaucescent, oil glands numerous, midvein adaxially impressed, secondary veins 11-16 on each side of midvein, base symmetrically or subobliquely rounded, margin crenate, apex acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, many flowered. Flowers 5-merous, subsessile. Perianth in 2 series. Sepals broadly triangular, ca. 0.8 mm. Petals pale yellowish white, ca. 2.5 mm. Male flowers: stamens 5; rudimentary gynoecium disciform, 2- or 3-lobed. Female flowers (3 or)4-carpelled. Fruit pedicel 1-3 mm; follicles pale reddish brown but pale gray to brownish gray when dry, ca. 4.5 mm in diam., oil glands numerous, impressed when dry, apex not beaked. Seeds ca. 4 mm in diam. Flower in. Aug-Sep, and Fruit in Oct-Dec.

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The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. A rather frost-tender species, it is not hardy in most of Britain but succeeds outdoors in the mildest areas of the country. Flowers are formed on the old wood. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed – cooked. A pungent flavour, it is used as a condiment. A red pepper substitute. The fruit is rather small but is produced in clusters which makes harvesting easy. Each fruit contains a single seed. Young leaves. No more details are given.

Medicinal Uses:

Antitussive; Carminative; Stimulant.

The resin contained in the bark, and especially in that of the roots, is antitussive, carminative, and powerfully stimulant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_ailanthoides
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+ailanthoides
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200012476

Rhus chinensis

Botanical Name : Rhus chinensis
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Rhus
Species: R. chinensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms : Rhus javanica – Thunb. non L., Rhus osbeckii – Decne., Rhus semialata – Murray.

Common Names : Chinese gall, Galla Chinensis or Wu Bei,Chinese Sumac

Habitat : Rhus chinensis is native to E. Asia – China, Japan. Grows in  lowland, hills and mountains in Japan. Also found in the Himalayas (as R. semialata) where it grows in secondary forests to 2100 metres

Description:
Rhus chinensis forms a loose, spreading small tree, reaching up to 25 feet in height . Most specimens only grow to about 12 to 15 feet tall. Theshiny, pinnately compound, five inches long leaves change to a brilliant orange, red, or yellow in the fall before dropping. The yellowish-white, summertime flowers appear in 6 to 10-inch-long and wide, terminal panicles and are quite showy. The hairy fruits which follow are orange/red and mature in October.
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It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is not self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun. A very ornamental plant, it is not fully hardy in all parts of Britain and needs a hot summer in order to fully ripen its wood, suffering winter damage to late growth if the temperature falls below about -7°c. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. The plants are also susceptible to coral spot fungus and any winter damage will exacerbate the situation. Plants have brittle branches and these can be broken off in strong winds. Many of the species in this genus are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species such as this one are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 – 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors. This soak water can be drunk and has a delicious lemon-flavour. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers in late autumn to winter

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Curdling agent; Salt.

Fruit – cooked. An acid flavour. It is also used medicinally. The fruit can be used as a salt or a rennet substitute.

Medicinal Uses :

Anthelmintic; Antiphlogistic; Antiseptic; Astringent; Cholagogue; Depurative; Haemostatic.

The leaves and the roots are depurative. They stimulate blood circulation. A decoction is used in the treatment of haemoptysis, inflammations, laryngitis, snakebite, stomach-ache and traumatic fractures. The stem bark is astringent and anthelmintic. The fruit is used in the treatment of colic. The seed is used in the treatment of coughs, dysentery, fever, jaundice, malaria and rheumatism. The root bark is cholagogue. Galls on the plant are rich in tannin. They are used internally for their astringent and styptic properties to treat conditions such as diarrhoea and haemorrhage. They are a frequent ingredient in polyherbal prescriptions for diabetes mellitus. An excrescence produced on the leaf by an insect Melaphis chinensis or M. paitan (this report probably refers to the galls produced by the plant in response to the insect) is antiseptic, astringent and haemostatic. It s used in the treatment of persistent cough with blood, chronic diarrhoea, spontaneous sweating, night sweats, bloody stool, urorrhoea and bloody sputum. It is used applied externally to burns, bleeding due to traumatic injuries, haemorrhoids and ulcers in the mouth. Some caution is advised in the use of the leaves and stems of this plant, see the notes above on toxicity.

Other Uses:
Dye; Ink; Mordant; Oil; Tannin; Wax.

The leaves are rich in tannin. They can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a brown dye or as a mordant. A blue dye is obtained from insect galls on the plant, it can also be used as an ink. The galls are formed as a result of damage by the greenfly, Aphis chinensis. The galls contain up to 77% tannin. The reports do not say if the galls are harvested before or after the insect has left the gall. An oil is extracted from the seeds. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke. The wood is soft and is not used.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhus_chinensis
http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/rhuchia.pdf
http://www.plantplaces.com/perl/viewplantdetails.pl?filter=plant&plant_ID=42&Region=&Region_Search=&fullname=Rhus%20chinensis%20’September%20Beauty’%20September%20Beauty%20Sumac

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Dioscorea oppositifolia

Botanical Name :Dioscorea oppositifolia
Family: Dioscoreaceae – Yam family
Genus : Dioscorea L. – yam
Species : Dioscorea oppositifolia L. – Chinese yam
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision:Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass : Liliidae
Order : Liliales

Synonyms: Dioscorea batatas£¬Dioscorea opposita (Thunb.), Dioscorea polystachya (Turcz.), Dioscorea divaricata
Common name: Chinese yam, air potato, Shan yao, Shan yam

Habitat :Dioscorea oppositifolia is native to China and was introduced into North America as an ornamental vine. In 1970, it had not yet been documented as escaping from cultivation. By 1986 however, Mohlenbrock (1970, 1986) reports that it had become naturalized and was observed in areas outside of cultivation (Beyerl 2001).

In North America, D. oppositifolia is currently present in: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia (USDA, NRCS 1999). Beyerl (2001) reports that it has now also been documented from Florida.

Dioscorea oppositifolia can survive in a number of different habitats and environmental conditions, but is most commonly found at the edges of rich, mesic bottomland forests, along streambanks and drainageways, and near fencerows (Yayskievych 1999). Initial infestations of D. oppositifolia are generally associated with human-caused disturbances, such as near old homesites and along roadways. From these areas, D. oppositifolia can easily spread into nearby riparian swaths and undisturbed habitats.

Description;
Herbaceous, high climbing vines to 65 feet (20 m) long, infestations covering shrubs and trees. Twining and sprawling stems with long-petioled heart-shaped leaves. Spreading by dangling potato-like tubers (bulbils) at leaf axils and underground tubers. Monocots.

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Edible uses:  Both the tuber and bulbils of D. oppositifolia are edible, although the bulbils are generally not collected and used as food. The edible tuber, which can measure up to 1 m (3 ft) long and weigh up to 2 kg (4.5 lbs) or more if grown in deep loam soils, is flavorful and nutritious. The flavor, according to Plants for a Future (1997), is between a sweet potato and a regular potato. The tuber contains about 20% starch, 75% water, 0.1% vitamin B1, and 10 to 15 mg Vitamin C. It also contains mucilage, amylase, amino acids, and glutamine.

The tuber is sometimes used as an herbal tonic. It stimulates the stomach and spleen and has an effect on the lungs and kidneys. The tuber has been eaten for the treatment of poor appetite, chronic diarrhea, asthma, dry coughs, frequent or uncontrollable urination, diabetes, and emotional instability. Externally, the tuber has also been applied to ulcers, boils and abscesses. It contains allantoin, a cell-proliferant that speeds up the healing process (Plants for a Future 1997).

Leaf juice from D. oppositifolia can be used to treat snakebites and scorpion stings. Its roots contain diosgenin, which is a compound often used in the manufacture of progesterone and other steroid drugs. Dioscorea oppositifolia has also been used traditionally as a contraceptive and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary (genital?) organs as well as for asthma and arthritis (Plants for a Future 1997).

Dioscorea oppositifolia has been, and is still frequently planted for its ornamental value. The flowers smell like cinnamon and the twining vine is attractive for arbors, trellises, and along porches (Illinois DNR).

Medicinal Uses;
The Chinese yam, called Shan Yao in Chinese herbalism, is a sweet soothing herb that stimulates the stomach and spleen and has a tonic effect on the lungs and kidneys. The tuber contains allantoin, a cell-proliferant that speeds the healing process. The root is an ingredient of “The herb of eight ingredients”, traditionally prescribed in Chinese herbalism to treat hyperthyroidism, nephritis and diabetes.

A gentle tonic, shan yao is prescribed for tiredness, weight loss, and lack of appetite.  The root strengthens a weak digestion, improves appetite, and may help bind watery stools.  It counters excessive sweating, frequent urination, and chronic thirst, and it is also given for chronic coughs and wheezing.  The traditional use of shan yao, indicates a hormonal effect.  It is also taken to treat vaginal discharge and spermatorrhea. The Chinese use the yam to brighten the eyes and as an elixir and an important tonic for the spleen and stomach.  The drug also lowers blood sugar and is used in diabetes.

This is one of several herbs under intensive medical research in China as a tonic restorative for immune deficiency.  The herb helps restore impaired immune functions, stimulates secretions of vital immune factors, and enhances overall immune response throughout the system.

The roots of most, if not all, members of this genus, contains diosgenin. This is widely used in modern medicine in order to manufacture progesterone and other steroid drugs. These are used as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genital organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DIOP
http://www.texasinvasives.org/plant_database/detail.php?symbol=DIOP
http://wiki.bugwood.org/Dioscorea_oppositifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

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Dendrobium moniliforme

Botanical Name : Dendrobium moniliforme
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Dendrobieae
Subtribe: Dendrobiinae
Genus: Dendrobium
Species: D. moniliforme
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonym:
1.Callista japonica Kuntze 1891
2.Callista moniliformis (L.) Kuntze 1891
3.Dendrobium castum Bateman 1868
4.Dendrobium catenatum Lindley 1830
5.Dendrobium heishanense Hayata 1914
6.Dendrobium japonicum Lindley 1830
7.Dendrobium monile[Thunb.]Kraenzl 1910
8.Dendrobium nienkui Tso 1933
9.Dendrobium taiwanianum S.S.Ying 1978
10.Dendrobium yunnanense Finet 1907
11.Dendrobium zonatum Rolfe 1903
12.Epidendrum monile Thunberg 1799
13.Epidendrum moniliferum Panzer 1783
14.*Epidendrum moniliforme Linn. 1753
15.Dendrobium moniliforme ‘Benifuuki’
16.Limodorum monile (Thunb.) Thunb. 1794
17.Onychium japonicum Bl. 1848
18.Ormostema albiflora Raf. 1836

Common Names : Stone Orchid, Necklace-Shaped Dendrobium

Habitat : Plants are found in broad leaf forest growing on rocks in Korea and China to the west and Taiwan at elevations of 800 to 3000 meter.

Description:
Dendrobium moniliforme is a  deciduous plant and blooms from winter to summer with up to two flowers. Flowers are 3.75 cm wide and fragrant. Some leaves can be vereigated with white/cream to yellow to even striped with pink. Flower color varies from white/creams and yellows to green and reds, pinks, and purples. CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES

Plant grows in cool to warm temperatures with medium amounts of light. Keep plant moist and fertilize year round. Plants prefer the mix to dry out between watering. Grow in a well drain mix of sphagnum moss or medium fir bark.

Plant grows well mounted. Plants also grow well mounted on a ball of sphagnum moss and wrapeed in long fiber spahgnum moss like the traditional Japanese potting method used for Neofinetia and Sedirea japonica

Medicinal Uses:
It is used as anhydrotic for night-sweats, as an anodyne and sedative in arthritis, and as a peptic tonic for convalescents and weak patients. Also used to treats impotence.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://orchids.wikia.com/wiki/Dendrobium_moniliforme
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendrobium_moniliforme
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm