Categories
Herbs & Plants

Artemisia persica

[amazon_link asins=’B004RZC0CK,B01MU7HWV2′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’ab5729a2-8ecf-11e7-b68e-51496d47f6d8′]

Botanical Name : Artemisia persica
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily:Asteroideae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Artemisia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Habitat :Artemisia persica is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Afghanistan to northern India and western Tibet. It grows on rocky slopes and sandy beaches at an elevation of 2900 – 4000 metres.

Description:
Artemisia persica is a perennial plant. It is densely greyish tomentose, basally woody shrublet with several or occasionally solitary, 25-75 cm tall, ascending or upright, simple or branched, striate-costate, densely leaved, rarely glabrescent stems from a much branched, woody rootstock. Leaves 3-pinnatisect, primary and secondary rachis lobulate; basal and lower stem leaves with up to 1.5 cm long petiole, lamina oblong-obovate, 1.2-3.5 (-4.5) x 0.8-2 cm, primary segments ascending to patent, ultimate segments linear-oblong to lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 x 0.5-0.8 (-1) mm, obtuse; upper leaves sessile and gradually smaller; uppermost in floral region linear. Capitula heterogamous, on (1-) 2-4 mm long peduncles, remote, subglobose, c. 3-3.5 mm long and broad, secund nodding in narrow, ± oblong-pyramidate, up to 30 x 8-12 cm panicle with ascending to obliquely erect, 6-20 cm long branches. Involucre 3-4-seriate; phyllaries loosely imbricate, ± keeled; outermost linear-oblong, c. 2 mm long; inner elliptic, 2-2.5 x 0.75-1 mm, obtuse, hoary pubescent in the middle part, margins scarious. Receptacle convex, densely to laxly long hairy or almost glabrous. Florets all fertile, yellow, 40-50; marginal florets 8-12, with compressed, c. 0.8 mm long, punctate-glandulose corolla tube; disc-florets bisexual, 30-40, with 5-dentate, apically densely long hairy, 1-1.5 mm long corolla tube. Cypselas light brown, oblong, c. 1 mm long, smooth.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a warm sunny dry position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse, making sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Basal cuttings in late spring. Harvest the young shoots when about10 – 15cm long, pot up in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse or cold frame and plant them out when well rooted. Very easy.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is strongly scented and used as a tonic, febrifuge and vermifuge in Afghanistan and Chitral.

Known Hazards : Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_(genus)
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200023300
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+persica

Advertisements
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Artemisia scoparia

[amazon_link asins=’B00LT7384I,B01BHCB0SK,B01GNC79WU,B01BKRVX7A’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’27930064-841e-11e7-8500-7d9236f202b2′]

Botanical Name: Artemisia scoparia
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species:A. scoparia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Artemisia capillaris Miq.
*Artemisia capillaris var. scoparia (Waldst. & Kit.) Pamp.
*Artemisia elegans Roxb. 1814 not Salisb. 1796
*Artemisia gracilis L’Hér. ex DC.
*Artemisia hallaisanensis var. formosana Pamp.
*Artemisia kohatica Klatt
*Artemisia piperita Pall. ex Ledeb.
*Artemisia sachaliensis Tilesius ex Besser
*Artemisia scoparioides Grossh.
*Artemisia trichophylla Wall. ex DC.
*Draconia capillaris (Thunb.) Soják
*Draconia scoparia (Waldst. & Kit.) Soják
*Oligosporus scoparius (Waldst. & Kit.) Less.

Common Names: Redstem wormwood
General Name:Artemisia Scoparia
English Name: Artemisia Scoparia
Hindi Name : Seeta Bani
Chinese Name : Yin Chen

Habitat : Artemisia scoparia is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on waste ground in C. Japan.
Description:
Artemisia scoparia is a binnial plant  growing to 0.6 m (2ft).

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought......CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a warm sunny dry position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil[245]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow late spring in a cold frame. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer
Edible Uses: ….Young leaves – cooked.

Chemical constituents:
*Capillarisin
*Chlorogenic acid butyl ester
*6,7-Dimethylesculetin
*Isosabandin
*Magnolioside (isoscopoletin-?-D-glucopyranoside)
*7-Methoxycoumarin
*7-Methylesculetin
*Sabandin A
*Sabandin B
*Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin)
*Scopoletin
*?-Sitosterol

Medicinal Uses:

Antibacterial; Anticholesterolemic; Antipyretic; Antiseptic; Cholagogue; Diuretic; Vasodilator.

The plant is anticholesterolemic, antipyretic, antiseptic, cholagogue, diuretic and vasodilator. It has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, B. subtilis, Pneumococci, C. diphtheriae, mycobacterium etc. It is used in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis and inflammation of the gall bladder. The plant is also used in a mixture with other herbs as a cholagogue.

Other Uses :….Essential….The seed and flowering stems contain 0.75% essential oil

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_scoparia
http://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Artemisia-Scoparia-Cid5099
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+scoparia

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Orchis coriophora

[amazon_link asins=’B01MY91VDC’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’c3e3dbc6-5899-11e7-a13e-65253cdba945′]

Botanical Name : Orchis coriophora
Family: Orchidaceae
Tribe: Orchideae
Genus: Anacamptis
Species:A. coriophora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Common Name : Bug Orchis

Habitat :Orchis coriophora is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dry or damp pastures and marshes in hills and mountains. Usually found on acid soils.

Description:
Orchis coriophora is a BULB growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
It is in flower from Apr to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

CLICK &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Ye sort herbal pequeñu of Tamanu large, terrestrial, which prefer to climate rein. Tien a robustus Tarmu green maciu 4 to 10 Fueyo basal lliniales linear-llanceolaes Fueyo and kaolin it almost Visu‘s Tarmu. Floria in spring and cannula nuna inflorescence cylindrical or oblong 45 to 135 cm Llarga munches with flowers (15 to 25), fragrant color variable.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in full sun in a moist sandy loam. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials. Plants can succeed in a lawn in various parts of the country. The lawn should not be mown early in the year before or immediately after flowering. Plant out bulbs whilst the plant is dormant, preferably in the autumn. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. Cultivated plants are very susceptible to the predation of slugs and snails. The flowers have an abominable bug-like smell. The flowers of the commoner sub-species, O. coriophora fragrans, however, are sweetly scented.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally.

Edible Uses: Root – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is a starch-like substance with a sweetish taste and a faint somewhat unpleasant smell. It is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or can be added to cereals and used in making bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day.
Medicinal Uses:
Salep (see above for more details) is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Orchis+coriophora
https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchis_coriophora
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anacamptis_coriophora

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier confusa

[amazon_link asins=’1556590997,B0062F546W,B0753X2F3Z,B077772PRZ,B06XQVZZF9,B01FKTYAAG,B0785GV8CR,B077WZ66JR,B075PB3NG7′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’61f07ceb-f2f1-11e7-9d31-efa0b4dabe4c’]

Botanical Name : Amelanchier confusa
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. canadensis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Amelanchier canadensis auct., Amelanchier grandiflora auct.

Common Names: Service berry, Shadblow, Shadbush, Sugarplum, Shad

Habitat:Amelanchier confusa is native to Europe – S. Sweden. This species is only known from plants naturalised in Sweden, its origin is uncertain.

Description:
Amelanchier confusa is a deciduous woody perennial Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). It has smooth, ovate leaves which are irregularly serrated. The autumn colour is inconspicuous.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged[11]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid or neutral soil. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. A suckering plant, the suckers are formed very close to the original stem so the plant forms a gradually expanding clump. Plants growing at Hilliers Arboretum in Hampshire were 4 metres tall in early April 1999, they were suckering quite freely in a tight clump and flowering very freely. This species is closely related to A. laevis. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.
Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
The fruit is  edible both raw and cooked. It is 7 – 9mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+confusa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_canadensis
https://www.greenplantswap.co.uk/plants/1105
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/plants/amelanchier/confusa.html

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Black cohosh

Botanical Name : Cimicifuga racemosa
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Actaea
Species: A. racemosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms : Actaea racemosa

Common Names: Black cohosh, Black bugbane, Black snakeroot, Fairy candle,, Bugbane

Habitat : Black cohosh is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. It grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. (Moist, mixed deciduous forests, wooded slopes, ravines, creek margins, thickets, moist meadowlands, forest margins, and especially mountainous terrain from sea level to 1500 metres)

Description:
Black cohosh is a smooth (glabrous) herbaceous perennial plant that produces large, compound leaves from an underground rhizome, reaching a height of 25–60 cm (9.8–23.6 in). The basal leaves are up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long and broad, forming repeated sets of three leaflets (tripinnately compound) having a coarsely toothed (serrated) margin. The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on a tall stem, 75–250 cm (30–98 in) tall, forming racemes up to 50 cm (20 in) long. The flowers have no petals or sepals, and consist of tight clusters of 55-110 white, 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long stamens surrounding a white stigma. The flowers have a distinctly sweet, fetid smell that attracts flies, gnats, and beetles. The fruit is a dry follicle 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with one carpel, containing several seeds….....CLICK & SEE  THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Woodland garden. Prefers a moist humus rich soil and some shade. Grows well in dappled shade. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil and tolerates drier soils. Plants are hardy to at least -20°c. A very ornamental species. The flowers have an unusual, slightly unpleasant smell which is thought to repel insects. Plants grow and flower well in Britain, though they seldom if ever ripen their seed. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Naturalizing, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers, Fragrant flowers.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed. It germinates in 1 – 12 months or even longer at 15°c[. The seed does not store well and soon loses its viability, stored seed may germinate better if given 6 – 8 weeks warm stratification at 15°c and then 8 weeks cold stratification. Prick out the young seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring.
Edible Uses: …Leaves – cooked. Some caution is advised,   see the notes below   on Known Hazards.

Medicinal Uses:
Black cohosh is a traditional remedy of the North American Indians where it was used mainly to treat women’s problems, especially painful periods and problems associated with the menopause. A popular and widely used herbal remedy, it is effective in the treatment of a range of diseases. The root is alterative, antidote, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, astringent, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hypnotic, sedative, tonic and vasodilator. It is harvested in the autumn as the leaves die down, then cut into pieces and dried.

Black cohosh root improves blood circulation and lowers blood pressure and body temperature by dilating blood vessels and increasing peripheral circulation. The constituents responsible for these actions are so resinous, the traditional virtues of this herb are best extracted by using hot water and preferably alcohol on the fresh root. A central nervous system depressant, black cohosh directly inhibits vasomotor centers that are involved with inner ear balance and hearing. One of the uses for black cohosh recognized by doctors is for relief of ringing in the ears. The Native Americans knew that it encouraged uterine contractions and used it to facilitate labor. It is also used to reduce the inflammation and muscular pain of rheumatism and inflammatory arthritis, especially when it is associated with menopause and to treat problems of the respiratory system. Chinese physicians use several related plants to treat headache, to ripen and bring out skin rashes such as measles, diarrhea, bleeding gums and some gynecological problems.

Black cohosh has estrogenic effects, meaning it acts like the female sex hormone estrogen. This may lend support to its traditional use for menstrual complaints. It is thought to reduce levels of pituitary luteinizing hormone, thereby decreasing the ovaries’ production of progesterone. A German trial published in 1995, revealed that black cohosh in combination with St. John’s wort was 78% effective at treating hot flashes and other menopausal problems. Black cohosh is used to optimize estrogen levels perhaps by competing with estrogen receptor sites when estrogen is overabundant but may promote estrogen production when estrogen is low. It is the prime women’s tonic for any uterine condition involving inflammation, pain, or low estrogen. It promotes fertility and softens the impact of menopause. Using black cohosh during menopause can reduce intensity and frequency of hot flashes, support and ease the body’s changes, helps counteract menopausal prolapses, improves digestion, relieves menstrual pain and irregularity, relieves headaches, relieves menopausal arthritis and rheumatism.

Cimicifugin, the ranunculoside in black cohosh, exhibits antispasmodic and sedative properties in the fresh root. When the root is cut or bruised, an enzyme is released which reacts with cimicifugin to produce protoanemonine, which is unstable in water but, when dried, is readily oxidized to an anemonic acid which has no physiological activity. The antispasmodic and sedative properties of black cohosh are only present in the whole, fresh root. The dried, powdered black cohosh in common use today contains only the irritating principles.

The root is toxic in overdose, it should be used with caution and be completely avoided by pregnant women.   The medically active ingredients are not soluble in water so a tincture of the root is normally used. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, as a sedative and an emmenagogue. It is traditionally important in the treatment of women’s complaints, acting specifically on the uterus it eases uterine cramps and has been used to help in childbirth. Research has shown that the root has oestrogenic activity and is thought to reduce levels of pituitary luteinizing hormone, thereby decreasing the ovaries production of progesterone. The root is also hypoglycaemic, sedative and anti-inflammatory. Used in conjunction with St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) it is 78% effective in treating hot flushes and other menopausal problems. An extract of the root has been shown to strengthen the male reproductive organ in rats. The root contains salicylic acid, which makes it of value in the treatment of various rheumatic problems – it is particularly effective in the acute stage of rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica and chorea. Its sedative action makes it useful for treating a range of other complaints including tinnitus and high blood pressure. The roots are used to make a homeopathic remedy. This is used mainly for women, especially during pregnancy. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa) for climacteric (menopause) complaints & Premenstrual syndrome.

Other Uses : Both the growing and the dried plant can be used to repel bugs and fleas

Known Hazards: The plant is poisonous in large doses. Large doses irritate nerve centres and may cause abortion. Gastrointestinal disturbances, hypotension, nausea, headaches. Not recommended during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Do not take concomitantly with iron.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actaea_racemosa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cimicifuga+racemosa+(Actaea+racemosa)
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail67.php

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm