Tag Archives: Uttar Pradesh

Fritillaria roylei

Botanical Name:  Fritillaria roylei

Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales
Tribe: Lilieae
Genus: Fritillaria

Common name: Himalayan Fritillary • Hindi: Kakoli • Tamil: Kakoli • Malayalam: Kakoli • Telugu: Kakoli • Kannada: Kakoli • Sanskrit: Kakoli, Ksirakakol, Ksirasukla, Payasya
Habitat : Fritillaria roylei is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows on the alpine slopes and in shrubberies, 2700 – 4000 metres, from Pakistan to Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Fritillaria roylei  is a herbacious plant, 0.5-2 ft tall, commonly found in alpine slopes and shrubberies of the Himalayas, from Pakistan to Uttarakhand, at altitudes of 2700-4000 m. Flowers are yellowish-green to brownish-purple and usually with a chequered pattern in dull purple. Flowers are broadly bell-shaped, hanging looking down, borne singly on the stems, but sometimes in groups of 2-4. Petals are narrow-ovate. 4-5 cm long. Leaves are linear-lancelike, often long-pointed, 5-10 cm, arrange oppositely or in whorls of 2-6 on the stem. Flowering: June-July. . The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:

This species is easily grown in a cold greenhouse but is difficult to grow outdoors in Britain. In the wild it is under snow for 6 months of the year and is baked by the sun for the rest of the year. Very closely related to and merging into F. cirrhosa in the eastern part of its range[90]. Famous in Chinese medicine, where it is called Pé-mou, it is sold as a medicinal herb in local markets there. Flowers are produced in 3 – 5 years from seed.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.

Medicinal Uses:
The bulb is antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, febrifuge, galactogogue, haemostatic, ophthalmic and oxytocic.  It is boiled with orange peel and used in the treatment of TB and asthma.

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Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Himalayan%20Fritillary.html
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+roylei

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Brassica cernua

 

Botanical Name : Brassica cernua
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. juncea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonym :Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. juncea

Common Name : Chinese cabbage, pak choi, pakchoi, Pe-tsai, petsai, wong bok, wongbok, Chinese salad, Chou chinois (Fr), kapisi, kapeti ni jaina (Fiji), kapisi siaina (Tonga, Tuvalu),
Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Jie Cai (in Mandarin) or Kai Choi (in Cantonese), or leaf mustard is a species of mustard plant.

Habitat :Brassica cernua is native to Eastern Asia. Places in India where it grows are  Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Brassica cernua is a  perennial, biennial, often grown as an annual herb.It is a succulent herb forming rosettes, of open or tight vegetative heads followed by flowering stalks reaching 20-50 cm in height. Leaves are succulent and light green.May be harvested after 40-60 or 50-90 days, depending on variety. (Eswaran) 25-45 days for leaves and 100-110 days for seeds.

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Edible Uses:
The leaves are eaten fresh, boiled, fried, or fermented. Some varieties produce seeds that can be pressed for oil.

Cultivation:
It can in the tropics be grown at elevations up to 1500 m, but at elevations below 500 m heading is less likely to occur. A difference of 5-6°C in day and night temperatures appears to increase the vigour of the plant. Temperatures below 16°C promote flowering, particularly in daylengths of 13 hours or more. Drought stress in the heading stage prevents head formation. It is easely damaged by high winds. Leaf yields between 5 and 70 t/ha or 0.5-7 kg/m? may be obtained depending on length of growing period, plant desity, environmental conditions and cultivars. Photosynthesis pathway C3.

Medicinal Uses:
The seeds treat pain in nerves, arthritis, pneumonia

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=547
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.tuinkrant.com/plantengids/groenten/29947.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_juncea

Asparagus adscendens(Sufed musli)

Botanical Name : Asparagus adscendens
Family :  Asparagaceae/Liliaceae
Common Names: Sufed musli, Khairuva, Asparagus,Safeta Musali, Shweta Musali, White Musali

Habitat: Asparagus adscendens is  Found in  E. Asia – Afghanistan, Himalayas, Iran.It grows especially in Sal forests in Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Asparagus adscendens is an evergreen Shrub. It is in leaf 12-Jan. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile.
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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in any good garden soil. Prefers a rich sandy loam. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring or as soon as the seed is ripe in early autumn in a greenhouse. It usually germinates in 3 – 6 weeks at 25°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in early spring as the plant comes into growth.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Root;  Stem.

The plant is a source of a nutritious starch that can be used like salep (which is obtained from various species of orchid) The part of the plant that is used is not specified but is most likely to be the root. To make salep, the root is dried and ground into a powder. The young shoots are probably edible, used like asparagus.

Principal Constituents:
Asparagus adscendens has several principal constituents like Steroidal glycosides. Several compounds like 3-heptadecanone, 8-hexadecenoic acid, methyl pentacosanoate, palmitic acid, stearic acid were also identified.

Medicinal Uses:
Demulcent;  DiaphoreticGalactogogue;  Stimulant.

The roots are demulcent, diaphoretic, galactogogue and stimulant. They are useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and general debility.

The tuberous root or rhizome is used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and general debility. It is used as an aphrodisiac as well as to increase sperm count. Its use as general tonic is also well known all over India.  The dried roots are used in Unani medicine as an aphrodisiac as they are rich in glycosides. It has been found very effective in increasing male potency and is considered as an alternative to Viagra.  It offers significant protection against stress induced changes. It cures many physical illness and weakness and it is used for increasing general body immunity.  It is used in case of pre-natal and post-natal problems; the root powder is fried in ghee and chewed in the case of apthae of mouth and throat.  It is also used in formulations of Body-building medicines.  Can be taken as a milk decoction, powder, confection.

Different  Uses:
*Asparagus adscendens is used for the preparation of health tonic that is used in general weakness and debility.
*Asparagus adscendens is used in case of pre-natal and post-natal problems.
*Asparagus adscendens root powder fried in the GHEE, CHEWED in case of apthae of mouth and throat.
*Asparagus adscendens is found very effective in increasing male potency. It is considered as alternative to Viagra.
*Asparagus adscendens  is used in formulations of Body-building medicines.

*In India Asparagus adscendens is used in PAN and GUTKHA.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asparagus+adscendens
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
http://www.asparagusherbs.com/
http://www.asparagusherbs.com/

http://www.greenearthproducts.net/asparagus-adscendens.html

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Bengal hemp

 

Botanical Name : Crotalaria juncea L.

Family: Fabaceae (alt. Leguminosae)
Genus :Crotalaria L. – rattlebox
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Crotalarieae.
Kingdom :  Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom:   Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Division :  Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Superdivision :   Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order :   Fabales
Species:    Crotalaria juncea L. – sunn h


Synonyms
: Crotalaria benghalensis Lam.,Crotalaria fenestrata Sims,Crotalaria ferestrata Sims,Crotalaria porrecta Wall.,Crotalaria sericea Willd.,Crotalaria tenuifolia Roxb.,Crotalaria viminea Wall.


Common Names :-

Cambodia: kâk’tung
China: shu ma, tai yang ma (Taiwan)
English: brown hemp, Indian-hemp, Madras-hemp, sann-hemp, sunn crotalaria, sunn-hemp,Bengal hemp
French: cascavelle, chanvre du Bengale, chanvre indien, crotolaire jonciforme, grand sonnette, grand tcha-tcha (Creole), sonnette, tcha-tcha (Creole)
German: bengalischer hanf, bombay hanf, sanhanf
India: saab, san, sunn, sannai, sanpat, sonai, tag, vakku, janumu, ghore sun, shon, shonpat
Indonesia: orok-orok lembut
Kenya: mito
Laos: th´üang, thwax chu
Nepal: san
Philippines:
putok-putukan, karay-kagay
Portuguese: cânhamo-da-Índia, crotalaria
Russia: krotalyariya sitnikovaya
Spanish: cáñamo san
Sri Lanka: hana
Tamil: sanal, sannappu
Thailand: po-thuang
Vietnamese:
cây mu?ng
Taiwan : Tai yang ma

Habitat :Exact native range obscure, although considered native to:
South Asia: Bangladesh; Bhutan; India (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Yanan.)

Cultivated throughout the dry and wet tropics particularly in India, Bangladesh, and Brazil; also to a lesser extent in the subtropics and even cool temperate steppe.

Description:
Erect, herbaceous, laxly branched annual shrub, (1 -) 2 – 3 (- 4) m tall, with a deep strong tap root, and well-developed lateral roots bearing numerous multi-branched and lobed nodules, up to 2.5 cm in length.  Stem cylindrical, ribbed, pubescent to about 2 cm diameter, branching from about 60 cm, minimised with dense plantings.  Leaves simple, sparsely appressed-pubescent above, more densely so below, stipules acicular, 2 – 3 mm long, caducous; petiole about 5 mm long with pulvinus, blades bright green in colour, linear elliptic to oblong, entire, acute, sometimes sub-obtuse, 4 – 12 (- 15) cm long, 0.5 – 3 cm broad; spirally arranged on the stem.  Inflorescence a lax indeterminate, terminal raceme (10 -) 15 – 25 (- 30 cm) long comprising 10 – 20 flowers, with very small linear bracts.  Pedicels 3 – 5 mm long; corolla bright or deep yellow; standard erect, sub-orbicular to short oblong, 2 – 2.5 cm diameter, sometimes streaked reddish or purple on dorsal surface; wings slightly shorter than keel; keel abruptly curved, the beak narrow and twisted at apex, c. 10 mm long; stamens 10, almost free to base (5 with short filaments and long narrow anthers, and 5 with long filaments and small rounded anthers); calyx 5-lobed, sepals pointed, tomentose, 11 – 20 mm long, 3 lower sepals united at base separating in fruit.  Pods tomentose, inflated, cylindrical, 2.5 – 4 (- 6) cm long, 1 -2 cm diameter, grooved along the upper surface, with a short pointed beak, light brown when ripe, 6 – 12-seeded.  Seed heart-shaped, with narrow end strongly incurved, flattened, (3 -) 4 – 6 mm long, greyish olive, dark grey, dark brown to black, loosened in the pod at maturity; 17,000 to 35,000 per kg (depending on production conditions and genotype).

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Cultivation:
Grows on most well-drained soils.  For fibre, it is best on fairly light textured soil (sandy loam or loam) of at least moderate fertility, but for other purposes, it will also grow well on clay soils and tolerates low fertility, providing soils are well-drained.

Plants remain succulent for 6 to 8 weeks after sowing, at which time flowering begins and stems begin to lignify.  When grown for forage, C. juncea can be harvested 4 times, starting 6 – 8 weeks after sowing, and then every 4 weeks.  This is also the best time to incorporate it as a green manure.  More mature plants are set back by harvesting and may die or take some time for even partial recovery.


Constituents :
Leaves contain an abundance of mucilage, a little solid fat and a resin soluble in ether.

Properties
*Leaves are considered refrigerant, demulcent, emetic, purgative, emmenagogue and abortive.
*Root is astringent.
*Seeds are corrective of blood.

Medicinal Uses:
Folkloric
*Infusion of bitter leaves are used externally and internally for gastric and bilious fevers accompanied by skin diseases like impetigo and psoriasis. Also used as emmenagogue.
*Root is used for colic and as astringent in epistaxis.
*Seeds used to purify the blood.
*Powdered seeds, mixed with oil, used to make the hair grow.

Studies
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Ulcerogenic: Study showed CJ extract significantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. It also possessed anti-ulcerogenic property which may be due to an appetite suppresant effect.
• Toxicological Studies on Seeds: Study showed the administration of a dose of 200 mg/kg of extracts of seeds on liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals of adult rats caused significant alterations. Organ net weight decreased, histology showed disintegration necrosis and degeneration in the liver, renal tubular cell degeneration and exfoliation, zona glomerulosa hypertrophy in the adrenals, and splenic increase in megakaryotic cells and lymphocytes.
• Antispermatogenic / Hormonal Effects: Study evaluated the antifertility activity of various extracts of Crotalaria juncea seeds in male mice. Results showed decrease in testis and accessory organ weights, with spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm counts were reduced. The ethanol extract showed the most potent antispermatogenic activity. Study concludes that various extracts arrest spermatogenesis and are likely to have antiandrogenic activity.

Other Uses:
While finding some application as a forage, it is primarily grown for production of bast fibres used in the manufacture of twine and cord, high quality paper and pulp; also used as a green manure or cover crop and as a break crop to reduce weed and nematode populations.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/Crotalaria_juncea.htm
http://www.stuartxchange.com/BengalHemp.html

Chaerophyllum villosum

Botanical Name : Chaerophyllum villosum
Family  : Umbelliferae/Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Genus    : Chaerophyllum
Order: Apiales
Tribus: Scandiceae
Species: Chaerophyllum villosum
Common name:Mithi patis, Hairy Chervil , Hindi: Khelti , Nepali:  Chyaum


Habitat  :
E. Asia – Himalayas from India to Bhutan, Nepal and China.   Moist shady places at elevations of 2100 – 3500 metres in Nepal. Forests, road sides or open grassy places at elevations of 2100 – 2800 metres in southwestern China.

This species is globally distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan between an altitude range of 2100-3600 m. Within India, it has been recorded in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul – Spiti Frequent on moist slopes. Jispa), Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and in Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya between an altitude range of 1200-1800 m.


Description :

Hairy Chervil is a perennial herb up to 60 cm tall, velvety.
Roots are elongated, fusiform. Lower stem is densely hairy, hairs white, deflexed. Leaves are 2-3-pinnate, velvety; pinnae finely divided; leaf sheaths of the upper leaves inflated. Involucral bracts are absent. White or pale pink flowers are borne in umbels. Rays are 6-10, smooth to velvety. Involucel of 5-6 linear to lanceolate bractlets; margins white, ciliate or entire. Fruit is cylindrical, 6-9 mm long, narrowed at the tip – 2-6 fruits are borne in an umbellet.

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It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. One report says this is an annual plant. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in almost any soil, though it prefers a moist soil.

Propagation
:
Seed – these notes are based on C. bulbosum, they might not apply to this species. Best sown in the autumn in situ. The seed has a very short viability or, according to another report, the seed becomes dormant if allowed to dry out and will not germinate for a year. If stored for a spring sowing it should be kept in damp sand in a cold but frost-free place and then sown in situ in March. Another alternative is to sow the seed in the autumn in a seed tray in a cold frame and then to sow the seed, soil and all, in early April in situ.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.  Tender young leaves and shoots – cooked.

Medicinal Uses
Not known

Resources:
http://server9.web-mania.com/users/pfafardea/database/plants.php?Chaerophyllum+villosum
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Chaerophyllum_villosum
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Hairy%20Chervil.html
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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