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Herbs & Plants

Bulbophyllum inconspicuum

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Botanical Name : Bulbophyllum inconspicuum
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Genus: Bulbophyllum
Species: B. inconspicuum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Inconspicuous Bulbophyllum

Habitat : Bulbophyllum inconspicuum is native to E. AsiaChina and Japan. It grows on Epiphytic on tree trunks in central and southern Japan.
Description: Bulbophyllum inconspicuum is an evergreen perennial orchid plant. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES :

Cultivation : Epiphytes grow on another plant such as a tree, non-parasitically or other object such as a building or a telegraph wire. They derive moisture and nutrients from the air and rain and sometimes from debris accumulating around them. Epiphytes are usually found in the temperate zone (e.g., many mosses, liverworts, lichens and algae) or in the tropics (e.g., many ferns, cacti, orchids, and bromeliads). This plant can be mounted on a slab of treefern, a piece of cork bark or something similar.
Medicinal Uses:
Expectorant. It is used in the treatment of stomach cancers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulbophyllum_inconspicuum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Bulbophyllum+inconspicuum

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Herbs & Plants

Pangium edule

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Botanical Name:Pangium edule
Family: Achariaceae
Genus:     Pangium
Species: P. edule
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:    Malpighiales

Common Names: Pangi, Pakem, Sis, Riamel, Kepayang, or Football fruit. (Indonesian: keluak or keluwak; Malay: kepayang)

Habitat :Pangium edule is  native to the mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea). It produces a large poisonous fruit (the “football fruit”) which can be made edible by fermentation.

Description:
Pangium edule is a  large, alien tree with large shiny leaves and huge fruits grows to heights of 25 m (80 ft).In the initial stage the tree grows fast.  It only needs about six months to reach full maturity.

click & see……...(1).……....(2)...

The flowers are yellowish-green or whitish, having a faint odor, about 4 centimeters across. Fruit is pendant upon thick, brown stalks, ovoidly rounded, 10 to 20 centimeters in diameter, brown and rough, containing seeds which are 3 to 5 centimeters across, compressed, somewhat angular, embedded in a yellowish, sweet, aromatic and edible pulp.  In English this plant is sometimes referred to as the “football tree”.

The tree requires many years to mature and the seeds are therefore most frequently harvested from wild trees, as it is not economically feasible to cultivate. Although poisonous to humans, the seeds of the tree form part of the natural diet of the babirusa (Babyroussa babyrussa)

Edible Uses:
The fresh fruit and seeds contain hydrogen cyanide and are deadly poisonous if consumed without prior preparation. The seeds are first boiled and then buried in ash, banana leaves and earth for forty days, during which time, they turn from a creamy white colour to dark brown or black. The method relies on the fact that the hydrogen cyanide released by the boiling and fermentation is water soluble and easily washed out.

The kernels may be ground up to form a thick black gravy called rawon, popular dishes include nasi rawon, beef stew in keluwek paste, and sambal rawon. A stew made with beef or chicken also exists in East Java. The Toraja dish pammarrasan (black spice with fish or meat, also sometimes with vegetables) uses the black keluak powder. In Singapore and Malaysia, the seeds are best known as an essential ingredient in ayam (chicken) or babi (pork) buah keluak, a mainstay of Peranakan cuisine.The edible portions of the plant are an excellent source of vitamin C and high in iron.

Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines,people uses all parts of the plant for as anthelmintic.The seeds,fruits,leaves and barks are considered as narcotic,  in excessive doses causes sleepiness, headache, intoxication, delirium, and occasionally becomes fatal.Malaya people uses crushed seeds to apply on boils to cure.

Other Uses:
Pangium edule oil used as illuminant and for making soap. In the Camarines, plant is used as a fish poison.In Pohnpie, poisonous seeds are  used as bait to kill rats.  Fresh seeds and oil used as dart poison by Sakais.The wood is used to make matchsticks.

Known Hazards:The fruit is considered poisonous.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangium_edule
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=_ZZEAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA783&lpg=PA783&dq=medicinal+uses+of+pangium+edule&source=bl&ots=zhFPIvzwRp&sig=ExNgdjsHWKX3sFQVfaPAOd5jLJM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dh4dVLKkJpDJuATc_4HoBA&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=medicinal%20uses%20of%20pangium%20edule&f=false
http://manoa.hawaii.edu/botany/plants_of_micronesia/index.php/full-database/468-pangium-edule
http://rfcarchives.org.au/Next/Fruits/Pangium/Pangium11-97.htm
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Pangi.html

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Herbs & Plants

Sphagneticola trilobata

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Botanical Name ;Sphagneticola trilobata
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Sphagneticola
Species: S. trilobata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonym: Complaya trilobata,Silphium trilobatum,Thelechitonia trilobata,Wedelia paludosa,Wedelia trilobata

Common Name:Bay Biscayne Creeping-oxeye,Rabbit’s Paw

Chuukese: atiat

English: creeping ox-eye, Singapore daisy, trailing daisy, wedelia

Kosraean: rosrangrang

Marshallese: ut mõkadkad, ut telia

Palauan: ngesil ra ngebard

Pohnpeian: dihpwoangoahng suwed, ngkahu, tuhke ongohng

Tongan: ‘anselmo

Habitat :Sphagneticola trilobata is native to the Neotropics (Mexico, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean; now grown almost worldwide in tropical and other warm places”  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 165). and is widespread as an invasive species in the Pacific.

Description:
Sphagneticola trilobata is a creeping, mat-forming perennial herbs; stems rounded, rooting at the nodes, 1-3 (-4) dm long, the flowering portions ascending, coarsely strigose to spreading hirsute, sometimes subglabrous.  Leaves fleshy, usually 4-9 cm long, (1.5-) 2-5 cm wide, irregularly toothed or serrate, usually with a pair of lateral lobes.  Peduncles 3-10 cm long; involucre campanulate-hemispherical, ca. 1 cm high; chaffy bracts lanceolate, rigid; ray florets often 8-13 per head, rays 6-15 mm long; disk corollas 4-5 mm long; pappus a crown of short fimbriate scales.  Achenes tuberculate, 4-5 mm long, few achenes maturing in cultivated plants in Hawai‘i”  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 373-374).

You may click to see the picture
Propagation:  Usually vegetatively, but Bill Sykes reports observing mature achenes on plants (pers. com.). Stems form new plants where they touch the ground and pieces readily take root. Commonly spread by dumping of garden waste.

Medicinal Uses;
Used for hepatitis, indigestion due to sluggish liver, white stools, burning in the urine and stopping of urine, and for infections – boil 1 cup of fresh herb (stems, leaves, and flowers) in 3 cups water for 5 minutes and drink 1 cup warm before each meal.  To bathe those suffering from backache, muscle cramps, rheumatism, or swellings, boil a large double handful of fresh stems and leaves in 2 gallons of water for 10 minutes.  Said to pull  “heat” out of the body.  For painful joints of arthritis, mash fresh leaves and stems; spread on a cloth and apply to area, wrapping securely with a warm covering.   Also used to clear the placenta after birth.

Other Uses:Sphagneticola trilobata is cultivated as an ornamental plant in the garden.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphagneticola_trilobata
http://www.hear.org/pier/species/sphagneticola_trilobata.htm
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/1303/
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Ficus pumila

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Botanical Name : Ficus pumila
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Ficus
Species: F. pumila
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: [Ficus repens]
Common Name:Creeping Fig, Climbing Fig, Creeping Ficus

Habitat :Ficus pumila is native to East Asia.

Description:
Ficus pumila (Creeping Fig) – An evergreen  vine that can attach itself to almost any kind of material for a seemingly endless distance. Juvenile dainty heart-shaped leaves develop into 2 to 4 inch long leathery leaves with age.
….click & see the pictures
Creeping fig is an enthusiastic climber able to scramble up vertical surfaces 3 and 4 stories tall with the aid of a powerful adhesive. This vine coats surfaces with a tracery of fine stems that are densely covered with small heart shaped leaves that are 1 inch long by about .75 in (2 cm) wide, they are held closely to the surface creating a mat of foliage that extends barely 1 in (2.5 cm) from the surface. These are the juvenile leaves. Once the vine has reach the top of its support if will begin to form horizontal branches on which adult foliage is borne. Adult leaves are held alternately in two rows along these branches. They are more leathery than the juveniles, and are dark green, and about 3 in (7.6 cm) long by 2 in (5 cm) wide. The fruit is a fig. These are borne only on the horizontal stems, they are pale green in color and about 3 in (7.6 cm) long by 2.5 in (6.4 cm) wide.
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It is a root-clinging, evergreen perennial. It clings by aerial roots along the stem and has leaves that are small, bright green and heart-shaped. Creeping Fig will grow in moderate shade or sun. This variety has solid green leaves, this is a great plant if you have a wall that is bare. The Creeping Fig will cling to surfaces allowing one to hide an unsightly wall or to just soften the architecture. This plant also works well as an indoor potted plant, as long as it has a sunny spot to sit in.

Hardiness: USDA Zones 8-11

Uses:
As the common names would suggest, it has a creeping habit and is often used as a houseplant. It is hardy and fast growing and requires little in the way of care as long as the soil is not allowed to dry out between waterings. There are several cultivars, including a variegated and crinkled leaf form.
click & see
In warmer climates it can be grown outdoors, but it can become invasive and cover landscape features if not contained. It should not be allowed to climb houses or wooden structures, as the woody tendrils can damage buildings.

Other than its use as a decorative plant, the fruit of F. pumila var. awkeotsang is also used in cuisine. In Taiwan, its fruit is turned inside out and dried. The seeds are scraped off and a gel is extracted from their surface with water and allowed to set and form a jelly known in Taiwan as aiyu jelly (or aiyuzi) and in Singapore as ice jelly …..CLICK  &  SEE  PICTURE OF FRUIT

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves are used for carbuncle, dysentery, hematuria, piles; dried leaves and stems for boils, rheumatism, sore throat.  Stem: latex used for skin disease; stem or fruit peel for backache, cancer, hernia, piles, swellings, and tuberculosis of the testicles.  Decoction of the fruit for hernia.  Rot is used for bladder inflammation and dysuria.  The plant is regarded as aphrodisiac, or at least strengthening to the male power, used for spermatorrhea, as a lactagogue; eating the plant is said to curb heart pain, anticancer.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.magnoliagardensnursery.com/productdescrip/Ficus_Green.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.calflora.net/floraofbermuda/ficus_pumila.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus_pumila
http://www.floridata.com/ref/f/ficu_pum.cfm

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Herbs & Plants

Kalmi (Ipomoea reptans)

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N Ipoa D1600.
Image via Wikipedia

Botanical Name:Ipomoea reptans
Family: Convolvulaceae
Genus: Ipomoea subgenus
Genus:    Ipomoea
Species:    I. aquatica
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Solanales
Vernacular names: Kangkong, kangkung, water convolvulus, water spinach, swamp spinach, swamp morning glory (En). Kangkong, liseron d’eau, patate aquatique (Fr). Cancon, batata aquática (Po). Mriba wa ziwa (Sw).

In Bengal  it is called Kalmi

Habitat :Ipomoea aquatica is widespread as a swamp weed in all tropical and many subtropical lowland areas. It is a declared aquatic or terrestrial noxious weed in the south-eastern United States. It occurs in nearly all countries of tropical Africa, from Mauritania and Senegal, east to Eritrea and Somalia, and south to South Africa, and also in the Indian Ocean islands. It is a popular cultivated vegetable in South-East Asia and southern China, but is rare in India. It is known as a leafy vegetable in tropical America, where people of Asian origin cultivate it. It is grown on a small scale under protected cultivation in France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands for Vietnamese, Thai and Indonesian clients. In tropical Africa it is reported as a collected wild vegetable in Benin, DR Congo, Kenya and Tanzania. Asian cultivars are occasionally grown on a small scale for the Asian clientele near big cities. Kangkong can be found in market gardens, e.g. in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria.

DESCRIPTION: Water spinach is an herbaceous trailing vine that dwells in muddy stream banks, freshwater ponds, and marshes. This perennial aquatic vine is confined to the tropics and subtropics zones because it is susceptible to frosts and does not grow well when temperatures are below 23.9 C. Water spinach can reproduce sexually by producing one to four seeds in fruiting capsules or vegetatively by stem fragmentation. It is a member of the “morning-glory” family.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES..>….(01)...(1).....(2).…....(3).…..(4)....(5).
Flowers: Funnel shaped, solitary or in few flowered clusters at leaf axils, two inches wide, pink to white in color, and darker in the throat (rarely nearly white).

Leaves: Arrowhead shaped, alternate, one to six inches long, and one to three inches wide

Stems: Vine like, trailing, with milky sap and roots at the nodes; usually to 9 ft. long but can be much longer.

Fruit: An oval or spherical capsule, woody at maturity, 1 cm long, holding 1 to 4 grayish seeds.

History:
The first historical record of W ater spinach is of its cultivation as a vegetable during the Chin Dynasty around 300 A.D. Native to India and Southeast Asia, but widely cultivated and naturalized in Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Islands, and South America. This aquatic vine is rich in iron, making it an ancient remedy for anemia. So people emigrating from Asian regions understandably wanted to take this nutritious vegetable along for use in traditional recipes. It is unclear when this plant was introduced in the United States, but this invasive and aggressive plant poses a serious threat to waterways in the Southern United States. W ater spinach has been introduced repeatedly to Florida waters since 1973, despite its state and federal listing as a prohibited plant and noxious weed.

Uses:-
Young shoots and leaves of water spinach are collected for use as a leafy vegetable. Often the whole above-ground plant part of cultivated water spinach , including the tender hollow stems, is consumed. Water spinatch can be stir-fried, steamed, boiled for a few minutes or lightly fried in oil and eaten in various dishes. It is often mixed with hot peppers and garlic, and prepared with meat or fish. In Asia the leaves are sometimes separated from the stems, and the stems are cooked a bit longer. In Africa only the leaves of wild plants are consumed, the stems are removed. The roots are occasionally eaten. Wild kangkong is often collected as fodder for cattle and pigs.

In Indonesia, kangkong or water spinach  is traditionally given at dinner to young children to make them quiet and help them sleep well. In Asia it is used in traditional medicine. The sap is used as an emetic, purgative and sedative, and flower buds are applied to ringworm. In Sri Lanka kangkong is used to treat diabetes mellitus.

Properties:
The nutritional composition of raw kangkong per 100 g edible portion is: water 92.5 g, energy 80 kJ (19 kcal), protein 2.6 g, fat 0.2 g, carbohydrate 3.1 g, dietary fibre 2.1 g, Ca 77 mg, Mg 71 mg, P 39 mg, Fe 1.7 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, vitamin A 6300 IU, thiamin 0.03 mg, riboflavin 0.10 mg, niacin 0.90 mg, folate 57 ?g, ascorbic acid 55 mg (USDA, 2002). The nutritional value of leaf-blades is higher than that of petioles and stems; unfortunately, sources do not state whether stems and leaves or leaves only were analysed. Accumulation of heavy metals in kangkong has been reported for Asia because the plants often grow in polluted water.

Medicinal Uses:
Kangkong showed oral hypoglycaemic activity in tests with diabetic humans and rats; it was shown that an aqueous leaf extract can be as effective as tolbutamide in reducing blood glucose levels.

Health risk:
If harvested from contaminated areas, and eaten raw, I. aquatica may transmit Fasciolopsis buski, an intestinal fluke parasite of humans and pigs, causing fasciolopsiasis.

Study in animals;
Studies conducted with pregnant diabetes-induced rats have shown a blood sugar-lowering effect of Ipomoea aquatica by inhibiting the intestinal absorption of glucose.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?20218
http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20o?search=Ipomoea+aquatica&guide=North_American_Invasives
http://database.prota.org/PROTAhtml/Ipomoea%20aquatica_En.htm
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