Tag Archives: Coleus

Plectranthus barbatus

Botanical Name:Plectranthus barbatus
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Plectranthus
Species: P. barbatus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Name:Coleus forskohlii and Indian Coleus,makandi

Habitat: Plectranthus barbatus is found in lower elevation of India, but now this pland grown around the world as an ornamental plant.

Description:
Plectranthus barbatus is a big, honking, perennial specimen plant, totally easy & fast, to about 5’ tall. Related to Coleus, it has large, soft, toothed leaves held on thick, upright, branching stems. From Fall to late Spring, it bears large (10”), upright spikes of rich, purple-blue, long lasting blooms. The flowers emerge from fascinating buds that look like condensed “Chinese Houses.”

Click to see the picture  :

Active constituents:
Tisanes made from Plectranthus barbatus contains rosmarinic acid and also flavonoid glucuronides and diterpenoids. The chemical constituents of Plectranthus barbatus showed interesting activities in vitro, such as antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

Forskolin, a chemical found in coleus, activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase. This enzyme is a turnkey compound that initiates a cascade of critical events within every cell of the body. Adenylate cyclase and the chemicals it activates comprise a “second messenger” system that is responsible for carrying out the complex and powerful effects of hormones in the body.

Stimulation of the second messenger system by forskolin leads to blood vessel dilation, inhibition of allergic reactions, and an increase in thyroid hormone secretion. Forskolin has other properties as well, including inhibition of the pro-inflammatory substance known as platelet-activating factor (PAF) and inhibition of the spread of cancer cells.

Studies in healthy humans, including at least one double-blind trial, have shown that direct application of an ophthalmic preparation of forskolin to the eyes lowers eye pressure, thus reducing the risk of glaucoma. Direct application of the whole herb to the eyes has not been studied and is not recommended.

Forskolin may help dilate blood vessels and improve the forcefulness with which the heart pumps blood. A preliminary trial found that forskolin-reduced blood pressure and improved heart function in people with cardiomyopathy. It is unknown if oral coleus extracts would have the same effect. A small double-blind trial found that inhaled forskolin could decrease lung spasms in asthmatics. It is unclear if oral ingestion of coleus extracts will provide similar benefits.

Medicinal Uses:
As recorded in ancient Sanskrit texts, coleus was used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat heart and lung diseases, intestinal spasms, insomnia, and convulsions. It is widely used as a domestic mild medicine in South America among both urban and rural developments, sometimes confused with the native plant with similar properties but different uses, boldo.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.anniesannuals.com/plt_lst/lists/general/lst.gen.asp?prodid=1558
http://www.ask.com/wiki/Plectranthus_barbatus?o=3986&qsrc=999
http://ayurveda.indianetzone.com/1/ayurveda_herbs.htm

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Plectranthus amboinicus

Botanical Name : Plectranthus amboinicus
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Plectranthus
Species: P. amboinicus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names:Cuban oregano, Spanish thyme, Orégano Brujo (Puerto Rico), Indian Borage, Húng chanh (Vietnam), Big Thyme (Grenada) Mexican thyme, and Mexican mint

Habitat : Plectranthus amboinicus is native to Southern and Eastern Africa, but widely cultivated and naturalised in the Old and New World Tropics.

Description:
Plectranthus amboinicus is a tender fleshy perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae with an oregano-like flavor and odor.

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It  is now very commonly grown as a potted plant in many households. Plectranthus amboinicus is a fast growing plant. Propagation is via stem cuttings. To encourage a bushy plant, cut the tip of the top, insert into the soil and instantly, you have another plant as the cutting will grow within days.The Indian Borage ideally should be grown in a semi-shaded and moist location as the leaves will remain a beautiful jade-green colour. If it is getting too much sun, the leaves turn yellow, start curling and look unsightly; if not enough sun, the leaves turn a dark shade of green and spaced out.

Cultivation:
The herb grows easily in a well-drained, semi-shaded position. It is frost tender and grows well in sub-tropical and tropical locations, but will do well in cooler climates if grown in a pot and brought indoors, or moved to a warm sheltered position in winter. Water only sparingly.

Uses:
The leaves are strongly flavoured and make an excellent addition to stuffings for meat and poultry. Finely chopped, they can also be used to flavour meat dishes, especially beef, lamb and game.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves have had many traditional medicinal uses, especially for the treatment of coughs, sore throats and nasal congestion, but also for a range of other problems such as infections, rheumatism and flatulence. In Indonesia Plectranthus amboinicus is a traditional food used in soup to stimulate lactation for the month or so following childbirth.

The herb is also used as a substitute for oregano in the food trade and food labelled “oregano-flavoured” may well contain this herb.

In Kerala in India this is called as “panikoorka” and has various uses in treating cold / cough / fever in infants.

Used traditionally within Ayurvedic and Unani Tibb herbal medicine to help reduce inflammation and is prescribed for bronchitis and asthma. It is reputed to very effective as a treatment for coughs. Old people says that it is often referred to as “pokok asthma”.  The fresh leaves are pounded and the extracted juice mixed with water.  An alternative method recommended is to boil a sprig in water with honey thrown in for added measure.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plectranthus_amboinicus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Cardoon

Botanical Name :Cynara cardunculus
Family : Asteraceae – Aster family
Genus : Cynara L. – cynara
Species : Cynara cardunculus L. – cardoon
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Asteridae
Order : Asterales

Common Names:Cardoon,artichoke thistle, cardone, cardoni, carduni or cardi

Habitat : Cardoon  is native to the Mediterranean, where it was domesticated in ancient times.Stony or waste places and in dry grassland, usually on clay

Description:
Cynara cardunculus is a PERENNIAL growing to 2 m (6ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.

 

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation :
Prefers a light warm soil and an open position in full sun. For best results, this plant requires plenty of moisture in the growing season and a good rich soil , though another report says that it is drought tolerant once established. Plants grew very well with us in the hot and very dry summer of 1995, though they were looking very tatty by September. Tolerates most soils including heavy clays of both acid and alkaline nature, especially when grown in heavier or more spartan soils. Plants are reasonably wind resistant. This species is hardy to about -10°c. Plants are more likely to require protection from winter cold when they are grown in a heavy soil. Wet winters can do more harm than cold ones. At one time the cardoon was often grown for its edible stems but it has now fallen into virtual disuse. There are some named varieties. It is a very ornamental foliage plant and makes a very attractive feature in the garden. The leaves are long lasting in water and are often used in flower arrangements. Recent taxonomic revisions (1999) have seen the globe artichoke being merged into this species. However, since from the gardener’s point of view it is quite a distinctive plant, we have decided to leave it with its own entry in the database under Cynara scolymus. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits.

Propagation :
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse. Germination is usually quick and good, prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions during the summer. It would be prudent to give the plants some winter protection in their first year. The seed can also be sown in situ in April. Sow the seed 2cm deep, putting 2 or 3 seeds at each point that you want a plant. Protect the seed from mice. Division of suckers. This is best done in November and the suckers overwintered in a cold frame then planted out in April. Division can also be carried out in March/April with the divisions being planted out straight into their permanent positions, though the plants will be smaller in their first year.

Edible Uses:
While the flower buds can be eaten much as the artichoke, more often the stems are eaten after being braised in cooking liquid. Battered and fried, the stems are also traditionally served at St. Joseph’s altars in New Orleans.

The stalks, which look like large celery stalks, can be served steamed or braised. They have an artichoke-like flavor. Cardoons are available in the market only in the winter months. In the U.S.A., it is rarely found in stores, but available in farmers’ markets, where it is available through May, June, and July. The main root can also be boiled and served cold.   Acclaimed chef Mario Batali calls the cardoon one of his favorite vegetables and says they have a “very sexy flavor.”

click to see....>...(1)….(2).

Cardoons are also an ingredient in one of the national dishes of Spain, the cocido madrileño, a slow-cooking, one-pot, meat and vegetable dinner simmered in broth.

In the Abruzzi region of Italy, Christmas lunch is traditionally started with a soup of cardoons cooked in chicken broth with little meatballs (lamb or more rarely, beef), sometimes with the further addition of egg (which scrambles in the hot soup – called stracciatella) or fried chopped liver and heart.

Medicinal Uses:
Anticholesterolemic;  Cholagogue;  Digestive;  Diuretic.

The cardoon has become important as a medicinal herb in recent years following the discovery of cynarin. This bitter-tasting compound, which is found in the leaves, improves liver and gall bladder function, stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, especially bile, and lowers blood cholesterol levels. The leaves are anticholesterolemic, antirheumatic, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic and lithontripic. They are used internally in the treatment of chronic liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis, arteriosclerosis and the early stages of late-onset diabetes. The leaves are best harvested just before the plant flowers, and can be used fresh or dried.

The cardoon has become important as a medicinal herb in recent years following the discovery of cynarin. This bitter-tasting compound, which is found in the leaves, improves liver and gall bladder function, stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, especially bile, and lowers blood cholesterol levels.  The leaves  are used internally in the treatment of chronic liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis, arteriosclerosis and the early stages of late-onset diabetes.

Other uses:
Cardoons are used as a vegetarian source of enzymes for cheese production. In Portugal, traditional coagulation of the curd relies entirely on this vegetable rennet. This results in cheeses such as the Nisa (D.O.P.), with a peculiar earthy, herbaceous and a slightly citric flavour that bears affinity with full-bodied or fortified wines.

Cardoon has attracted recent attention as a possible source of biodiesel. The oil, extracted from the seeds of the cardoon, and called artichoke oil, is similar to safflower and sunflower oil in composition and use

The plant is said to yield a good yellow dye, though the report does not say which part of the plant is used.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cynara%20cardunculus
http://www.nathankramer.com/garden/omaha/041002-18.JPG
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardoon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cynara_cardunculus_(Kalmthout).jpg

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CYCA&photoID=cyca_004_ahp.tif

Suganda(Coleus aromaticus Benth.)

Botanical Name : Coleus aromaticus Benth.
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Plectranthus
Species: P. amboinicus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Other scientific Names:Coleus amboinicus Lour.,Coleus suganda Blanco,Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb.

Common Names:Bildu (Sul.),Clavo (C. L. Bis.),Latai (Sub.),Latay (Sub.),Oregano (Span.),Suganda (Tag.),Torongil de Limon (Span.),Zuo shou xiang (Chin.)

Other Common Names: Cuban oregano, Spanish thyme, Orégano Brujo (Puerto Rico), Indian Borage, Húng chanh (Vietnam), Mexican thyme, and Mexican mint

Habitat :Native to Southern and Eastern Africa, but widely cultivated and naturalised in the Old and New World tropics.

Description:
Suganda is an erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic, green herb, with fleshy stems. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 cm long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. Flowers are small, and occur in distant whorls. Calyx is bell-shaped; the throat is smooth inside, with two lips, the upper lip being ovate and thin, the lower lip having four narrow teeth. Corolla is pale purplish and 5 times longer than the calyx, with a short tube, inflated throat, and short lips.

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This succulent herb has the typical four-cornered stem of the Lamiaceae family. The leaves are very thick and succulent, grey-green and hairy. The plant grows to around 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are highly aromatic with a strong flavour of mixed herbs.

Cultivation:
The herb grows easily in a well-drained, semi-shaded position. It is frost tender and grows well in sub-tropical and tropical locations, but will do well in cooler climates if grown in a pot and brought indoors, or moved to a warm sheltered position in winter. Water only sparingly.


Edible Uses
:
The leaves are strongly flavoured and make an excellent addition to stuffings for meat and poultry. Finely chopped, they can also be used to flavour meat dishes, especially beef, lamb and game.

The herb is also used as a substitute for oregano in the food trade and food labelled “oregano-flavoured” may well contain this herb.
· As condiment, provides fragrance to salads and strong-smelling meat dishes.
· Sometimes, used as flavoring for drinks.


Constituents
:
Fresh leaves yield 0.055 volatile oil, largely carvacrol.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used : Leaves

The leaves have  had many traditional medicinal uses, especially for the treatment of coughs, sore throats and nasal congestion, but also for a range of other problems such as infections, rheumatism and flatulence. In Indonesia Plectranthus amboinicus is a traditional food used in soup to stimulate lactation for the month or so following childbirth.

In Kerala, India this is called as “panikoorka” and has various uses in treating cold / cough / fever in infants.

Properties
*Aromatic, carminative, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, tonic, stimulant.
*In India, considered antilithiotic, chemopreventive, antiepileptic, antioxidant.

Folkloric:
· In the Philippines, macerated fresh leaves applied externally to burns.
· Leaves are bruised and applied to centipede and scorpion bites. Also, applied to temples and forehead for headache, help in place by a bandage.
· Leaves in infusion or as syrup used as aromatic and carminative; used for dyspepsia and also as a cure for asthma.
· The juice of the leaves for dyspepsia, asthma, chronic coughs, bronchits, colic, flatulence, rheumatism. The dose is one tablespoonful of the fresh juice every hour for adults and one teaspoonful every two hours, four times daily, for children. As an infusion, 50 to 60 grams to a pint of boiling water, and drink the tea, 4 to 5 glasses a day. For chilldren, 1/2 cup 4 times daily.
· For otalgia (ear aches), pour the fresh, pure juice into the ear for 10 minutes.
· For carbuncles, boils, sprains, felons, painful swellings: Apply the poultice of leaves to the affected area, four times daily.
· For sore throats, a decoction of two tablespoonfuls of dried leaves to a pint of boiling water, taken one hour before or after meals.
· Decoction of leaves is given after childbirth.
• In India, leaves are used traditionally for bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, epilepsy, nephro-cystolithiasi, fever, indigestion and cough.
· The Chinese used the juice of leaves with sugar, for cough in children, asthma and bronchitis, epilepsy and convulsive disorders.
· Leaves are applied to cracks at the corners of the mouth, for thrush, headaches; against fever as a massage or as a wash.
· Used for bladder and urinary afflictions, and vaginal discharges.
· Used as carminative, given to childen for colic.
· In Bengal, used for coli and dyspepsia.
· Expressed juice applied around the orbit to relieve conjunctival pain.

Studies:-
Antioxidant / Anticlastogenic / Radioprotective: Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation: The hydroalcoholic extract of CA showed dose-dependent radical scavenging against free radicals, rendered radioprotection against radiation induced DNA damage. Study results establsihed antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective activities and suggests a potential for chemoprevention.
• Antioxidant: Study of freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ca clearly established the antioxidant potency of freeze-dried extract of C aromaticus.
Mast cell stabilization property: Study showed stabilization of mast cells in rat mesenteric tissue and suggests further studies into mast cells with its role in Type 1 hypersensitivity-mediated diseases like asthma and rhinitis.
• Antimicrobial: (1) Antimicrobial Activity Of Coleus aromaticus (Benth) Against Microbes Of Reproductive Tract Infections Among Women : Results suggests the herb could be an ideal choice for treating reproductive tract infections. (2) Study showed the antimicrobial effect of Coleus ambonicu, Lour folium infuum toward C albican and Strep mutans.
• Anticlastogenicity: Study of ethanolic extract of C aromaticus showed a protective effect against cyclophophamide and mitomycin-C induced cytogenetic damage.
• Anti-Inflammatory: In a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, the aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the inhibition of mediators released from the 2nd phase of inflammation.
• Antibacterial: Study showed both ethanol and hot water leaf extracts of Coleus aromaticus to possess potent antibacterial activity, the ethanol extract showing greater activity. Results provide scientific support for the centuries-old use of the plant as a medicinal herb.
Forskolin / Antioxidant / Anti-Asthma / Pulmo-protective: Study isolated forskolin, a diterpenoid, from a methanolic extract of C aromaticus. C aromaticus has been used to treat asthma. Forskolin has been thought to be responsible for its pharmaceutical activity through resotration of antioxidant enzyme activity with its ability to scavenge free radicals. The results validate the use of forskolin as an anti-asthmatic agent.

Other Uses:
· Fresh leaves rubbed on clothing or hair for its scent.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Oregano.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plectranthus_amboinicus

http://www.bailane.com/Blog/ViewBlog.aspx?sid=113&hid=21179

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Pashanabhedi(Coleus forskohlii )

Botanical Name : Plectranthus barbatus/Coleus forskohlii
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Plectranthus
Species: P. barbatus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonym : Coleus forskohlii

Trade Name : Pashanabhedi
Other Names:Suganda , Makandi
Common names: pashanabhedi, makandi, colforsin, HL-362 , and mao hou qiao rui hua.

In Marathi the plant roots are known as mainmula and especially used for pickles. The pickle is supposed to help strengthen the heart muscles. In Kenya it is also referred to as Kikuyu toilet paper, as in rural areas its leaves are used as such.

Habitat:
The plant is native to subtropical and tropical regions of India and east Africa. A synonym is C. barbatus.Grows on the dry slopes on the indian plains and in the foothills of the himalayas.

Description:Coleus forskohlii is an aromatic perennial, with an erect stem and tuber like roots, reaching 60 cm. .Grows and cultivated throughout India.
Stem is square in shape and are usually extremely fragrant due to their large content of essential oil. The plant  is 1 to 2 feet tall having teardrop striking leaves, shimmering green framing a bright purple center; leaf color differs with the amount of shade. Flowers are of pale purple or blue color.

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Propagation : Forskolin, Coleous root

Parts Used
:  Leaves and Roots.

Chemistry:
Herbal teas made from Plectranthus barbatus contains rosmarinic acid and also flavonoid glucuronides and diterpenoids. The chemical constituents of Plectranthus barbatus showed interesting activities in vitro, such as antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

Forskolin is one of the most extensively studied constituents of P. barbatus.

CLICK & SEE

Medicinal Uses : Coleus has been used as a medical herb to treat heart and lung diseases, intestinal spasms, insomnia and convulsions. Forskolin may also assist in dilating blood vessels and improving the forcefulness with which the heart pumps blood.It may help to reduce blood pressure and improved heart function in people with cardiomyopathy. It is found effective in skin conditions as eczema and psoriasis. It can aid in weight loss due to its ability to breakdown stored fat.

The root is used for a myriad of medicinal purposes. According to the ancient Sanskrit texts, coleus has been used as a medical herb to treat heart and lung diseases, intestinal spasms, insomnia and convulsions. It also lowers blood pressure, antispasmodic, dilates the blood vessels.

It is found to be effective in skin conditions as eczema and psoriasis. Coleus is primarily indicated for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure and angina. It is also used for asthma, intestinal colic, uterine cramps as well as painful urination. Coleus can aid in digestive and malabsorption disorders through its ability to stimulate secretion of saliva, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, amalyase and pancreatic enzymes and increase nutrient absorption in the small intestine. It accelerates the breakdown of existing fat stores and promotes healthy cardiovascular function, lowers elevated blood pressure. Useful in treatment for eczema and other allergic condition. The oil finds useful applications in flavor and fragrance preparations as well as in aromatherapy.

Home remedy:
It is widely used as a home remedy in South America among both urban and rural developments, sometimes confused with the native plant with similar properties but different uses, boldo.

The Brazilian name is boldo brasileiro (Portuguese pronunciation: , as opposed to the Chilean true boldo), boldo-da-terra , boldo-de-jardim or tapete-de-Oxalá , and it is used to alleviate digestive problems, particularly liver-related ones, such as headaches caused by hangovers and other consumption of alcohol, as well as excessive fat content in food.

The traditional Brazilian use consists in finely macerating three big, healthy leaves inside a 200ml cup with an impermeable wand, such as the holding extremity of a fork or a spoon, adding water and drinking the bitter juice, but not the leaves. More water is immediately added, without further maceration, and drank 2 hours after. The process is repeated once more. Leaves should be taken from the plant after the sunrise and before the sunset.

Traditional/Ethnobotanical uses
This species and other related species were used in Ayurvedic medicine under the name pashanabhedi for heart and lung diseases, intestinal spasms, insomnia, and convulsions. It was studied for cardiovascular activity in 1974 by scientists from Hoechst India and the Central Drug Research Institute of India in screening programs that examined medicinal plants.

Cardiovascular effects
Forskolin has been shown to dilate the blood vessels, decreasing blood pressure, increasing the contractility of the heart, and inhibiting platelet aggregation in patients. Because of its multiple sites of action, it should be used with caution. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of forskolin for antithrombotic effects. Forskolin has shown positive effects in human heart tissues. More clinical studies are needed.

Asthma
Forskolin has been shown to relax contracted airways in humans. A small human study found that inhaled forskolin powder formulations were capable of causing bronchodilation in asthma patients. Further clinical study is necessary.

Contraindications
Avoid use in patients on anticoagulants, antihypertensives, and vasodilators because of additive effects. Avoid use with ulcers because of stimulation of gastric acid, and in diabetes due to stimulation of lipid release and gluconeogenesis.

Pregnancy/nursing
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Avoid use.

Interactions
May have additive effects with anticoagulants, antihypertensives, and vasodilators.

Side Effects
Avoid use with ulcers because of stimulation of gastric acid and in diabetes due to stimulation of lipid release and gluconeogenesis.

You may click to see:->for more knowledge in medicinal uses of forskolin :
Research Update:Coleus forskohlii,Forskolin :

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.drugs.com/npc/forskolin.html
http://apmab.ap.nic.in/products.php?&start=30
http://www.motherherbs.com/coleus-forskohlii.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plectranthus_barbatus

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