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Herbs & Plants

Indian Paper Birch (Betula utilis)

Botanical Name : Betula utilis
Family         : Betulaceae
Genus
: Betula
Synonyms:        Betula bhojpattra – Wall.

Habitat : E. Asia – Himalayas to S.W. China.  Forests at the upper height limit of tree growth, rarely found below 3000 metres[146]. Moist hillsides at elevations of 2000 – 4000 metres in Nepal.Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;

Description:
A decidious Tree growing to 20m at a fast rate.A variable species with normally dark coppery brown peeling bark revealing an attractive grey pink bloom. Makes a medium sized tree of comparatively fast growth.

Fast-growing Birch trees are attractive year-round. Their light green foliage turns yellow in fall. Losing their leaves for winter shows off their colorful, peeling bark, thin graceful branches, and hanging cone-like fruit. Young trees have dark-colored bark until their trunks reach 1 inch around. Plant against a darker background or green lawn to highlight pale trunks. Prone to aphids that drip a sticky substance called honeydew, so plant away from patios or car parks. Most thrive in moist sandy or rocky subsoils. Once established, tolerates some heat and dry spells. Prefers winter chill. Water deeply and often, around shallow roots. Prune in winter only after leaves have formed, to prevent sap bleeding. Transplant when dormant. Birch borers and leaf miners are major pests.

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It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in a well-drained loamy soil in a sheltered position. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Dislikes wet soils. Shade tolerant. Plants are showing good wind-resistance on our Cornish trial ground. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. A good plant to grow near the compost heap, aiding the fermentation process. Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in a sunny position. Spring sown seed should be surface sown in a sunny position in a cold frame. If the germination is poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can help. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed, either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring – do not cover the spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter.

 

Medicinal Actions &  Uses:

Antiseptic; Carminative.

An infusion of the bark is antiseptic and carminative. It has been used in the treatment of hysteria and jaundice. It is applied as drops to the ears to rlieve earache. A paste made from the bark is used as a poultice on cuts, wounds and burns.

Other Uses
Incense; Paper; Waterproofing; Wood.

A paper is made from the inner bark. The outer bark can be carefully peeled off the tree (this does not harm the tree) and used as a paper. The outer bark can also be used as a waterproofing and for roofing houses. The bark is sometimes used as an incense. Wood – tough, even grained, moderately hard, elastic. Used for construction.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Betula_utilis_01-10-2005_12.44.48.JPG
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Betula_utilis_01-10-2005_12.45.20.JPG
http://www.sunnygardens.com/garden_plants/betula/betula_0392.php
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Betula-utilis-leaves.JPG

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Herbs & Plants

Aspidistra

Botanical Name :Aspidistra elatior
Family: Convallariaceae/Ruscaceae
Genus : Aspidistra
Synonyms : Aspidistra lurida – Ker-Gawl.
Common Name :
Cast-iron Plant
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Species: A. elatior

Habitat :Although sometimes thought to be of Chinese origin, the species is in fact native to islands in southern Japan including Kuroshima, Suwanosejima and the Uji Islands. It occurs in association with overstorey species such as Ardisia sieboldii and Castanopsis sieboldii  E. Asia – Japan – Kuroshima, Suwanose, and Uji Islands. An understory plant, found growing in forests beneath Ardisia crenata and Castanopsis sieboldii. Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover;

Description:
Aspidistra elatior  is a rhizomatous perennial. It is a stemless plant to 1 metre in height with dark green leaves. Small, solitary purplish flowers may appear at the base of the plant in spring.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from January to April. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Slugs, snails.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Aspidistra elatior is a staple of the shade garden. It has wide, evergreen leaves that rise up from tough, rhizomatous roots. The lance shaped leaves are dark green and leathery, and around 12-20 in (30-50 cm) long. The aspect of cast-iron plant is decidedly vertical. Some types of aspidistra are variegated with creamy streaks or dots; some are shorter than the species. The plants spread in clumps, vigorously but at a moderate enough rate not to be invasive or even troublesome. The flowers are borne close to the ground and never even seen unless one deliberately searches for them.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Medicinal Uses
Febrifuge; Styptic; Tonic.

The roots, stems and leaves are febrifuge, styptic and tonic. Strengthens bones and muscles. A decoction of the root, stems or leaves is used in the treatment of abdominal cramps, amenorrhoea, diarrhoea, myalgia, traumatic injuries and urinary stones.

Other Uses:
Ground cover.
Aspidistras can be grown as a ground cover in a shady position.

Aspidistra is often grown in a container as a porch or patio plant, or as a house plant. In landscapes, it can be used as a border or be planted in a drift around trees, or to fill a planter under an overhang. In his North Florida garden, Steve has a stand of them growing in almost total shade at the base of a large live oak tree. Florists use the leaves in arrangements, where they lend drama and provide an excellent background for flowers. The leaves of cast-iron plant are especially long lasting in arrangements.

Cultivation :
Prefers a shady position in a rich well-drained soil. Tolerates poor soils and drought. Almost hardy in Britain[1], plants can withstand temperatures down to about -15°c if they are well sited. A plant growing under shrubs in Worcestershire has survived in the garden for over 30 years. This plant used to be commonly grown as a house plant, it tolerates considerable neglect.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in the greenhouse. Plant them out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division as the plant comes into growth in the spring. Suckers. Best removed in the autumn and grown on in the greenhouse for the first winter.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aspidistra+elatior
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspidistra_elatior
http://www.floridata.com/ref/a/aspi_ela.cfm
http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week078.shtml
http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week078.shtml

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Herbs & Plants

Tung Tree(Aleurites fordii)

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Botanical Name: Aleurites fordii
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Vernicia

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order
: Malpighiales
Species: V. fordii

Synonyms: Vernicia fordii – (Hemsl.)Airy Shaw. Aleurites fordii Hemsl

Common Name: Tung Tree 

 Vernacular Names :   Tung Oil Tree, Tung-oil Tree, Tungoil Tree, China Wood-Oil Tree, Kalo Nut Tree,  (lit. oil tung) being the formal name in Chinese.

Habitat :Native to southern China, Burma, and northern Vietnam;  E. Asia – Central and Western China. . Base of foothills esp. in rocky places, to 1000 metres in W. China. Montane sparse forests at elevations of 200-1500, occasionallyto 2000 metres.

Description :
It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 20 m tall, with a spreading crown. The bark is smooth and thin, and bleeds latex if cut. The leaves are alternate, simple, 4.5–25 cm long and 3.5–22 cm broad, heart-shaped or with three shallow, maple-like lobes, green above and below, red conspicuous glands at the base of the leaf, and with a 5.5–26 cm long petiole. The flowers are 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, with five pale pink to purple petals with streaks of darker red or purple in the throat; it is monoecious with individual flowers either male or female, but produced together in the inflorescences. The flowers appear before or with the leaves in loose, terminal clusters. The fruit is a hard, woody pear-shaped drupe 4–6 cm long and 3–5 cm diameter, containing four or five large, oily seeds; it is green initially, becoming dull brown when ripe in autumn.
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It is hardy to zone 10 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile.
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
One report says that the plant is very tolerant of soil conditions. It is easily grown in a loamy soil but the plants are unable to withstand much frost. Requires a lime-free soil[200]. The Tung tree is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 64 – 173cm, average temperatures ranging from 18.7 – 26.2°C, and a pH of 5.4 – 7.1. Tung trees are very exacting in climatic and soil requirements. They require long, hot summers with abundant moisture, with usually at least 112 cm of rainfall rather evenly distributed through the year. Trees require 350 – 400 hours in winter with temperatures 7.2°C or lower – without this cold requirement, trees tend to produce suckers from the main branches. Vigorous but not succulent growth is the most cold resistant – trees are susceptible to cold injury when in active growth. Production of tung is best where day and night temperatures are uniformly warm. Much variation reduces tree growth and fruit size. Trees grow best if planted on hilltops or slopes, as good air-drainage reduces losses from spring frosts. Contour-planting on high rolling land escapes frost damage. Tung makes its best growth on virgin land. Soils must be well-drained, deep aerated, and have a high moisture-holding capacity to be easily penetrated by the roots. Green manure crops and fertilizers may be needed. Dolomitic lime may be used to correct excessive acidity; pH 6.0 – 6.5 is best; liming is beneficial to most soils in the Tung Belt, the more acid soils requiring greater amounts of lime. Trees are not very cold hardy outdoors in Britain. Another report says that they are fairly hardy. A very ornamental tree, it is cultivated in China for the oil contained in its seed. There are some named varieties.  Seedlings generally vary considerably from parent plants in growth and fruiting characters. Seedlings which have been self-pollinated for several generations give rather uniform plants. Only 1 out of 100 selected ‘mother’ tung trees will produce seedlings sufficiently uniform for commercial planting. Usually seedling trees outgrow budded trees, but budded trees produce larger crops and are more uniform in production, oil content and date of fruit maturity.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow March/April in a warm greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least the first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out in early summer and give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Tung seed are normally short-lived and must be planted during the season following harvest. Seeds are best hulled before planting, as hulls retard germination. Hulled seed may be planted dry, but soaking in water for 5 – 7 days hastens germination. Stratification, cold treatment or chemical treatment of seeds brings about more rapid and uniform germination. Dry-stored seed should be planted no later than February; stratified seed by mid-March; cold-treated and chemical treated seed by early April. Cuttings of mature wood in a frame. Most successful budding is done in late August, by the simple shield method, requiring piece of budstock bark, including a bud, that will fit into a cut in the rootstock bar. A T-shaped cut is made in bark of rootstock at point 5 – 7.5 cm above ground level, the flaps of bark loosened, shield-bud slipped inside flaps and the flaps tied tightly over the transplanted bud with rubber budding stripe, 12 cm long, 0.6 cm wide, 0.002 thick. After about 7 days, rubber stripe is cut to prevent binding. As newly set buds are susceptible to cold injury, soil is mounded over them for winter. When growth starts in spring, soil is pulled back and each stock cut back to within 3.5 cm of the dormant bud. Later, care consists of keeping all suckers removed and the trees well-cultivated. Spring budding is done only as a last resort if necessary trees are not propagated the previous fall.

Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Seed.

Seed. There are no more details but the report should be treated with caution since the oil from the seed is said to be poisonous.

Medicinal Actions & Uses
Antibacterial; Antiphlogistic; Emetic; Vermifuge.

The oil from the seed is used externally to treat parasitic skin diseases, burns, scalds and wounds . The poisonous oil is said to penetrate the skin and into the muscles, when applied to surgical wounds it will cause inflammation to subside within 4 – 5 days and will leave no scar tissue after suppressing the infection. The plant is emetic, antiphlogistic and vermifuge. Extracts from the fruit are antibacter.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:-
Insecticide; Oil.

The seed contains up to 58% of a superior quick-drying oil that is used in the manufacture of lacquers, varnishes, paints, linoleum, oilcloth, resins, artificial leather, felt-base floor coverings, greases, brake-linings and in clearing and polishing compounds. Tung oil products are used to coat containers for food, beverages, and medicines; for insulating wires and other metallic surfaces, as in radios, radar, telephone and telegraph instruments . During World War II, the Chinese used tung oil for motor fuel. It tended to gum up the engines, so they processed it to make it compatible with gasoline. The mixture worked fine . The oil is very resistant to weathering . The oil is said to have insecticidal properties. The fruit contains between 14 – 20% oil, the kernel 53 – 60% and the nut 30 – 40% . The oil contains 75 – 80% a-elaeo stearic, 15% oleic-, ca 4% palmitic-, and ca 1% stearic-acids. Tannins, phytosterols, and a poisonous saponin are also reported . Trees yield 4.5 – 5 tonnes of fruit per hectare. Tung trees usually begin bearing fruit the third year after planting, and are usually in commercial production by the fourth or fifth year, attaining maximum production in 10 – 12 years. Average life of trees in United States is 30 years. Fruits mature and drop to ground in late September to early November. At this time they contain about 60% moisture. Fruits must be dried to 15% moisture before processing. Fruits should be left on ground 3 – 4 weeks until hulls are dead and dry, and the moisture content has dropped below 30%. Fruits are gathered by hand into baskets or sacks. Fruits do not deteriorate on ground until they germinate in spring.

The tung tree is valued for tung oil, which is derived from the seeds of the tree. Tung oil, also called China wood oil or nut oil, has traditionally been used in lamps in China. In modern times, it is used as an ingredient in paint, varnish, and caulk. It is also used as a wood finish for furniture and other wooden objects. After processing to remove gums in the oil, it can also be used as a motor oil. Marco Polo wrote in the 13th century “The Chinese take some lime and chopped hemp, and these they knead together with a certain wood oil; and when the three are thoroughly amalgamated they hold like any glue, and with this mixture they pay their ships”.

Known Hazards:   The oil from the seed is poisonous. The leaves and seeds contain a toxic saponin. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Cultivars:-
‘Cahl’
A low-heading, very productive tree. The large fruits contain about 20% oil. The plant matures early and is somewhat resistant to cold in the autumn.
‘Folsom’
A low-heading, highly productive tree. The fruits are large, late maturing, turning purplish when mature. They contain 21% oil. This cultivar has the highest resistance to low temperature in autumn[269].
‘Isabel’
A low-heading, highly productive tree. The large fruits mature early and contain about 22% oil[269].
‘La Crosser’
A high-heading, exceptionally productive tree. The fruits are small and late maturing, tending to break segments if not harvested promptly. A very popular variety, the fruit contains 21 – 14% oil.
‘Lampton’
This form outyields all other varieties. A very low-heading tree with large, early maturing fruits that have about 22% oil content.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aleurites+fordii
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernicia_fordii

http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/31

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Herbs & Plants

Indian Horsechestnut

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Botanical Name: Aesculus indica
Family : Hippocastanaceae
Synonyms: Pavia indica – Wall. ex Camb.
Common name(s)
: Indian Horsechestnut
Vernacular names:-
Deutsch
: Indische Rosskastanie
English: Himalayan horse chestnut
Français
: Marronnier de l’Himalaya
Svenska: Indisk hästkastanj
Ordo: Sapindales
Genus: Aesculus
Sectio: A. sect. Calothyrsus
Species: Aesculus indica

Habitat : E. Asia – North-western Himalayas.  Wet temperate forests and shady ravines to 3,000 metres.  Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Description:
Indian Horse Chestnut is a tall, deciduous, spreading, shady tree, with a straight trunk, and branches in whorls. Its average height is 22 m; the girth of its trunk is about 1 m; its bark peels off upwards in narrow strips. The young shoots are minutely velvety, becoming hairless at maturity. The glossy leaves typically have seven leaflets arising from the same point on rather reddish stalks. The leaves are highly ornamental, and look like tiny umbrellas. The tree sheds its leaves during winter and the new growth starts in the last week of March. In April, the tree produces upright spikes of buds, and in May-June, the tree is decorated with upright panicles of white blooms. The panicles are about 40 cm long, containing over 300 flowers. These blooms are followed by the production of a spiny, green fruit which holds several brown seeds. Flowering: May-June.

click to see the pictures..>...(1)....(2).….(3)..……(4).……(5)…..

It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a deep loamy well-drained soil but is not too fussy. Succeeds on chalk. Dislikes dry soils. This species does very well in south-west England, growing best in areas where the minimum temperatures do not fall below about -5°c. Young shoots in the spring can be cut back by late frosts in low-lying districts. Trees cast quite a dense shade. Most members of this genus transplant easily, even when fairly large.

Propagation:-
Seed – best sown outdoors or in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. The seed germinates almost immediately and must be given protection from severe weather. The seed has a very limited viability and must not be allowed to dry out. Stored seed should be soaked for 24 hours prior to sowing and even after this may still not be viable. It is best to sow the seed with its ‘scar’ downwards. If sowing the seed in a cold frame, pot up the seedlings in early spring and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer.

Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Seed.
Seed – cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a gruel. The seed is roasted then eaten in Nepal. It is also dried then ground into a flour and used with wheat flour to develop the flavour when making bread. The seed is quite large, about 35mm in diameter, and is easily harvested. Unfortunately it also contains toxic saponins and these need to be removed before it can be eaten. The seed is used as an emergency food in times of famine when all else fails. It is dried and ground into a powder, this is then soaked in water for about 12 hours before use in order to remove the bitter saponins and can be used to make a ‘halva’. It is estimated that mature trees yield about 60kg of seeds per annum in the wild. See also the notes above on toxicity.


Medicinal  Actions & Uses
:-
Acrid; Anthelmintic; Antirheumatic; Astringent; Narcotic; Stomachic.

The seed is astringent, acrid and narcotic. An oil from the seed is applied externally in the treatment of skin disease and rheumatism. The juice of the bark is also used to treat rheumatism. A paste made from the oil cake is applied to the forehead to relieve headaches. The seed is given to horses suffering from colic. It is also used as an anthelmintic on horses to rid them of intestinal parasites.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses
Soap; Wood.

Saponins in the seed are used as a soap substitute. The saponins can be easily obtained by chopping the seed into small pieces and infusing them in hot water. This water can then be used for washing the body, clothes etc. Its main drawback is a lingering odour of horse chestnuts. Wood – soft, close grained. Used for construction, cases, spoons, cups etc.


Known Hazards :
The seed is rich in saponins. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching the seed or flour in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aesculus+indica
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/st063
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Horse%20Chestnut.html
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aesculus_indica
http://apps.kew.org/trees/?page_id=99

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Japanese Aconite (Aconitum carmichaelii )

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Botanical Name: Aconitum carmichaelii
Family :  Ranunculaceae
Genus : Aconitum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Species: A. carmichaelii

Synonyms; Aconitum fischeri – Forbes.&Hemsl. non Rchb. Aconitum fortunei – Hemsl.
Common Names :Autumn monkshood, Azure monkshood (Chinese:pinyin,Japanese:Torikabuto)

Habitat: It is native to East Asia, particularly in China and Japan.  Growing in E. Asia – C. and W. China to N. America.    It grows on the forest margins, scrub, grassy  slopes and mountains at elevations of 100 – 2200 metres.Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade;

Description;
Herbaceous perennial plant  growing to 1.5m by 0.3m.
It is in flower from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
A handsome, spreading plant, this aconite has rich blue, hooded flowers that appear in late summer and last until autumn. The foliage is coloured rich green.  It is a robust plant for the back of the border. All parts of the plant are poisonous so handle with care.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline)  soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :-
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade . Plants will only  thrive in a sunny position if the soil remains moist throughout the growing season . Prefers a calcareous soil. This species is not included in the Flora  of North America and so it should be considered doubtful that its range includes this region. A very ornamental plant,  there are some named forms.

It grows well in open woodlands. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer . A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of  nearby species, especially legumes. Closely related to A. fischeri and considered to be part of that species by some botanists.

Propagation:-
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large  enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.

Medicinal Actions &  Uses:-
Anaesthetic; Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic; Cardiotonic; Vasodilator.

It is considered a medicinal herb by some and the root is most commonly used to effect circulation, restore yang and expel cold. It is sometimes used  topically in Dit Da Jow liniment. If not prepared properly by a trained person, it is deadly when taken internally.

A widely used herbal remedy in China,  it is cultivated for its root. This is harvested in the autumn as the plant dies down and is then dried  before being used. The root is anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, cardiotonic, stimulant and vasodilator  . It is used in the treatment of shock and collapse, chronic diseases with symptoms of cold, gastralgia and rheumatic arthralgia, oedema and diarrhoea due to hypofunction of  the spleen and kidney. A tincture of the root is used externally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthralgis, sprains, contusions etc. Use with great  caution, the plant contains the toxic alkaloid aconitine and is very poisonous – should not be used internally unless under the direction of a qualified practitioner. Overdoses lead to numbness of the tongue, lips and extremities, nausea, vomiting, irritability and coma.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is highly toxic.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aconitum+carmichaelii
http://www.plantpress.com/plant-encyclopedia/plantdb.php?plant=7366
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum_carmichaelii