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Zanthoxylum ailanthoides

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Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum ailanthoides
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. ailanthoides
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Name: Ailanthus-like prickly ash

Habitat : Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is native to E. Asia – S. China, Japan. It grows in Mountains, C. and S. Japan.

Description:
Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is a deciduous Tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in).Branchlets and inflorescence rachises glabrous, with prickles. Leaves 11-27-foliolate; leaflet blades opposite, narrowly lanceolate but subovate basally on rachis, 7-18 × 2-6 cm, abaxially grayish green or glaucescent, oil glands numerous, midvein adaxially impressed, secondary veins 11-16 on each side of midvein, base symmetrically or subobliquely rounded, margin crenate, apex acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, many flowered. Flowers 5-merous, subsessile. Perianth in 2 series. Sepals broadly triangular, ca. 0.8 mm. Petals pale yellowish white, ca. 2.5 mm. Male flowers: stamens 5; rudimentary gynoecium disciform, 2- or 3-lobed. Female flowers (3 or)4-carpelled. Fruit pedicel 1-3 mm; follicles pale reddish brown but pale gray to brownish gray when dry, ca. 4.5 mm in diam., oil glands numerous, impressed when dry, apex not beaked. Seeds ca. 4 mm in diam. Flower in. Aug-Sep, and Fruit in Oct-Dec.

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The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. A rather frost-tender species, it is not hardy in most of Britain but succeeds outdoors in the mildest areas of the country. Flowers are formed on the old wood. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses: Condiment.

Seed – cooked. A pungent flavour, it is used as a condiment. A red pepper substitute. The fruit is rather small but is produced in clusters which makes harvesting easy. Each fruit contains a single seed. Young leaves. No more details are given.

Medicinal Uses:

Antitussive; Carminative; Stimulant.

The resin contained in the bark, and especially in that of the roots, is antitussive, carminative, and powerfully stimulant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_ailanthoides
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+ailanthoides
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200012476

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier huroensis

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Botanical Name : Amelanchier huroensis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. sanguinea
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names:  Not known
Habitat : Amelanchier huroensis is native to North-western N. America – Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. It grows on the open woods, cliffs and shores, chiefly on trap or other basic rocks.
Description:
Amelanchier huroensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe.  Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is rich in iron and copper

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+huroensis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_sanguinea

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier confusa

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Botanical Name : Amelanchier confusa
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. canadensis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Amelanchier canadensis auct., Amelanchier grandiflora auct.

Common Names: Service berry, Shadblow, Shadbush, Sugarplum, Shad

Habitat:Amelanchier confusa is native to Europe – S. Sweden. This species is only known from plants naturalised in Sweden, its origin is uncertain.

Description:
Amelanchier confusa is a deciduous woody perennial Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). It has smooth, ovate leaves which are irregularly serrated. The autumn colour is inconspicuous.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged[11]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid or neutral soil. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. A suckering plant, the suckers are formed very close to the original stem so the plant forms a gradually expanding clump. Plants growing at Hilliers Arboretum in Hampshire were 4 metres tall in early April 1999, they were suckering quite freely in a tight clump and flowering very freely. This species is closely related to A. laevis. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.
Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
The fruit is  edible both raw and cooked. It is 7 – 9mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+confusa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_canadensis
https://www.greenplantswap.co.uk/plants/1105
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/plants/amelanchier/confusa.html

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier asiatica

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Botanical Name: Amelanchier asiatica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. asiatica
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms A. canadensis japonica. Aronia asiatica.

Common Name: Korean Juneberry

Habitat :Amelanchier asiatica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows on Hilly and mountainous regions. On slopes by streams, mixed forests at elevations of 1000 – 2000 metres.

Description:
Amelanchier asiatica is a deciduous Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 10 m (32ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. It produces an edible fruit called a pome. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil, including chalk, so long as it is not too dry or water-logged. Plants succeed in quite shady positions but do not flower or fruit well there. Grows well in heavy clay soils. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. A very ornamental plant, it is closely allied to A. canadensis and A. laevis, and is also very similar to A. arborea. The sub-species A. asiatica sinica C. Schneid. is found in China. It has smaller fruits than the type species. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit, raw or cooked. Of good quality, the fruit is sweet and juicy, contains a few small seeds at the centre and has a hint of apple in the flavour. The fruit is rich in iron and copper. The fruit is up to 15mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_asiatica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+asiatica

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Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia

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Botanical Name : Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. alnifolia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: A. alnifolia. non Nutt. A. florida. A. oxyodon

Common Name : Pacific Serviceberry

Habitat :Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia is native to Western. N. America. It grows in moist woods and open places.

Description:
Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in) at a slow rate.
CLICK & SEE  THE PICTURES
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are hardy to about -35°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. This species is particularly interesting because it is quite compact and produces an excellent quality quite large fruit. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. This species loses its leaves early in the autumn, especially in dry years. Closely related to, and included as a sub-species of A. alnifolia by most botanists. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit – raw or cooked. A sweet and succulent fruit, it is soft and juicy with a few small seeds in the centre and has a hint of apple in the flavour. A very acceptable fruit that can be eaten in quantity, it matures about 2 – 3 weeks later than most other members of the genus. Formerly an important food for the N. American Indians, it can also be dried and used as a raisin substitute. It is up to 13mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:

Ophthalmic; VD.
An infusion of the inner bark is used as a treatment for snow-blindness. A compound concoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea.

Other Uses:.Wood is very tough, hard, heavy with close grained and can be very useful for different purposes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+alnifolia+semiintegrifolia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_alnifolia