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Herbs & Plants

Arjun (Terminalia arjuna)

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Botanical Name:Terminalia arjuna
Family:    Combretaceae
Genus:    Terminalia
Species:    T. arjuna
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Myrtales

Common Names: Arjuna or Arjun tree in English,  Thella Maddi in Telugu and Marudha Maram in Tamil.

Habitat : Arjuna is  native  to Indian Subcontinent.  The arjuna is usually found growing on river banks or near dry river beds in West Bengal and south and central India.  It grows all over India,Burma,Bangladesh and Srilanka.

Description:
Arjuna is a large sized deciduous tree. Height of this plant is around 60-80ft with spreading branches. Bark smooth and flower is sessile type with often buttressed trunk, smooth grey bark, and drooping branchlets. Leaves; sub opposite, hard, oblong or elliptic, 10-20 cm long. Terminalia Arjuna Flowers; yellowish white. Fruits; 2.5-5 cm long, obvoid-oblong, with 5-7 equal, hard, leathery appearance, thick narrow wings, their striations curving upwards. Terminalia Arjuna Flowers in March to June and fruits in September to November.

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Cultivation Method: after collection of nature fruits dried into sunlight & then stored up to 6-12 months. Seeds are pretreated by soaking in water for 48 hrs before sowing in beds. 8-9 months old seedlings are better to transplant in the field.
Useful Parts: Every parts useful medicinal properties Arjun holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Yunani Systems of medicine. According to Ayurveda it is alexiteric, styptic, tonic, anthelmintic, and useful in fractures, uclers, heart diseases, biliousness, urinary discharges, asthma, tumours, leucoderma, anaemia, excessive prespiration etc. According to Yunani system of medicine, it is used both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges. It is used as expectorant, aphrodisiac, tonic and diuretic.
Chemical Constituents: A glucoside – arjunetin – has been isolated from bark. Recently new flavance – arjunone has been isolated from fruits alongs with cerasidin, ?-sitosterol, friedlin, methyl oleanolate, gallic, ellagic and arjunic acids.
Principal Constituents ß-sitosterol, ellagic acid, and arjunic acid.

Ayurvedic Formulations: Arujanarishta, Arjunghrita, Arjunakhsirpak, Arvindasava, Devadarvy – arishta etc.
Medicinal uses: Arjuna (Kakubhah) is cooling and checks heart diseases, Haemorrhagic consumption and poisons (Toxaemia). It is useful in obesity (Medas) and in Diabetic wounds. It is astringent and checks Kapha and Pitta. As an astringent, it is used in tooth powders. Action:– Cardiac tonic.

Ayurvedic Uses:– It is a reputed heart tonic of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. It is observed large doses to depress the heart. Small doses taken over a long period with sugar and ghee steadily improves the condition of the heart giving it strength. It is used as a powder either alone or in combination with other herbs. This pure dried Arjun bark can be made into a tea by steeping for 10 minutes in hot water. The bark can be re used 3 times if carefully dried between use.Powdered from bark is used as astringent, cardiac tonic & asthma. Leaf juice is used to cure blood dysentery.
The bark of tree is a cardiac stimulant and has a cooling and tonic effect. It is useful in arresting secretion or bleeding. It helps to relieve fever. It is also useful in removing calculi or stones formed in the urinary system, in promoting flow of bile and in the healing of wounds. Asthma, acne, diarrhea or dysentery, earache.

The bark is useful as an anti-ischemic and cardioprotective agent in hypertension and ischemic heart diseases, especially in disturbed cardiac rhythm, angina or myocardial infarction. The bark powder possesses diuretic, prostaglandin enhancing and coronary risk factor modulating properties. It apparently has a diuretic and a general tonic effect in cases of cirrhosis of the liver.
Other Uses: Recommended for reclamation of saline, alkaline soils and deep ravines. Used for agro and social forestry. Timber is locally used for carts, agricultural implements, water troughs, traps, boat building, house building, electric poles, tool-handles, jetty-piles and plywood. Fodder is useful for tassar silkworm. It is one of the major tannin yielding trees. Bark (22 to 24%), leaf (10 to 11%) and fruit (7 to 20%) contains tannins.

The arjuna is one of the species whose leaves are fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk (tussah), a wild silk of commercial importanc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_arjuna
www.mapbd.com and amazon.com,
http://www.bicco.com/herb_photo.html
http://www.bssmworld.com/herbal_health/terminalia_arjuna.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Anantamul (Hemidesmus indicus)

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Botanical Name : Hemidesmus indicus
Family:Apocynaceae
Subfamily:Asclepiadoideae
Genus:Hemidesmus
Species:H. indicus
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:Gentianales
Vernacular Name: Sans-Sariba ,Hind –Anantamula , Eng- Indian sarasaparilla

Habitat:Hemidesmus indicus was found plentiful in Patalkot forest in India. This herb is having much significance in a common tribal life.Grows well in tropical humid climate and available in India,Pakistan,Burma. Bungladesh and Sri Lanka.

Description:  Hemidesmus indicus is a climber shrubby and long rooted plant.It is a slender, laticiferous, twining, sometimes prostrate or semi-erect shrub. Roots are woody and aromatic. The stem is numerous, slender, terete, thickened at the nodes. The leaves are opposite, short-petioled, very variable, elliptic-oblong to linear-lanceolate. The flowers are greenish outside, purplish inside, crowded in sub-sessile axillary cymes. It is occurs over the greater part of India, from the upper Gangetic plain eastwards to Assam and in some places in central, western and South India.

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The root is a substitute for sarsaparilla (the dried root of the tropical species of Smilax, Smilacaceae; in India Smilax aspera L., and Smilax ovalifolia Roxb.). It should be distinguished from American Sarsaparilla Smilax aristolochaefolia Mill and Jamaican Sarsaparilla Smilax ornata Hook.f. (Puri 2003)

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Taxonomic description: A perennial prostrate or twining shrub; root-stock woody, thick, rigid, cylindrical; bark brownish corky, marked with longitudinal furrows and transverse fissures, with aromatic smell. Stems woody, slender, thickened at the nodes. Leaves opposite, petiolate, much variable, linear to broadly lanceolate, acute or ovate, entire, smooth, shining, dark green, later variegated with white above. Flowers in racemes or cymes in opposite axils, small, green outside, purple within; corolla tubular. Fruit of two follicles, long, slender, tapering, spreading. Seeds with silvery white coma. Fl.: almost throughout the year.

Chemical Constituents:
The roots of H. indicus contain hexatriacontane, lupeol, its octacosanoate, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, its acetate and sitosterol. It also contains new coumarino-lignoid-hemidesminine, hemidesmin I and hemidesmin II50, six pentacyclic triterpenes including two oleanenes, and three ursenes. The stem contains calogenin acetylcalogenin-3-0-?-D-digitoxopyrannosyl-0-?-D-digitoxopyronsyl-0-?-D-digitoxopyranoside. It also afforded 3-keto-lup-12-en-21 28-olide along with lupanone, lupeol-3-?-acetate, hexadecanoic acid, 4-methoxy-3-methoxybenzalaldehyde and 3-methoxy-4-5methoxybenzalaldehydglycosides-indicine and hemidine. The leaves contain tannins, flavonoids, hyperoside, rutin and coumarino. Leucoderma lignoids such as hemidesminine, hemidesmin I and hemidesmin II are rare group of naturally occurring compounds present in leaves

Medicinal uses: The plant enjoys a status as tonic, alterative, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic and blood purifier. It is employed in nutritional disorders, syphilis, chronic rheumatism, gravel and other urinary diseases and skin affections. It is administered in the form of powder, infusion or decoction as syrup. It is also an component of several medicinal preparations. It is used as a alternate for Sarsaparilla (from Smilax spp.) and employed as a vehicle for potassium iodide and for purposes for which Sarsaparilla is used. Syrup prepared from the roots is used as a flavoring agent and in the preparation of a sherbet which have cooling properties.

As medicine ˜Anantmoolâ  holds a reputed place in all systems of medicine in India. The roots are used as addition in main treatment of snakebite and scorpion sting. It improves the general health; plumpness, clearness, and strength, succeeding to emaciation, said to be useful in affections of the kidneys, scrofula, cutaneous diseases, thrush, rheumatism, scrofula, skin diseases, venereal disease, nephritic complaints, for sore mouths of children, syphilis, gonorrhea and appetite.

Hemidesmus root is said to be tonic, diuretic, and alterative. The native healers in India are said to use it in nephritic complaints, syphilis and in the sore mouth of children (Joseph et al., 1918). It promotes health and energy and always cures all kinds of diseases caused by vitiated blood (Pioneerherbs, 2005). The plant is said to be alterative, depurative, diaphoretic, tonic, used in autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic skin disorders, asthma, bronchitis, gonorrheal neuralgia, syphilis, venereal diseases, nephritic complaints, scrofula, chronic skin diseases, ulcers etc. (Globalherbal, 2005).

According to Ayurveda, root is cooling, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, alexiteric, antidiarrhoeal, astringent to bowels and useful in treatment of fevers, foul body odour, asthma, bronchitis, blood disorders, leucorrhoea, dysentery, diarrhoea, thirst, burning sensation, piles, eye troubles, epileptic fits, poisoning, rat bites etc. According to Unani system of medicine, root and stem are laxative, diaphoretic, diuretic and useful in treatment of syphilis and leucoderma. Roots are useful in hemicrania, joint pains and syphilis whereas stem is good in treatment of brain, lever and kidney related diseases. It is also useful in treatment of urinary discharges, uterine complaints, paralysis, cough, asthma etc. In central India, a special “Herbal Mala” is made from the root pieces of Anantmool and Semal (Bombax ceiba) which is used in the treatment of Marasmus. They also prepare a special herbal tea from bark and give twice a day for treatment of impurities of blood. Sometimes ‘Kevatch’ (Mucuna pruriens) and ‘Gokhru’ (Tribulus terrestris) are also added in this mixture. The natives use the roots internally in treatment of premature graying of hairs, jaundice, eye related diseases. A decoction is prepared by adding roots of anantmool, Vetiveria zizanioides, dried ginger, Cyperus rotundus and Holarrhena antidysenterica for the treatment of chronic fever and appetite. To take away extra heat from body, root powder is fried in ghee and given to the patients for up to one month. The root is also used with cow milk for treatment of renal calculi.

The root is an alterative tonic, diuretic, demulcent, diaphoretic and carminative. It is said to be good for gout, rheumatism, colds, fevers and catarrhal problems as well as for relieving flatulence, skin problems, scrofula and ringworms. It is blood purifier and said to be promoting health and cure all kinds of diseases caused by vitiated blood. It is useful in venereal diseases, herpes, skin diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, gout, epilepsy, insanity, chronic nervous diseases, abdominal distention, intestinal gas, debility, impotence and turbid urine in Ayurvedic system. It also purifies the urino-genital tract, blood and helps cleanse the mind of negative emotions; therefore it is useful in many nervous disorders.
It promotes health and vigor. Decoction of stalks and leaves is used for skin eruptions, hearing disorders, fevers etc. Root decoction helps in skin diseases, syphilis, elephantiasis, loss of sensation, hemiplegia, loss of appetite, blood purification and for kidney and urinary disorders (herbsforever, 2005).

The roots are used by the tribals India to cure gonorrhoea, leucoderma, bleeding piles, jaundice and dysentery. Powdered root is used in pre and post-natal care. The tribals of Rajasthan use the paste of roots in scorpion sting.

Other Uses:
Syrup is prepared for flavoring medicinal mixtures; found in many medical and cosmetic facial packs. It is often called ‘Sugandha’ because of the wonderful fragrance of its roots.Roots and in some cases whole plants are used as medicine. To cure abdominal tumors this plants is very effective. Its root is used as alterative, purgative, various skin diseases and chronic rheumatism.

Chemical Components: The flavanoid glycosides recognized in the flowers, were hyperoside, isoquercitin and rutin whereas in the leaves, only hyperoside and rutin were identified (Subramaniam & Nair, 1968). Tannins 2.5 % present in leaves; roots are reported to contain sitoserol (Chatterjee & Bhattacharya, 1955). A new ester identified as lupeol octacosanoate in addition to the known compounds viz., lupeol, (-amyrin, (-amyrin, lupeol acetate, (-amyrin acetate, and hexatriacontane (Pioneerherbs, 2005). Coumarins, triterpenoid saponins, essential oil, starch, tannic acid, triterpenoid saponins present (Globalherbal, 2005). A stearopten smilasperic acid is also obtained by distillation with water (Joseph et al., 1918).

Pharmacology: The herb is mildly immuno-suppressant. The aqueous, alcoholic and steam distilled fractions of the crushed roots had no significant diuretic activity. The 50% ethanolic extract of the whole plant did not exhibit any effect on respiration, normal blood pressure and also on pressor response to adrenaline and depressor response to acetylalcholine and histamine in experimental animals. The extract also had no antispasmodic effect on guinea pig ileum. A saponin from the plant is found to have antiinflammatory activity against formalin induced edema (Pioneerherbs, 2005).

The antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of H. indicus root bark is evaluated in several in vitro and ex vivo models. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and TLC fingerprint profile of the extract was established to characterize the extract which showed antioxidant properties (Ravishankara et al., 2002).

As per Ayurveda:The roots are bitter, sweet, cooling, aromatic, refrigerant, emollient, depurative, carminative, appetizer, diaphoretic, expectorant.

Useful in vitiated pitta, burning sensation, leucoderma,leprosy, skin diseases, pruritis, asthma, opthalmopathy, hyperdipsia, hemicrania, epileptic fits, dyspepsia, diarrhea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, leucorrhoea, syphilis, abscess, arthralgia, nad general debility.

Leaves are useful in vomiting, wounds, leucoderma
Stems are bitter, diaphoretic, laxative useful in unflammations, cerebropathy, hepatopathy, nephropathy, syphilis, leucoderma, odontalgia, cough, asthma.
Latex is good for conjunctivitis.
Modern studies have confirmed the antibacterial activity of the root extract and essential oil. Clinical trials have shown a benefit in ringworm infection and for malnutrition. The clinically used doses are considered safe and beneficial, but overdose can be toxic (kalyx, 2005). Hemidesmus indicus has been shown to have significant activity against immunotoxicity and other pharmacological and physiological disorders (Sultana et al., 2003).

Conclusion: A few decades back the herb was very common in this region but due to its heavy demand, the natural population is decreasing at an upsetting rate. The herb has become almost wiped out in these parts. Researchers and state authorities should give special attention on this problem. The herb growers should start its commercial cultivation.

Extreme commercial collection of medicinal plants from their natural habitat due to the growing demand for herbal cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries may be a result of failure of plant populations. Collection of medicinal plants from their natural habitat is cost-effective than farming. One has to obtain land, fertilizers and other required material for cultivation. Medicinal plants growing in natural habitat are known to have organic value. Harvest of such medicinal plants are rarely reported or monitored. Local people should be encouraged for conservational activities. In other way, there is a larger need of a ‘community-based’ approach in protection. Consciousness among the local community is one the most important job. For this, various activities like poster presentation, campaigns, educational pamphlets and slogans can be useful. A society can be made in the villages that will look after the conservation of important medicinal and economical plants. Universities, Colleges, NGOs and other agencies should come ahead and take up a village of their own region. These organizations can play a essential role in conservation of significant medicinal plant. A medicinal plant garden/ herbal garden and green house can be prepared in the village itself. At one side there is need of Ex-situ and in-situ conservation, on the other hand, preservation of traditional Ethno-medicinal-botanic knowledge is highly desirable. Local healers of targeted region should be given support time to time.

This plant is believed as most vital herb. The whole series of traditional medicines and plants, which have been in use for thousands of years, will be threatened if plants like H. indicus are allowed to become damaged through excessive collection. It is therefore need of the hour to come ahead and save this key herb of Patalkot. Active contribution from everyone is highly desired specially people from Chhindwara district.

Cultivation method: Usually it is propagated through vegetative organs.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Source:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/Hemidesmus_scandens.jpg

http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#sariba

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Herbs & Plants

Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.)

Botanical Name: Andrographis paniculata
Family:    Acanthaceae
Genus:    Andrographis
Species:    A. paniculata
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Lamiales

Common Name(s): Kalmegh (Hindi), Chuanxinlian (Chinese), Kalupnath , Kiriat , Mahatita (“ King of Bitters ), Alui , Bhunimba , Yavatikta (Sanskrit), Sambiloto (Malay)

Habitat: Kalmegh or Andrographis paniculata is a herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae,  native to India, China, and Southeast Asia.

It is widely cultivated in southern Asia, where it is used to treat infections and some diseases, often being used before antibiotics were created. Mostly the leaves and roots were used for medicinal purposes .

Description of the plant:

A. paniculata is an erect annual herb. The square stem has wings on the angles of new growth and is enlarged at the nodes, while the small flowers are borne on a spreading panicle. It is widely cultivated in Asia. The above-ground parts are collected in the fall. The genetic variability of the species has been examined.
It grows erect to a height of 30-110 cm in moist shady places with glabrous leaves and white flowers with rose-purple spots on the petals. Stem dark green, 0.3 – 1.0 m in height, 2 – 6 mm in diameter, quadrangular with longitudinal furrows and wings on the angles of the younger parts, slightly enlarged at the nodes; leaves glabrous, up to 8.0 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, lanceolate, pinnate; flowers small, in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles; capsules linear-oblong, acute at both ends, 1.9 cm x 0.3 cm; seeds numerous, sub quadrate, yellowish brown.

click to see the pictures......(01)..…(1).……...(2).……...(3).……..(.4)

Cultivation
It prefers a sunny situation. The seeds are sown during May-June. The seedlings are transplanted at a distance of 60 cm x 30 cm.

Pharmacology
Andrographis paniculata plant extract is known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. Andrographolide, the major constituent of the extract is implicated towards its pharmacological activity. A study has been conducted on the cellular processes and targets modulated by andrographolide treatment in human cancer and immune cells. Andrographolide treatment inhibited the in vitro proliferation of different tumor cell lines, representing various types of cancers. The compound exerts direct anticancer activity on cancer cells by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through induction of cell cycle inhibitory protein and decreased expression of cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Immunostimulatory activity of andrographolide is evidenced by increased proliferation of lymphocytes and production of interleukin 2. Andrographolide also enhanced the tumor necrosis factor α production and CD marker expression, resulting in increased cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against cancer cells, which may contribute for its indirect anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of the compound is further substantiated against B16F0 melanoma syngenic and HT 29 xenograft models. These results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent.

The herb is the well-known drug Kalmegh ‘green chiretta’, and forms the principal ingredient of a reputed household medicine (‘alui’), used as a bitter tonic and febrifuge.
Clinical Overview

Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), the Kalmegh of Ayurveda is an erect annual herb extremely bitter in taste in each and every part of the plant body. The plant is known in north-eastern India as  Maha-tita, literally  king of bitters  and known by various vernacular names (Table below). It is also known as   Bhui-neemâ, since the plant, though much smaller in size, shows similar appearance and has bitter taste as that of Neem (Azadirachta indica). Incidentally, the genus Andrographis consists of 28 species of small annual shrubs essentially distributed in tropical Asia. Only a few species are medicinal, of which A. paniculata is the most popular.

Properties: Analgesic* Antiparasite* Antibacterial* Astringent* Febrifuge* Stomachic* Laxative* Antispasmodic* Immunostimulant* Tonic*

Uses of Kalmegh
Kalmegh has been used for liver complaints and fevers and as an anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant. In clinical trials, Andrographis extract shortened duration and reduced symptoms of colds.

Kalmegh Dosing
Kalmegh dosage in clinical studies has ranged from 3 to 6 g of the crude plant, 1.2 g daily, or 48 mg of andrographolide daily, for common cold, tonsilitis, and familial Mediterranean fever.

Contraindications
Contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation
Documented adverse effects. Abortifacient. Avoid use.

Kalmegh Interactions

None well documented.

Kalmegh Adverse Reactions
No data.

Toxicology

Male reproductive side effects have been studied. In rats, kalmegh decreased sperm count and motility.

History
The herb has been used primarily for liver complaints and to reduce fevers in the traditional medicine of India and China, as well as for its bitter tonic properties. A large variety of Indian herbal patent medicines are available in which A. paniculata is a prominent ingredient.

Chemistry
The diterpene lactone andrographolide was first isolated as a major constituent and later characterized as a lactone. Its full structure was determined by Cava’s group in the 1960s, while x-ray crystallography later confirmed the structure. A number of related minor diterpenes and their glycosides have since been identified. Methods of analysis including high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been published. A method for rapid isolation of andrographolide also is available. When callus cultures of the plant were investigated, it was found that andrographolide and the other diterpenes were not produced. Instead, the sesquiterpenes paniculides A-C were found. Other constituents of the plant include various flavones.

Kalmegh Uses and Pharmacology:

It is chiefly used in viral hepatitis, diminished appetite and drug induced liver damage. It is used in loss of appetite in infants.  Andrographis paniculata has been shown to reduce liver damage due to toxins such as alcohol.  It has been demonstrated that Andrographis paniculata can protect the liver from the effects of alcohol if taken prior to consumption.  Research has also linked Andrographis paniculata to increases in immune system activity.  When supplemented with Andrographis paniculata, animals had an increase activity of both their specific and non-specific immune systems.  Andrographis paniculata may be effective in both the prevention and treatment of ailments that range from the common cold to cancer. It has also been shown to help alleviate atherosclerotic narrowing of arteries induced by high cholesterol diets.  This can, in turn, reduce the risk of heart disease and heart attacks, as well as helping the recovery of patients who already suffer from these conditions.  It is useful in burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic bronchitis, leprosy, pruritis, flatulence, colic and diarrhea.

Common Uses: Colds * Diarrhea * Digestion/Indigestion * Influenza *

Liver :The aqueous extract of A. paniculata protected mice from liver damage induced by hexachlorocyclohexane, while andrographolide protected rat hepatocytes from damage by acetaminophen. Several isolated Andrographis diterpenes protected mice from liver damage by carbon tetrachloride or tert-butylhydroperoxide. Both the extract and andrographolide induced hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats, although the extract was more effective than the isolated compound. An increase in bile flow was noted with administration of andrographolide to rats and guinea pigs, while it blocked the decrease in bile flow induced by acetaminophen.

Animal data:  Both antigen-specific and nonspecific immune responses in mice were stimulated by andrographolide and an ethanolic extract, although the extract was more potent than andrographolide, suggesting that other constituents also were immunostimulants. 23 Inhibition of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was observed in studies of the purified diterpenes in rats.

Clinical data: Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of kalmegh to treat liver complaints.Immunostimulant and anti-infective. A small clinical study found the extract to shorten the duration of common colds and to reduce symptoms. Extracts of Andrographis have shown modest activity in vitro against HIV; however, a phase Ι study of andrographolide showed no effect on viral replication, while adverse effects required interruption of the trial after 6 weeks. Succinoylated derivatives of andrographolide have been studied for their protease inhibitory properties, which were suggested to be involved in the anti-HIV activity in vitro. Activity in antimalarial screens has also been noted for Andrographis extracts.

Other uses

The extract of A. paniculata has been shown to block E. coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in rabbit and guinea pig models of diarrhea. Andrographolide and 3 other related diterpenes were responsible for this action. An ethanol extract of Andrographis reversed elevation in blood glucose caused by streptozotocin in rats. Two purified Andrographis diterpenes stimulated nitric oxide release from cultured human endothelial cells, an effect linked to their hypotensive effect in rats. Several fractions of Andrographis were shown to reduce mean arterial blood pressure in rats, although andrographolide was not active in this model.

A water soluble extract of the plant was reported to delay death from cobra venom in mice, in line with its folk use for snakebite in India. Andrographolide has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in several cellular systems, including prevention of phorbol ester-induced reactive oxygen species and N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced adhesion in rat neutrophils and inhibition of TNF-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and monocyte adhesion. Additionally, Andrographis extract blocked rat vas deferens voltage-gated calcium channels 41 and induced cell differentiation in mouse myeloid leukemia cells, as did several diterpenes from the extract. The diversity of pharmacologic activities observed for extracts of Andrographis and its diterpenes begs the question of pharmacologic specificity, which more studies will clarify.

Dosage
Kalmegh dosage in clinical studies has ranged from 3 to 6 g of the crude plant, 1.2 g daily, or 48 mg of andrographolide daily, for common cold, tonsilitis, and familial Mediterranean fever.

Pregnancy/Lactation
Documented adverse effects. Abortifacient. Avoid use. 46

Interactions
None well documented.

Adverse Reactions
Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of this product.

Toxicology
Kalmegh extracts are not acutely toxic, but the male reproductive toxicology of Andrographis has been studied. Reported infertility in rats led to a subchronic 60-day study in male rats that showed no changes in testicular weight, histology, or testosterone levels. However, detailed studies with purified andrographolide in rats over 48 days have shown decreases in sperm counts and motility, linked to disruption of spermatogenesis.

Click to learn more about:->Andrographis paniculata(Kalmegh)

> Kalmegh

Medicinal Uses of Kalmegh

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

:http://www.drugs.com/npp/kalmegh.html

http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail354.php

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