Tag Archives: Malaysia

Solidago graminifolia

Botanical Name : Solidago graminifolia
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Genus: Euthamia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms : Euthamia graminifolia. (L.)Nutt.

Common Names: Grass-leaved goldenrod or Flat-top goldentop

Habitat : Solidago graminifolia is native to much of Canada (from Newfoundland to British Columbia), and the northern and eastern United States (primarily the Northeast, the Great Lakes region, and the Ohio Valley, with additional populations in the Southeast, the Great Plains, and a few scattered locations in the Pacific Northwest). There are also introduced populations in Europe and Asia.

Description:
Solidago graminifolia is a perennial herbaceous plant on thin, branching stems, growing to 1.5 m (5ft). Leaves are alternate, simple, long and narrow much like grass leaves (hence the name of the species). One plant can produce many small, yellow flower heads flat-topped arrays sometimes as much as 30 cm (1 foot) across. Each head has 7-35 ray florets surrounding 3-13 disc florets. The species is very common in fallow fields, waste places, fencerows, and vacant lots in many places.

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It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in flower from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. This plant has become a weed in its natural range and can be invasive under cultivation. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.
Edible Uses: …….Tea…….The fresh or dried leaves are a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiseptic. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of chest pains and lung problems. An infusion of the blossoms has been used in the treatment of some types of fevers.
Other Uses: Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euthamia_graminifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+graminifolia

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Syzygium polyanthum

Botanical Name: Syzygium polyanthum
Family:    Myrtaceae
Subfamily:Myrtoideae
Tribe:    Syzygieae
Genus:    Syzygium
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Myrtales

Synonyms: Eugenia balsamea, Eugenia nitida, Eugenia polyantha

Common Names:Indonesian bay leaf, daun salam

Habitat : Syzygium polyanthum is native to  Southeast Asia.:  Indochina, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia (GRIN).It grows in tropical climate.

Description:
Syzygium polyanthum is a medium-sized evergreen perennial tree,it grows up to 30 m tall with dense crown, bole up to 60 cm in diameter; bark surface fissured and scaly, grey. Leaves opposite, simple, glabrous; petiole up to 12 mm long; blade oblong-elliptical, narrowly elliptical or lanceolate, 5-16 cm x 2.5-7 cm, with 6-11 pairs of secondary veins distinct below and a distinct intramarginal vein, dotted with minute oil glands, petiole up to 12 mm long. Inflorescence a panicle, 2-8 cm long, usually arising below the leaves, sometimes axillary, but trees flower very profusely; flowers sessile, bisexual, regular, fragrant, white, in threes on ultimate branchlets of the panicle; calyx cup-shaped, about 4 mm long, with 4 broad persistent lobes; petals 4, free, 2.5-3.5 mm long, white; stamens numerous, arranged in 4 groups, about 3 mm long; disk quadrangular, orange-yellow. Fruit a 1-seeded berry, depressed globose to globose, up to 12 mm in diameter, dark red to purplish-black when ripe”
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Propagation: Through Seed

Edible Uses:
Syzygium polyanthum has been known as a seasoning in various culinary nations Indonesia.  In addition, there are also benefits in terms of bay leaves as a natural treatment.

Medicinal Uses:
Syzygium polyanthum is used in Gastrointestinal disorders  and other disorders.

Forv diarrhea
Wash 15 fresh bay leaves. Boil in two cups water to boil for 15minutes. Add a little salt. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well

For diabetes
7-15 Wash fresh bay leaves, then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well before eating. Apply 2 times a day.

For Lowering high cholesterol levels:
Wash 10-15 fresh bay leaves, and then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water well at night. Do it every day.

For lowering high blood pressure:
Wash 7-10 bay leaves then boiled in 3 cups of water until remaining 1 glass. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water 2 times a day, each half a glass.

For ulcers:
Rinse 15-20 fresh bay leaves. Boil with 1 / 2 litter of water to boil for 15 minutes. Add palm sugar to taste. After chilling, drinking water as a tea. Do it every day until the pain disappeared and a full stomach.

During Hangover
Wash 1 handful of ripe fruit greeting, then mash until smooth. Squeeze and strain, the water collected while drunk.

For Scabies, itch
for external treatment, simply grab a leaf, bark, stems, or roots regards as necessary. Rinse, then milled until smooth dough like mush. And apply to the itchy spot, then wrapped.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium
http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Syzygium_polyanthum.htm
http://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Syzygium-Polyanthum-Cid644
http://herbalmedicinalplant01.blogspot.in/2011/09/efficacy-syzygium-polyanthum.html

Pangium edule

Botanical Name:Pangium edule
Family: Achariaceae
Genus:     Pangium
Species: P. edule
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:    Malpighiales

Common Names: Pangi, Pakem, Sis, Riamel, Kepayang, or Football fruit. (Indonesian: keluak or keluwak; Malay: kepayang)

Habitat :Pangium edule is  native to the mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea). It produces a large poisonous fruit (the “football fruit”) which can be made edible by fermentation.

Description:
Pangium edule is a  large, alien tree with large shiny leaves and huge fruits grows to heights of 25 m (80 ft).In the initial stage the tree grows fast.  It only needs about six months to reach full maturity.

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The flowers are yellowish-green or whitish, having a faint odor, about 4 centimeters across. Fruit is pendant upon thick, brown stalks, ovoidly rounded, 10 to 20 centimeters in diameter, brown and rough, containing seeds which are 3 to 5 centimeters across, compressed, somewhat angular, embedded in a yellowish, sweet, aromatic and edible pulp.  In English this plant is sometimes referred to as the “football tree”.

The tree requires many years to mature and the seeds are therefore most frequently harvested from wild trees, as it is not economically feasible to cultivate. Although poisonous to humans, the seeds of the tree form part of the natural diet of the babirusa (Babyroussa babyrussa)

Edible Uses:
The fresh fruit and seeds contain hydrogen cyanide and are deadly poisonous if consumed without prior preparation. The seeds are first boiled and then buried in ash, banana leaves and earth for forty days, during which time, they turn from a creamy white colour to dark brown or black. The method relies on the fact that the hydrogen cyanide released by the boiling and fermentation is water soluble and easily washed out.

The kernels may be ground up to form a thick black gravy called rawon, popular dishes include nasi rawon, beef stew in keluwek paste, and sambal rawon. A stew made with beef or chicken also exists in East Java. The Toraja dish pammarrasan (black spice with fish or meat, also sometimes with vegetables) uses the black keluak powder. In Singapore and Malaysia, the seeds are best known as an essential ingredient in ayam (chicken) or babi (pork) buah keluak, a mainstay of Peranakan cuisine.The edible portions of the plant are an excellent source of vitamin C and high in iron.

Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines,people uses all parts of the plant for as anthelmintic.The seeds,fruits,leaves and barks are considered as narcotic,  in excessive doses causes sleepiness, headache, intoxication, delirium, and occasionally becomes fatal.Malaya people uses crushed seeds to apply on boils to cure.

Other Uses:
Pangium edule oil used as illuminant and for making soap. In the Camarines, plant is used as a fish poison.In Pohnpie, poisonous seeds are  used as bait to kill rats.  Fresh seeds and oil used as dart poison by Sakais.The wood is used to make matchsticks.

Known Hazards:The fruit is considered poisonous.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangium_edule
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=_ZZEAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA783&lpg=PA783&dq=medicinal+uses+of+pangium+edule&source=bl&ots=zhFPIvzwRp&sig=ExNgdjsHWKX3sFQVfaPAOd5jLJM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dh4dVLKkJpDJuATc_4HoBA&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=medicinal%20uses%20of%20pangium%20edule&f=false
http://manoa.hawaii.edu/botany/plants_of_micronesia/index.php/full-database/468-pangium-edule
http://rfcarchives.org.au/Next/Fruits/Pangium/Pangium11-97.htm
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Pangi.html

Chaulmoogra

Botanical Name :Taraktogenos kurzii
Family: Achariaceae
Genus:     Hydnocarpus
Species: H. kurzii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Malpighiales

Synonyms:Hydnocarpus kurzii

Common Names:  Chaulmugra. Chaulmogra.

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Chaulmugra, Chalmoogra; Dulmugri (Sylhet).

Tribal Name: Balgach (Chakma); Taun Paun (Mogh).

Habitat : Chaulmoogra is indigenous to the tropical climatic regions in Malaysia and it also has its origin in the Indian sub-continent.

Description :
A medium-sized evergreen tree, 12-15 m high. This tree bears brown, velvety, spherical fruits and asymmetrical seeds having a gray hue. Chaulmoogra seeds are angled, but have rounded ends. It may be mentioned here that chaulmoogra oil can be obtained from an associated species called Tarak-togenos kurzii.
Leaves thinly coriaceous, entire, 18-25 cm long, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. Flowers in axillary cymes; petals 8, in 2-rows, broadly ovate, ciliate. Fruit, size of an orange, towny-velvety.
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Medicinal Uses:
Part Used: The oil from the seeds
Chemical Constituents:
Seeds yield a fixed oil, called chaulmoogra oil, which contains glycerides of cyclopentenyl fatty acids like hydnocarpic acid (48%), chaulmoogric acid (27%), gorlic acid (23%), oleic acid (12%) and palmitic acid (6%). Bark contains a large amount of tannins (Ghani, 2003).

Employed internally and externally in the treatment of skin diseases, scrofula, rheumatism, eczema, also in leprosy, as a counterirritant for bruises, sprains, etc., and sometimes applied to open wounds and sores. Also used in veterinary practice. Dose of oil, 5 or 10 to 60 minims. Gynocardia Ointment, I.C.A.

The oil, and the crushed seed, have long been used in southeast Asia to treat various skin diseases like scabies, eczema, psoriasis, scrofula, ringworm, and intestinal worms.  And it has been shown that the active principles of the oil (hydnocarpic and chaulmoogric acids) are strongly antibacterial.  For this reason Caulmoogra is employed in Hindu medicine to treat leprosy.  The bark contains principles capable of reducing fevers.  Oil is given as an emulsion or by injection.  Seed used externally and internally. It is usually applied externally as a dressing for skin diseases: combined with walnut oil and pork lard for ringworm; with calomel and sesame oil for leprosy; and with sulfur and camphor for scabies.  In India the seeds are considered to be an alternative tonic.  The seeds may be taken powdered in the form of pills.  Was first mentioned in Chinese medical literature in 1347, and its use spread worldwide as a treatment for serious skin diseases.

Known Hazards:
People using chaulmoogra or its preparations ought to be aware of the side effects this herb may cause. For instance, one may experience stomach irritation following the administration of chaulmoogra oil in the form of an injection into the skin. In fact, taking subcutaneous injections may also result in accumulation of calcium. Here is a word of caution – women should not take this herb during pregnancy or while they are breast feeding. In addition, people enduring leprosy should never self inject chaulmoogra oil, but always take the help of a professional and expert practitioner.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taraktogenos_kurzii
http://www.mpbd.info/plants/hydnocarpus-kurzii.php
http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_chaulmoogra.htm
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/chaulm51.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Alpinia officinarum

Botanical Name :Alpinia officinarum
Family:Zingiberaceae
Genus:    Alpinia
Species:A. officinarum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Zingiberales

Synonyms: Galanga. China Root. India Root. East India Catarrh Root. Lesser Galangal. Rhizoma Galangae. Gargaut. Colic Root. Kaempferia Galanga.

Common Name : lesser galangal

Habitat:Alpinia officinarum is native to  China (Hainan Island), Java.It grows mainly on the southeastern coast, and it grows in Hainan, Japan, and Thailand. It is also cultivated in India. Hong Kong is the commercial center for the sale and distribution of the lesser galangal.

Description:
Alpinia officinarum is a herbaceous plant can grow up to ten feet in height, though three to five feet is more common. The leaves are lanceolate (long and thin), and the flowers are white with streaks of red, growing from a spike at the top. The plant’s rhizomes, the part known as galangal, are thin and tough, and they are the principal reason the plant is cultivated. They have orange flesh with a brown coating, and have an aromatic odor and a pungent flavor. These are smaller than greater galangal.

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This plant is a plant of the ginger family, cultivated in Southeast Asia. It originated in China, where its name ultimately derives. It can grow several feet high, with long leaves and reddish-white flowers. The rhizomes, known as galangal, are valued for their spicy flavor and aromatic scent. These are used throughout Asia in curries and perfumes, and were previously used widely in Europe. They are also used as an herbal remedy.

Lesser galangal is often misled the name for Kaempferia galanga that is used in Indonesia, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries.

Constituents: The root contains a volatile oil, resin, galangol, kaempferid, galangin and alpinin, starch, etc. The active principles are the volatile oil and acrid resin. Galangin is dioxyflavanol, and has been obtained synthetically. Alcohol freely extracts all the properties, and for the fluid extract there should be no admixture of water or glycerin.

Active Compound:-
Beta-sitoterol, 1,7-diphenyl-5-ol-3-heptone, 1-phenyl-7-(3′-methoxyl-4′-hydroxyl) phenyl-5-ol-3-heptone, glandin, kaempferol-4′-methylether and 3,4-dihydroxylbenzoic acid

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used: Dried rhizome.

The galangal rhizomes were widely used in ancient and medieval Europe, where they were reputed to smell of roses and taste of spice. Its use in Europe has dramatically declined, however, and is now mainly used in Eastern Europe. It is used in Russia for flavoring vinegar and the liqueur Nastoika. It is still used as a spice and medicine in Lithuania and Estonia.

In Asia the rhizomes are ground to powder for use in curries, drinks, and jellies. In India an extract is used in perfumes, and Tatars prepare a tea with it.

Alpinia officinarum contains high concentrations of the flavonol galangin, which has been shown to slow the increase and growth of breast tumor cells. Historically, the rhizomes were reputed to have stimulant and digestive effects.

Herbal medicine – Medicinal properties digestive tonic stimulant carminative antiemetic antifungal Medicinal parts Rhizome Has medicinal uses yes Do not self-administer no Do no use if pregnant no Legally restricted no Toxicity precautions Medicinal notes Alpiniaofficinarum has herbal applications as a digestive tonic, as a stimulant, as a carminative and as an antiemetic. See the medicinal properties section for even more traditional herbal uses. Only the rhizome is used in herbal preparations.

Traditional uses – Parts used Traditional uses Contemporary uses Fragrance ginger-like roots used for liqueur Fragrance parts Roots Fragrance intensity Mild Fragrance category Spicy Dye parts Dye color.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/galang01.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpinia_officinarum

http://cancerplantsdatabase.com/a-alpiniaofficinarum.php

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