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Rubus pedatus

Botanical Name : Rubus pedatus
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rubus
Subgenus: Rubus
Species: R. pedatus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names: Five-leaved bramble, Strawberryleaf Raspberry and Creeping Raspberry, Trailing Wild Raspberry.

Habitat : Rubus pedatus is native to E. Asia – Japan. North-western N. America. It grows in damp coniferous woods in mountains, C. and N. Japan.

Description:
Rubus pedatus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 2 m (6ft 7in). It is a low shrub or herb with thorn-less creeping stems. The leaves are alternate, deciduous, divided into 5 leaflets (hence the name) each coarsely toothed. The flowers are white, 1–2 cm (0.4-0.8 inches) across, and occur singly on slender stalks. The fruits are bright red, and consist of small clusters of drupelets, sometimes as few as one drupelet per fruit. The fruits are edible. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects…….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn. Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn

Edible Uses :   Fruit – raw or cooked and used in pies, preserves etc. It makes an excellent jelly. The fruit is juicy and has a rich flavour. Another report says that the flavour is not particularly wonderful and the fruits are small, soft and difficult to pick in any quantity. Flowers – raw. The leaves are used as a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses: None known

Other Uses : A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit.

Resources:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubus_pedatus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rubus+pedatus

Clausena anisata

Botanical Name:Clausena anisata
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Genus: Clausena
Species: C. anisata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms: Clausena abyssinica (Engl.) Engl. ,Clausena inaequalis (DC.) Benth.

Common names: Horsewood (E) Maggot killer (E) Muvengahonye (S) Muvhunambezo (S)

Engl: Horsewood, maggot killer

African vernacular names:
Kwere: Mkomavikali Massai: Ol matassia Pare: Mkwingwimi
Shona: Runga honya Venda mudede Xhosa: Umukambi, isifuta, isitutu
Zigua: Mjavikali Zulu: Nukamdida, umsanga
Philippines: nampi (Tagalog)

Habitat : India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Africa; in the Western_Ghats- throughout.

Description:
Shrub or small tree. The plant, a tropical shrub or tree up to 10 meters high is growing in and on the margins of evergreen forests. Leaves pinnately compound with 10-17 alternate or subopposite leaflets and a terminal leaflet.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Trunk\bark :  Bark reddish brown, scaly; blaze pink.

Branchlets : Young branchlets terete, grey pubescent.

Leaves :  Leaves compound, usually imparipinnate, sometimes paripinnate, cluster at twig ends, alternate, spiral, 13-26 cm long; rachis terete, grey pubescent, sometimes glabrescent; petiolule 0.2 cm long; leaflets 7-13 pairs, 2.5-8 (-12) x 1.3-3.5 (-6.5) cm, generally increase in size towards apex, ovate with unequal sides, apex acuminate with retuse tip, base asymmetric, margin entire to crenulate, chartaceous, glandular punctuate, usually grey pubescent on nerves and midrib on both surfaces, sometimes glabrescent; midrib raised above; secondary_nerves 7-11 pairs; tertiary_nerves broadly reticulate.

Flowers :  Inflorescence axillary racemes; flowers white, tetramerous. Flowering time is August – November…

Fruit& seed : Berry, globose, 1.3 cm across; seeds oblong.

Constituents:

Carbazole alkaloids are the major constituents of Rutaceous plants together with
coumarines and phenylpropanoids which are named clausamines. Their chemical
structure was determined by spectroscopic data and MS. They belong to the class of
1-oxygenated-3-methoxy-carbazoles having a prenyl side chain or an analogous
moiety at C-4.
In Cl. anisata nine carbazole alkaloids extracted by acetone could be found.
Among them:
Clausamine D is a colourless powder, structure formula C20H21NO3,
Clausamine E is a colourless oil, C20H21NO4
Clausamine G is a yellow oil, C20H21NO5 (4)
From the alcoholic extract of the stem bark of C. anisata contains the two alkaloids
clausenol and clausenine. Their structure was 1-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-
methylcarbazole and 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl carbazole, respectively. The
molecular weight of clausenol was 227(m/z), the structure formula C14H31NO2 (1).
In Nigeria four coumarins could be found from the root bark, among these
chalepin and imperatorin (5).
Steam distillation of fresh leaves yields sweet smelling, brownish-yellow oil. Its
major component is estragole, not anethole. It is 1 ½ times more toxic than the
crude oil

Medicinal Uses:
Plant parts used:  The root, the stem bark, the fresh leaves

The pounded roots, with lime and Guinea grains, are applied to rheumatic and other pains in Nigeria, where also the leaves are considered anthelmintic.   In some parts of Africa it is considered a cough remedy.  Recent research has shown the root methanolic extract indicates

This species is used in treating an uncommonly wide range of ailments and conditions. Decoctions of the leaves or roots are taken for gastro-intestinal disorders, fever, pneumonia, headache, hypotension, sore throat and sinusitis, venereal diseases, as an aphrodisiac and anthelmintic, as a tonic for pregnant women, and as a tonic for infants to prevent rickets and to control convulsions. Root decoctions and infusions are also taken for whooping cough, malaria, syphilis and kidney ailments, irregular menses, threatening abortion, skin diseases and epilepsy, and given to women before and after parturition to ease delivery and to expel blood from the uterus, and later to boost milk production. Roots are chewed to combat indigestion.

Crushed leaves are used as an antiseptic and analgesic, and are applied to open wounds, mouth infections, otitis and abscesses, also burns, haemorrhoids, rheumatism and general body pains. Crushed leaves are also used to treat wounds in domestic animals, and as a snake-bite antidote. Dried leaves are widely used as an arthropod repellent, such as a filling material for mattresses and pillows against fleas, lice and bedbugs. The fruits are sweet and readily eaten by people and other animals. Stem bark is pounded and used as rope.

that the herb possesses hypoglycaemic activity, though not as strong as insulin; and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of C. anisata root in the management and/or control of adult-onset, Type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.

 

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=133210
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/c/clauanis/clauanis_en.html
http://www.mmh-mms.com/downloads/mp09clausenaanisata.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clausena_anisata

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Ranunculus sceleratus

Botanical Name : Ranunculus sceleratus
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Ranunculus
Species: R. sceleratus
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales

Synonym: Marsh Crowfoot.

Common Name:Cursed buttercup and Celery-leaved buttercup

Habitat : A common plant native to Europe and naturalized in the United States. Can be found in fields, pastures and dry meadows of the northeastern United States and the Pacific northwest coastal areas

Description:
It is an annual herb growing up to half a meter tall. The leaves have small blades each deeply lobed or divided into usually three leaflets. They are borne on long petioles. The flower has three to five yellow petals a few millimeters long and reflexed sepals. The fruit is an achene borne in a cluster of several.

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General: hairless to sparsely stiff-hairy annual with
numerous slender, fleshy roots. Stems 1 to several, erect,
20-50 cm tall, usually freely branched, hollow.

Leaves: the basal with a stalk 2-4 times as long as the
blades, the blade kidney-shaped in outline, mostly 2.5-4
cm long and deeply 3 (or apparently 5)-parted into more or
less wedge-shaped, and again less deeply once- or twice-
lobed or toothed. Stem leaves numerous, alternate, more
deeply cleft or divided than the basal leaves.

Flowers: several on stalks rather stout, 1-3 cm long.
Sepals 5, spreading, yellowish, 2-4.5 mm long, soon
dropped. Petals 5, yellow, 2-5 mm long. Nectary scale 1
mm long, largely joined to the petal, the edges and base
forming a slight pocket bordering and partially covering the
exposed gland. Receptacle in fruit ellipsoid-cylindric, up to
14 mm long, usually slightly short-hairy. Stamens 15-20.
Flowering time: May-September.

Fruits: achenes, 100-250 in a cylindrical cluster,
obovate in outline, about 1 mm long, flattened, the central
portion of the face smooth and set off from the edges by a
distinct depression. Style pimple-like, about 0.1 mm long.

Cultivation :: In and by slow streams, ditches and shallow ponds of mineral rich water and muddy bottoms, avoiding acid soils.

Propagation :: Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. This plant is unlikely to need much assistance. Division in spring.

Edible Uses:
Edible parts of Celery-Leaved Buttercup: Young plant cooked. It is said to be not unwholesome if the plant is boiled and the water thrown away and then the plant cooked again. Caution is strongly advised, see the notes above on toxicity and below on medicinal uses.

Medicinal Uses:
Part used: Juice of leaves and flowers

Acrid, anodyne, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, rebefacient.
Has been used for abrasions, toothache, and rheumatism.
The Montagnais tribe of Native Americans relieved sinus headache by using the dried plant as snuff to promote sneezing. The Algonquins of Temiscaming used the flowers and seeds powdered for the same purpose.

The celery-leafed buttercup is one of the most virulent of  plants. When bruised and applied to the skin it raises a blister and creates a sore that is not easy to heal. If chewed it inflames the tongue and produces violent effects. The herb should be used fresh since it loses its effects when dried. The leaves and the root are used externally as an antirheumatic.  The seed is tonic and is used in the treatment of colds, general debility, rheumatism and spermatorrhea. When made into a tincture, given in small diluted doses, it proves curative of stitch in the side and neuralgic pains between the ribs.

Homeopathic :
Mostly used homeopathically.A homeopathic tincture is used for skin diseases, rheumatism, sciatica, arthritis, rhinitis.

Other Uses:
Dye:
*Sources state both red and yellow can be produced. The Ojibwe used burr oak to set the color which was probably red. The Forest Potawatomi used the entire plant to produce a yellow dye which they used on rushes or flags to make baskets and mats (color was set by placing a handful of clay in the pot).

*The Ojibwe smoked the seeds in their pipes along with other herbs to lure deer close enough for a shot with bow and arrow.

Known hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous when fresh, the toxins are destroyed by heat or by drying. The plant also has a strongly acrid juice that can cause blistering to the skin.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranunculus_sceleratus
http://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/plants/ranu-sce.html
http://earthnotes.tripod.com/buttercup.htm

http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/r/ranunculus-sceleratus=celery-leaved-buttercup.php

http://montana.plant-life.org/species/ranun_scele.htm

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Agalinis tenuifolia

Botanical Name :Agalinis tenuifolia
Family: Orobanchaceae
Genus: Agalinis
Species: A. tenuifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms : Gerardia tenuifolia – Vahl.

Common Names: Common gerardia, Slender false foxglove, Common false foxglove

Habitat :Agalinis tenuifolia  is native to the eastern and southwestern United States, and Canada, which produces purple flowers in late summer or early fall. It grows in moist open areas and low woods in Texas.

Description:

Agalinis tenuifolia is a perennial plant .It is  erect, annual, 8″-24″ tall forb, dark green, blackish when dry, many erect branches; stems smooth.Individual flowers and their buds are produced from the axils of the leaves on the upper and outer stems; these flowering stems can be regarded as leafy racemes. The swollen flower buds are conspicuously white. Each flower is about ½–¾” across, consisting of a short tubular corolla with 5 petal-like lobes and a tubular calyx with 5 short teeth. The corolla is pink, purplish pink, or medium purple; its 5 rounded lobes are quite large in relation to its tubular base. The lobes are finely ciliate along their margins. The lower interior of the corolla has dark purple spots and a pair of faint yellow lines. Near the upper interior of the corolla, there are 4 stamens with hairy white anthers and an undivided white style (sometimes with a pale yellow tip). The slender pedicels of the flowers are green to reddish purple; they are usually as long or longer than the flowers (at least ½” long). The blooming period occurs during the late summer or early fall and lasts about 2-3 weeks. Each flower lasts only a day or two before its corolla falls to the ground. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by a globoid seed capsule containing many small seeds that can be blown about by the wind. The root system is fibrous. Slender False Foxglove is partially parasitic on other plants.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Flower: purple to pink, 5-parted, 1/3″-1/2″ long, smooth inside, upper lobe arched forward over the 4 stamens the lower stamens longer; inflorescence a cluster (raceme) of flowers on 1/3″-1″ long stalks; blooms Aug.-Sept.  The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) It is in flower from July to August.

Fruit: roundish capsule
Leaf : linear to 1/4″ wide
It is hardy to zone 8.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained soil, preferably on the dry side. Grows well in a woodland garden. This species is not very hardy outdoors in Britain, tolerating temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. A semi-parasitic plant, thus making it very difficult to establish in cultivation. We are not sure which species it parasitizes.

Propagation:  Seed –

Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of diarrhea.
Known Hazards : The plant is said to be poisonous to cattle and sheep.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Agalinis+tenuifolia
http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=AGATEN
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/prairie/plantx/slfs_foxglove.htm

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Hollyhocks (Alcea Roses)

Botanical Name: Alcea rosea
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Alcea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Malvales

The scientific name for Hollyhocks is Alcea rosea but used to go by the scientific name Althaea and is still seen that way in garden catalogs on occasion.

Common Name:Hollyhocks

Habitats: Holyhock is native to Eurasia.It grows in Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; and in  Cultivated Beds.Hollyhocks prefer rich, well-drained soil and full sun. Light shade is tolerated but wet winter soil is not….click & see

Description:
Holyhock  is a biennial or short-lived perennial plant about 4-8′ tall. The stout central stem is unbranched or sparingly branched; it is light green, terete, and more or less hairy. The blades of the alternate leaves are up to 8″ long and across; they are palmately lobed (with 3-7 blunt lobes each) and crenate along their margins. Each leaf blade is orbicular or oval in outline and indented at the base where the petiole joins the blade. The upper surface of each leaf blade is medium green, slightly pubescent to hairless, and wrinkled from fine veins; the lower surface is light green and pubescent. The petioles of the leaves are as long or a little longer than their blades; they are light green and hairy..
Click to view  pictures

The central stem terminates in a spike-like raceme of flowers; axillary flowers are produced from the axils of the upper leaves as well. These flowers occur individually or in small clusters along the central stem; they nod sideways from short hairy pedicels. Each flower spans about 3-5″ when it is fully open; it has 5 petals, 5 sepals, 6-9 sepal-like bracts, and a columnar structure in the center with the reproductive organs (stamens toward the tip, thread-like stigmas below). The overlapping petals provide the flower with a funnelform shape; they are usually some shade of white, pink, or purplish red. The sepals are light green, ovate, and much smaller than the petals. The bracts of each flower are located underneath the sepals; they are light green, hairy, ovate, and joined together at the base. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer into the fall; a colony of plants will bloom for about 2 months. Each flower is replaced by a fruit containing a ring of 15-20 seeds (technically, a schizocarp). These seeds are oval, flattened, and notched on one side. The root system consists of a taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself.

Species: There are about 60 species of Alcea, including:

Alcea acaulis
Alcea biennis (syn. A. pallida)
Alcea calvertii
Alcea ficifolia — Antwerp hollyhock
Alcea flavovirens
Alcea grossheimii — Grossheim’s alcea
Alcea heldreichii
Alcea kurdica
Alcea lavateriflora
Alcea litwinowii
Alcea longipedicellata
Alcea nudiflora
Alcea pallida
Alcea rhyticarpa
Alcea rosea — common hollyhock
Alcea rugosa
Alcea setosa — bristly hollyhock
Alcea sosnovskyi
Alcea striata
Alcea sulphurea

Hardiness Zones: Hollyhocks are hardy in zones 2-10.

Uses in the Garden: Perfect for planting in the back of borders, for old cottage gardens, cut flower gardens, humming bird beds or fence borders.

Cultivation details:
Succeeds in most soils. Poor soils should be enriched with organic matter. Prefers a heavy rich soil and a sheltered sunny position.Plants are hardy to about -15°c.A very ornamental plant, it is usually grown as a biennial due to its susceptibility to the fungal disease ‘rust’. There are many named varieties.Young plants, and also the young growth in spring, are very attractive to slugs. The preference is full to partial sun, moist to mesic conditions, and a fertile loamy soil. Lower leaves will wither away during hot dry weather. Hollyhock is vulnerable to foliar disease, including rust.

Propagation:
Seed – sow April/May or August/September in pots or in situ[200, 238]. Easily grown from seed, which usually germinates in about 2 – 3 weeks at 20°c[133, 268]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.Division after flowering. Only use rust-free specimens.Root cuttings in December.Basal cuttings at almost any time of year

Medicinal Uses:
Antiinflammatory; Astringent; Demulcent; Diuretic; Emollient; Febrifuge.

Hollyhock is stated to be an emollient and laxative. It is used to control inflammation, to stop bed-wetting and as a mouthwash in cases of bleeding gums .

The flowers are demulcent, diuretic and emollient. They are useful in the treatment of chest complaints, and a decoction is used to improve blood circulation, for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhage etc. The flowers are harvested when they are open and are dried for later use.
The shoots are used to ease a difficult labour. The root is astringent and demulcent. It is crushed and applied as a poultice to ulcers. Internally, it is used in the treatment of dysentery. The roots and the flowers are used in Tibetan medicine, where they are said to have a sweet, acrid taste and a neutral potency. They are used in the treatment of inflammations of the kidneys/womb, vaginal/seminal discharge, and the roots on their own are used to treat loss of appetite.
The seed is demulcent, diuretic and febrifuge.The flowers are used in the treatment of repiratory and inflammatory ailments and the root extracts to produce marshmallow sweets.

Other Uses
Compost; Dye; Litmus; Oil; Paper.
A fibre obtained from the stems is used in papermaking. The fibres are about 1.9mm long. The stems are harvested in late summer, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the fibres can be removed. The fibres are cooked with lye for 2 hours and then ball milled for 3 hours or pounded with mallets. The paper is light tan in colour.

The flowers are an alternative ingredient of ‘Quick Return’ herbal compost activator. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost.The seed contains 12% of a drying oil.The red anthocyanin constituent of the flowers is used as a litmus.A brown dye is obtained from the petals.
Hollyhocks are tolerant of black walnut toxins and, like Polemonium plants, can be planted near and around black walnut trees where other plants will not grow.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Alcea+rosea
http://plantsbulbs.suite101.com/article.cfm/hollyhock_alcea_plant_profile
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcea
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/weeds/plants/hollyhock.htm