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Herbs & Plants

Pterocarpus Marsupium

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Botanical Name: Pterocarpus Marsupium
Family:    Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:    Dalbergieae
Genus:    Pterocarpus
Species:    P. marsupium
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Fabales
Common Name(s): Indian Kino Tree, Malabar Kino Tree and Kino,Benga,Bijiayasal or Venkai
Names – Hindi – Vijaisar kaashtha

Sanskrit Name : Bijaka,Pithasara, Pithashalaka, Bandhukapushpa, Priyaka, Sarjaka, Asana, Vihayasara

English – Indian kinowood
Peetasaar, Sanskrit- Pitasala Asana, Sarfaka
Telugu – Paiddagi Chekka
Marathi – Biyala lakda
Tamil – Vegaimaram chakkal
Trade name – Bijaisaar Kaashtha
Kingdom: Plantae
Division
: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Tribe: Dalbergieae
Genus: Pterocarpus
Species: P. marsupium

Parts Used: Heart Wood, Leaves and Flowers,Bark, gum.

Habitat: The tree is common in central and peninsular India, found at 3000 ft in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Sub-Himalayan Tract.

Description:
The Indian Kino is a medium to large; deciduous tree and can grow up to 30 meters tall. Leaves compound, having 5-7 leaflets, 3 to 5 inch long, oblong or elliptic, margin wavy, flower about 1.5 cm long, yellow in colour.

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The heartwood of this tree is golden yellow. Tree bark yields a reddish gum called kino, the trade name.It turns the water blue as soon as it comes in contact with the water.

Properties:Astringent, alterant (A drug which corrects, or is presumed to correct disordered bodily function), hypoglycemic.
Phytochemicals: Glycosides, flavours, terpenes, phenols.

Medicinal Uses:Parts of the Indian Kino (heart wood, leaves, flowers) have long been used for their medicinal properties in Ayurveda. The heart wood is used as an astringent and in the treatment of inflammation and diabetes.

The bark of this plant is used as an astringent and for toothaches. It is good for elephantiasis, leucoderma, diarrhea, dysentery, rectalgia, cough and grayness of hair.

The strongly astringent kino tightens the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.  It can treat chronic diarrhea and relieve the irritation caused by intestinal infection and colitis. Although its taste is unpleasant, this herb makes a good mouthwash and gargle.  It is widely used in Asia as a douche for excessive vaginal discharge.  Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the plant produced a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in rabbits. The decoction of bark has significant effect on scrum cholesterol in hyper- cholesterolemic rabbits. Propterols, isolated from the plant, show antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria.  Epicatechin was tested for antidiabetic activity in albino rats; it protected against alloxan-induced diabetes  Kino is almost entirely soluble in alcohol and entirely in ether and partly in water.

(a) In Diabetes

The tree has been regarded as useful in diabetes from ancient time. The water, in which a block of wood of this tree has been soaked overnight is given to diabetic patients.

Water stored overnight in a tumbler made of this wood has shown anti-diabetic properties. People often seen using such tumbler for drinking water.

Decoction of bark 56 to 112 ml once in the morning for 10-15 days is useful in controlling diabetes.

Powdered bark 3 to 6 g or extracted juice 125 mg 2/3 times after meals control diabetes.

Powdered bark 5 g left overnight in a cup of water. Next day, water is decanted and taken on empty stomach in the morning for 10 days checks diabetes. Promising results have been reported with regard to reduction in the sugar levels in blood and urine.

(b) Other Uses

The gum (Kino) which is obtained from incisions in bark is astringent (a substance that shrinks soft tissues and contracts blood vessels thus checking the flow of blood) and used in leucoderma, diarrhoea, pyrosis (heart burn; gastric hyperacidity) and toothache. Bruised leaves are used externally for boils, sores and various skin diseases. It promotes the complexion of the skin. The flowers are used in fevers. The plant is considered to be useful by santhal tribals in burns, syphilis, stomachache, cholera, dysentery and menorrhagia (Excessive or prolonged periods).

Doses

Decoction – 50 to 100 ml

Powder – 3 to 6 g

Extracted Juice – 125 mg

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterocarpus_marsupium
http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/pterocarpus-marsupium.html
http://ezinearticles.com/?Pterocarpus-Marsupium,-Roxb&id=1096020
http://www.ayurveda-herbal-remedy.com/indian-herbs/pterocarpus-marsupium.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Kurchi (Holarrhena pubescence)

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Botanical Name:Holarrhena pubescence (Buch.-Ham.) Wall ex DC. (Apocynaceae)
Family : Apocynaceae

Syn : Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall., Echites pubescens Buch.-Ham.

English names: Bitter oleander, Conessi bark, Dysentery rosebay, Easter tree, Ivory tree, Tellichery bark.

Sanskrit names: Girimallika, Indrayava, Kalinga(ka), Kalingyava, Katuka, Katuja, Mahagandha, Mallikapushpa, Panduradruama, Pravrishya, Sangrahi, Shakrapadapa, Vatsika, Vrikshaka, Yavaphala.

Vernacular names: Asm : Dhurkhuri, Ducikhuri; Ben: Kurchi, Katuraj, Kuteswar, Indrajava; Guj : Dhowda, Kuda, Kari; Hin : Kurchi, Karchi, Karra; Kan : Beppale coodsaloo, Korchie; Lep : Fajeerip; Mal: Kodagapala; Mar: Kura, Kala-kura, Kear, Kewar, Kodago, Kuda, Dola-kuda, Pandhrakura;’Mun : Ludu-ba, Toa-ba; Nep : Khuria; Ori : Kherwa, Pita, Korwa, Patru kurwa; Orn : Koraia; Pun: Kawar, Kura, Kear, Kewar; Sad: Koraia; San: Hat; Tam: Kuda-sappalai, Veppalei, Kodagapalei, Indrabam; Tel: Kodisepala, Palakodsa, Pala, Kodaga.

Trade name: Kurchi.

Habitat : Major parts of India up to 1500 m in the Himalaya; Bangladesh, also in Africa-mostly in drier regions.Native to: tropical areas of Africa and Asia

Description:
Deciduous tree or large shrub; leaves sessile or subsessile, broadly ovate to elliptic-oblong, abruptly acuminate, often unequal, rounded or obtuse at base, lateral nerves 10-15 pairs, arching near the margin; flowers white(very sweet smell), bracts small, follicles 20-42 by 0.8-1.2 cm; seeds up to 1 cm long, linear-oblong, coma about twice as long as seeds, seeds brown.

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Flowering and Fruiting: May-January.

Ecology and cultivation
: Common in village surroundings; sometimes in private gardens.

Chemical contents: Root-bark: holacetine; Stem-bark: L-quebrachitol, dihydroisoconessimine, kurcholessine, 3-a-aminoconan-5-ene, 7-a-OH-conessine, holonamine; Leaf: aminoglycosteroids, aminode-oxyglycosteroids, kurchiphylline, kurchiphyllamine, kurchaline, holadysine, holadysamine, holantosines A, B, C & D, holarosine A, B, E & F.

Medicinal Uses:

Traditional use: MANIPURI : Bark (boiled extract) : in diarrhoea, dysentery; GARO : Bark and Leaf: in dysentery; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES AROUND GUAHATI: Seed: as anthelmintic; BODO (of Assam) : Bark: in diarrhoea, dysentery, piles; Flower: as appetiser and in intestinal worms; Seed.. in leprosy; ASUR (of Bihar) : Bark: in snake bite; Seed: diarrhoea, fever, intestinal worms; MUNDA : Root and Leaf: in diarrhoea, bleeding from nose, haemorrhage after childbirth; SANTAL : Root: in bite of dog or jackal, blood and mucous in bowel excretion, diarrhoea, dysentery, hematuria, spermatorrhoea, spleen complaints; Bark.. in bronchitis, chameleon’s bite, cholera, cold, colic, fever, menorrhagia; Fruit: in anaemia, colic, constip5ltion, diarrhoea, dry cough, epilepsy, gravel, postnatal complaints, stomachache; TRIBAL SOCIETIES OF HAZARIBAGH AND RANCHI : Bark: in gastric disorder, to revive taste in tongue; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF ORISSA: Latex: in eczema and other skin diseases; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF ABUJH-MARH (Madhya Pradesh) : Bark: in menstrual complaints; TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF SAGAR (Madhya Pradesh) : Seed: in dysentery; THARU (of Uttar Pradesh) : Bark: in fever; Bark and Seed (together) : in dysentery; KOL (of Uttar Pradesh) : Seed: in digestive complaints; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF DEHRA DUN AND SIWALIK: Seed: in diarrhoea, dysentery, fever; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF EAST RAJASTHAN: Bark and Seed (together) : in dysentery; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF MOUNT ABU: Bark: as antidote to snake bite; DANG: (of Gujarat ): Bark: in diarrhoea; VASAVA (of Gujarat ) : Root: in fever; Root and Bark (together) : in gout; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF SAURASHTRA: Bark: in bronchitis; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF DAHANU FOREST DIVISION (Maharashtra) : Bark and Leaf (together) : in dysentery; Latex: as antidote to snake bite, Seed: in asthma, colic.

ATHARVAVEDA : increases semen, tightens the slackened muscles; CHARAKA SAMHITA : Bark (paste) : good for skin diseases, leprosy, ringworm, piles, fistula, adenitis; Fruit: in vomiting, beneficial in disorders caused by vitiated phlegm and bile, as galactagogue; Seed: in piles; SUSHRUTA SAMHITA: Flower: beneficial in deranged phlegm and bile, and a good remedy for leprosy; CHAKRADATTA: Bark: in diarrhoea; BHAVAPRAKASHA: pungent, drying, refrigerant, excitant, cures piles, diarrhoea, phlegm, bile, leprosy, alleviates thirst; RAJANIGHANTU : pungent, bitter, thermogenic, astringent, cures diarrhoea, vitiated bile, skin diseases and piles; DHANVANTARINIGHANTU: pungent, bitter, astringent, drying, cooling, cures skin diseases, gastroenteritis, vitiated bile; MADANANIGHANTU : excitant, digestive, astringent, beneficial in bleeding tendency, worms, skin diseases; SALIGRAMNIGHANTU : appetising, beneficial in vitiated phlegm, cures diarrhoea, skin diseases, worms; KAIYADEVANIGHANTU : astringent, cooling, drying, excitant, pungent, beneficial in vitiated phlegm, bile, skin diseases, diarrhoea, piles; Flower: refrigerant, bitter, astringent, excitant.

AYURVEDA:
Bark and Seed: acrid, anthelmintic, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bitter, carminative, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulating, beneficial in asthma, bronchitis! blood dysentery, diarrhoea, dropsy, dysentery, fever, haemorrhages, haemorrhoides, hepatopathy, malaria, piles, rheumatism, skin diseases, urinary troubles, verminosis, vomiting; Leaf: useful in boils, bronchitis, dysentery and wounds.

SIDDHA:
Root and Bark: used as constituents for the preparation of Kutacap patai.

UNANI : in the preparation of Sufuf Habis and Majnum Bawasir.

Click to see:> Research Article By Pankaj Oudhia on Kurchi

Modern use: Bark (50% EtOH extract) : hypotensive; Bark-powder: in abdominal and glandular tumours; Fruit (50% EtOH extract) : anticancer, anti protozoa, hypoglycaemic, astringent, febrifuge, useful in diarrhoea, intestinal worms, and to regulate menstruation.

Remarks: Tribals of East Rajasthan give root to cattle in a disease in which tongue ejects out and gets swollen. Tribals of Maharashtra eat flower and seed as vegetables. Ethnic communities of Ratan Mahal Hills use latex to curdle milk. Santal women use flowers to decorate their hairdos. Tribals of Madhya Pradesh use wood to make combs and many household articles.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.bsienvis.org/medi.htm#Euphorbia%20tirucalli
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Conessi

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