Tag Archives: Androgenic alopecia

Hair Loss in Women

Introduction:
One of the commonest forms of hair loss in women (and men) is a condition called telogen effluvium, in which there is a diffuse (or widely spread out) shedding of hairs around the scalp and elsewhere on the body.

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This is usually a reaction to intense stress on the body’s physical or hormonal systems, or as a reaction to medication.

The condition, which can occur at any age, generally begins fairly suddenly and gets better on its own within about six months, although for a few people it can become a chronic problem.

Because telogen effluvium develops a while after its trigger, and causes generalised thinning of hair density rather than a bald patch, women with the condition can easily be diagnosed as overanxious or neurotic.

Fortunately, it often gets better with time. Telogen effluvium is a phenomenon related to the growth cycles of hair.

Hair growth cycles alternate between a growth phase (called anagen, it lasts about three years) and a resting phase (telogen, which lasts about three months). During telogen, the hair remains in the follicle until it is pushed out by the growth of a new hair in the anagen phase.

At any one time, up to about 15 per cent of hairs are in telogen. But a sudden stress on the body can trigger large numbers of hairs to enter the telogen phase at the same time. Then, about three months later, this large number of hairs will be shed. As the new hairs start to grow out, so the density of hair may thicken again.

Many adults have had an episode of telogen effluvium at some point in their lives, reflecting episodes of illness or stress.

Another common type of hair loss in women is androgenetic alopecia, which is related to hormone levels in the body. There’s a large genetic predisposition, which may be inherited from the father or mother.

Androgenetic alopecia affects roughly 50 per cent of men (this is the main cause of the usual pattern of balding seen as men age) and perhaps as many women over the age of 40.

Research shows that up to 13 per cent of women have some degree of this sort of hair loss before the menopause, and afterwards it becomes far more common – one piece of research suggests that over the age of 65 as many as 75 per cent of women are affected.

The cause of hair loss in androgentic alopecia is a chemical called dihydrotestosterone, or DHT, which is made from androgens (male hormones that all men and women produce) by the action of an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase.

People with a lot of this enzyme make more DHT, which in excess can cause the hair follicles to make thinner and thinner hair, until eventually they pack up completely.

Women’s pattern of hair loss is different to the typical receding hairline and crown loss in men. Instead, androgenetic alopecia causes a general thinning of women’s hair, with loss predominantly over the top and sides of the head.

Another important cause of hair loss in women is a condition called alopecia areata, an autoimmune disease that affects more than two per cent of the population. In this, the hair follicles are attacked by white blood cells. The follicles then become very small and hair production slows down dramatically, so there may be no visible hair growth for months and years.

After some time, hair may regrow as before, come back in patchy areas, or not regrow at all. The good news is that in every case the hair follicles remain alive and can be switched on again; the bad news is that we don’t yet know how to do this.

TOP MYTHS ABOUT FEMALE HAIR LOSS:-
•It means you’re not a proper women with two X chromosomes.
•It’s caused by washing your hair too often.
•It’s caused by too much brushing or combing.
•Hair dyes and perms can cause permanent loss.
•It may result from wearing hats and wigs.
•Shaving your hair will make it regrow thicker.
•Standing on your head will help it grow back.
•It’s a sign of an overactive brain.
•There’s a miracle cure out there waiting for you.
•Scan the internet and you’ll see all sorts of miracle cures for baldness on offer, from strange herbal lotions to mechanical devices. Perhaps the most useful first step you can take is to avoid the myths.
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After this there are several options. You can find some way to accept the change and live with it (let’s face it, this is a tall order – most men struggle to come to terms with their baldness and for them at least society equates it with maturity and power).

You can try cosmetic treatments such as wigs or hair thickeners, or you can try medical therapies. The last option is hair-replacement surgery.

The drug minoxidil was first developed for treating high blood pressure, which was found to have the side effect of thickening hair growth in some people. It’s now available as a lotion to apply directly to the scalp.

No one really knows how it works, however, and it’s not effective for everyone. Studies show that only about 20 per cent of women between 18 and 45 have moderate regrowth using the drug, while another 40 per cent experience minimal regrowth.

It works best on younger people with early hair loss. A big disadvantage is that you have to carry on using minoxidil indefinitely or the new hair will fall out.

Another drug, finasteride, which was developed for treating prostate cancer, has also been found to be effective but is only available for men.

Surgical techniques for restoring hair have improved greatly in the past couple of decades, but this is still an option that requires careful consideration.

There are two main options:
•Hair transplantation – tiny punch-holes of skin containing a few follicles of hair are taken from elsewhere in the body (such as the back of the head, if this is still well covered) and implanted into the thinning areas. Some surgeons use a needle to sew in just one or two hairs. However, as women are more likely to have diffuse loss of hair all over the scalp, this technique may not be possible. There has been little success with implanting artificial fibres.
•Scalp reduction – devices are inserted under the skin to stretch areas of scalp that still have hair, then the redundant bald areas are removed. Alternatively, flaps of hairy scalp can be moved around the head.
Key points
•Many causes of female hair loss are temporary – check your general health and be patient.
•Take a look at your family for an idea of your risk of female pattern baldness.
•Don’t be taken in by claims for wonder products – there’s no cure for female pattern hair loss.
•Many women cope well by using cosmetic products, hats and wigs, so persevere until you find your own style.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources :

http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/hair_loss_women.shtml

http://www.prevention.com/health/beauty/unsure/hair-loss-in-women/article/1aebd08f88803110VgnVCM20000012281eac____/

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Hair Loss in Men

Definition:
Each hair grows in cycles?it grows, rests, and then falls out. Usually, this cycle repeats approximately yearly. At any time, about ninety percent of a person’s scalp hair is growing, a phase that lasts between two and six years. Ten percent of the scalp hair is in a resting phase that lasts between two and three months. At the end of its resting stage, the hair goes through a shedding phase.

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Shedding 50 to 100 hairs a day is considered normal. When a hair is shed, it is replaced by a new hair from the same follicle located just beneath the skin surface. Scalp hair grows about one-half inch a month.

Hair is made up of a form of protein, the same material that is found in fingernails and toenails. Everyone, regardless of age, should eat an adequate amount of protein to maintain normal hair production. Protein is found in meat, chicken, fish, eggs, some cheese, dried beans, tofu, grains, and nuts.

Male pattern baldness occurs in a distinct way (and sometimes can affect women too). Hair may start Hair may start to disappear from the temples and the crown of the head at any time. For a few men this process starts as early as the later teenage years, but for most it happens in their late 20s and early 30s. A little thinning of the hair may be noticeable first, followed by wider hair loss allowing more of the scalp to become visible.

Some men aren’t troubled by this process at all. Others, however, suffer great emotional distress associated with a lack of self-confidence and sometimes depression.

Abnormal hair loss can be due to many different causes, but about 50 percent of the population experience normal hair loss by the time they reach 50. People who notice their hair shedding in large amounts after combing or brushing, or whose hair becomes thinner or falls out should consult a dermatologist.

Causes:
By far the most common cause of hair loss in men is androgenetic alopecia, also referred to as “male pattern” or “common” baldness. It is caused by the effects of the male hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on genetically susceptible scalp hair follicles. This sensitivity to DHT is present mainly in hair follicles that reside in the front, top, and crown of the scalp (rather than the back and sides) producing a characteristic and easily identifiable pattern described by Norwood (see Norwood Classification).

It is frequently stated that “hair loss comes from the mother’s side of the family.” The truth is that baldness can be inherited from either parent. However, recent research suggests that the reasons for hair loss and balding may be a bit more complex than originally thought. Factors on the x-chromosome have been shown to influence hair loss, making the inheritance from the maternal side of the family slightly more important than the paternal one (Markus Nothen, 2005).

The identification of an androgen receptor gene (AR) on the x-chromosome helps to explain why the hair loss pattern of a man resembles his maternal grandfather more often than his father. However, this is clearly not the whole story since a direct inheritance of baldness from the father is observed as well. An autosomal (non-sex) linked gene would explain this type of transmission – but this gene has not yet been found.

DHT is formed by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase on testosterone, the hormone that causes sex characteristics in men. DHT causes male hair loss by shortening the growth, or anagen, phase of the hair cycle, causing miniaturization (decreased size) of the follicles, and producing progressively shorter, finer hairs. Eventually these hairs totally disappear.

In the patient below, we see a close-up of the side of his scalp where the hair is not affected by DHT. We see mostly groups of full thickness hairs (called terminal hairs) and a few scattered fine, vellus hairs. This is normal.
In the area of thinning (see circle below), we see that most of the hair has been miniaturized, although all of the hair is still present.

In the region that is balding (second circle in the center), there is extensive miniaturization and some, but not all of the hair has disappeared.

What this shows is that the initial appearance of balding is due to the progressive decrease in hair shaft size, rather than the actual loss of hair – in early hair loss, all the hair is still present. This is the reason why hair loss medications, such as finasteride (Propecia) work in early hair loss (since they are able to partly reverse the miniaturization process) but don’t work in areas that are totally bald. It is also the reason why men’s hair restoration surgery, if not planned properly, can result in hair loss due to the shedding of surrounding miniaturized hair.
Androgenetic hair loss is caused by three interdependent factors: genes, hormones, and age:

Other causes of hair loss, which may not follow this pattern, include:

•Iron-deficiency anaemia
•Under active thyroid
•Fungal scalp infection
•Some prescribed medicines
•Stress

Other medical conditions that can produce diffuse hair loss in men include thyroid disease . Certain medications, including some drugs used for high blood pressure and depression, and the use of anabolic steroids, can also cause male hair loss.

How the problem can be solved:
If there’s a reversible cause, it’s normally possible to stop hair loss. For instance, if it’s caused by iron deficiency you can stop hair loss by replenishing the body’s iron stores.

A huge number of treatments have been tried to slow down and even reverse the process of male pattern hair loss – some are successful, others aren’t. But many men find their hair loss slows down or stops for no apparent reason at a certain age anyway.

It’s a good idea to ensure an illness isn’t responsible, particularly if the hair loss is patchy rather than being in the typical male pattern distribution. Moreover, if the hair loss is accompanied by other symptoms (such as tiredness) then blood tests may be necessary.

Treatments
•Wigs, weaves and hair transplants are, obviously, the most direct form of treatment, while some advocate shaving or close cutting which simply makes the hair loss less obvious. Different hairstyles can create the appearance of a fuller head of hair, or a close shave cut can make baldness less apparent.
•Herbal preparations that contain zinc, magnesium, iron, vitamin E and other substances in various combinations can help.
•Minoxidil is a lotion available from the pharmacist that you rub on to the scalp. It slows down the process of hair loss and can cause new hair growth but you have to keep on using it or it will stop being effective.
•Finasteride (Propecia) is the latest drug treatment. It comes in tablet form and works by slowing down hair loss; it’s also reported to cause new hair growth. In the UK it’s only available on private prescription from your GP and is only effective while you take it.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/hair_loss_male.shtml

Causes


http://beatpsoriasis.com/baldness-definition.htm

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Some Health Quaries & Answers

Q: I have male pattern baldness and want to correct it by some cosmetic procedure. I am in my twenties and not married yet. The baldness makes me look older.

A: There have been rapid strides in the treatment of baldness. Tired of applying minoxidil daily — which is often unsuccessful — people are increasingly turning to surgical solutions. Hair can be transplanted from the sides and back of the head to the front by micro hair transplantation. This is only an outpatient procedure, with local anesthesia. Otherwise a procedure called scalp reduction is used where strips of bald skin are surgically removed.

Phantom swelling :-

Q: I have a swelling in one scrotum which appears when I stand up and disappears when I lie down. This phantom swelling is not painful.

A: It looks like you have a “reducible inguinal hernia”. A part of the contents of the abdomen is sliding into an area called the inguinal canal. As long as the to and fro movement is free, there will be no pain. However, the contents can suddenly get stuck. And this is painful and dangerous. Before this occurs, consult a general surgeon who will surgically repair the hernia.

Jock itch:-     

Q: I have uncontrollable itching and redness in my groin area. I sometimes have to leave the room in the middle of a meeting to scratch.

A: It sounds like you have “Jock itch” or Tinea cruris, a fungal infection of the skin in the groin. This is more common in men and aggravated by diabetes and obesity. It can be treated by bathing twice a day using a soap such as Neko, drying the area well and then applying anti-fungal creams like terbafine or clotrimazole (which contain no steroid). Clotrimazole powder can be applied after using the cream. The infection takes around two weeks to heal, but the application should be continued for about a week after that to prevent a recurrence. Avoid wearing many layers of clothing, change sweaty clothes immediately and dry yourself thoroughly after a bath. Steroids either applied or ingested aggravate the infection.

Irritating cough :-    


Q: I am on Enalapril for the treatment of my hypertension. Ever since I started this, I have had an irritating cough. No matter how many different antibiotics I take, nothing works.

A: Antibiotics will not help in a cough unless it is caused by a bacterial infection. A constant cough without fever is more likely to be due to an allergen. Avoid mosquito repellents (mats, coils and liquids), room fresheners, agarbattis and camphor. Sometimes Eenalapril too can cause a cough. Try having vitamin C (500mg), half a tablet in the morning and evening. This often cures the cough.

Fair baby……..

Q: I am getting married soon and I would like to have a fair baby. What can I do?

A: Instead of concentrating on skin colour, it makes more sense to think “how can I have a healthy baby?” All girls should be immunised against hepatitis B (three doses) and rubella (German measles) before marriage. They need to take folic acid (5mg) every day to prevent defects in the baby’s brain and spinal cord. Walking or jogging for 40 minutes a day will build up stamina and strength in the legs, both of which are required for normal childbirth.

Painful periods :-

Q: I have severe pain during periods. What can I do?

A: Dysmenorrhoea is the medical name for painful periods. Some women suffer more than others. The tendency to develop pain runs in families. To tackle this, have an ultrasound examination of the pelvis to make sure there is no correctable cause for the pain. If everything is normal, taking medication like Mefenemic acid (500mg) three times a day for the first two or three days brings relief.

Regular diarrhoea :-

Q: My daughter has bloody diarrhoea all the time. Her paediatrician has given her a seven-day course of metronidazole, an antibiotic, and a single dose of albendazole.

A: The diarrhoea may be because of milk allergy. This is common and often undiagnosed. Check her stool for reducing substances. If this is positive, you have hit the nail on the head. Then try stopping milk completely for 48 hours and see if there is an improvement.

You may click to see:->Understanding and Managing Acute Diarrhoea in Infants and Young Children………..

Itchy skin :-

Q: I itch and scratch all over my body after a bath. What can I do?

A: You can :—………

• Purchase a “water treatment softening device” and fit it to your bath water supply. Fitting it for the whole house is expensive.

• Add a tablespoon of coconut oil to the bath water.

• Apply a mixture of five parts of coconut oil, five parts of sesame oil and one part of olive oil to your body. Wait for 10 minutes and then bathe.

• Use a mild soap like Dove

• Apply baby oil to the whole body after your bath.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

Seborrhea Dermatitis


An infant with Cradle CapImage via Wikipedia

Definition: Seborrhea (say: seb-uh-ree-uh) is a common skin problem. It causes a red, itchy rash and white scales. When it affects the scalp, it is called “dandruff.” It can be on parts of the face as well, including the folds around the nose and behind the ears, the forehead, and the eyebrows and eyelids. On the body, seborrhea often occurs in the middle part of the chest, around the navel and in the skin folds under the arm, below the breasts and in the groin and buttocks area.

Seborrhoeic eczema (also Seborrheic dermatitis AmE, seborrhea) is a skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and trunk causing scaly, flaky, itchy, red skin. It particularly affects the sebum-gland rich areas of skin.

click to see the pictures…..(01)...…(1)..……..(2).…..…(3)....………………….

Who gets seborrhea?
Infants may get seborrhea. It’s known as “cradle cap.” Cradle cap goes away after about 6 months. It may also affect the diaper area and look like a diaper rash.

Seborrhea also affects adults and elderly persons, and is more common in men than in women. Seborrhea occurs more frequently in persons with oily skin.

It affects 3 percent of the general population. It occurs more commonly in older people who are bedridden or have neurologic conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. Seborrhea also affects almost 85 percent of people with AIDS.

Causes:The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not fully understood, although many factors have been implicated.. It is likely that a number of factors, such as hormones and stress, can cause it.
The widely present yeast, Malassezia furfur (formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale), is involved, as well as genetic, environmental, hormonal, and immune-system factors. A theory that seborrhoeic dermatitis is an inflammatory response to the yeast has not been proven. Those afflicted with seborrhoeic dermatitis have an unfavourable epidermic response to the infection, with the skin becoming inflamed and flaking.

Acute form of seborrhoeic dermatitis on scalpIn children, excessive vitamin A intake can cause seborrhoeic dermatitis. Lack of biotin, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) may also be a cause.

It is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that affects the areas of the head and trunk that have sebaceous glands. A type of yeast that has an affinity for these glands called Pityrosporum ovale may be the cause, but this has not been proven yet. It is believed that the build-up of yeast in these glands irritates the skin causing redness and flaking.

Seborrhea is more common in men than women and affects 3 percent of the general population. It occurs more commonly in older people who are bedridden or have neurologic conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. Seborrhea also affects almost 85 percent of people with AIDS.

Diagnosis:

Clinical Manifestations
Seborrheic dermatitis typically affects areas of the skin where sebaceous glands appear in high frequency and are most active. The distribution is classically symmetric, and common sites of involvement are the hairy areas of the head, including the scalp , the scalp margin , eyebrows, eyelashes, mustache and beard. Other common sites are the forehead , the nasolabial folds , the external ear canals and the postauricular creases. Seborrhea of the trunk may appear in the presternal area and in the body folds, including the axillae, navel, groin, and in the inframammary and anogenital areas. Figure 7 illustrates the typically symmetric distribution of seborrheic dermatitis.

More severe seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by erythematous plaques frequently associated with powdery or greasy scale in the scalp (Figure 8), behind the ears (Figure 9) and elsewhere in the distribution described above. Besides an itchy scalp, patients may complain of a burning sensation in facial areas affected by seborrhea. Seborrhea frequently becomes apparent when men grow mustaches or beards and disappears when the facial hair is removed. If left untreated, the scale may become thick, yellow and greasy and, occasionally, secondary bacterial infection may occur.

Seborrheic dermatitis is more common in men than in women, probably because sebaceous gland activity is under androgen control. Seborrhea usually first appears in persons in their teens and twenties and generally follows a waxing/waning course throughout adulthood.

UV-A and UV-B light inhibit the growth of P. ovale,9 and many patients report improvement in seborrhea during summer.

Treatment:
Soaps and detergents such as sodium laureth sulfate may precipitate a flare-up, as they strip moisture from the top layers of the skin, and the drying property of these can cause flare-ups and may worsen the condition. Accordingly a suitable alternative should be used instead.

Among dermatologist recommended treatments are shampoos containing coal tar, ciclopiroxolamine, ketoconazole, selenium sulfide, or zinc pyrithione. For severe disease, keratolytics such as salicylic acid or coal tar preparations may be used to remove dense scale. Topical terbinafine solution (1%) has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of scalp seborrhoea, as may lotions containing alpha hydroxy acids or corticosteroids (such as fluocinolone acetonide). Pimecrolimus topical lotion is also sometimes prescribed.

Chronic treatment with topical corticosteroids may lead to permanent skin changes, such as atrophy and telangiectasia.

UV-A and UV-B light inhibit the growth of M. furfur, although caution should be taken to avoid sun damage.

According to the American Academy of Family Physicians(AAFP), one treatment that has proven successful, especially when steroid topicals and shampoos aren’t working, and the patient continues to suffer from rapid hair loss and rashes, has been low doses(10mg-30mg daily) of the perscription drug Accutane,(Isotretinoin). The exact mechanism isn’t known, but it is thought to work by reducing sebum, which plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Patients should be evaluated monthly, while examing the proper liver functions when putting a patient on accutane therapy. Special screening should be in place for women patients, because of the risk of birth defects. This therapy can last, when the condition is chronic and the isotretinoin does is low, for years. But, patients should be given a one to two month break off this particular therapy every 6 months to see if the condition still is affecting the patient

Adults who have seborrhea usually experience a waxing and waning course. In other words it can’t be “cured”. The good news is with proper maintenance, seborrhea can be controlled. Furthermore, most of the treatments can be found over-the-counter.

Treatment will help keep seborrhea under control. It’s important to keep your body clean.

Dandruff Shampoo
If you have dandruff, use medicated shampoos.

When using dandruff shampoo, first wet your hair. Rub some shampoo into your scalp and hair. Leave the shampoo on your scalp and hair for at least 5 minutes. Then rinse it out. Use the dandruff shampoo every day until your dandruff goes away. Then use the medicated shampoo 2 or 3 times a week to keep dandruff away. Having dandruff does not mean that your scalp is too dry! Dandruff comes because you need to wash your hair more often.

Medicated Shampoos should always be used.For black persons, daily shampooing may not be needed. Ask your doctor about a special steroid preparation in oil that can be used on the scalp like a pomade. Or you can use a steroid-containing shampoo.

Adults who have seborrhea usually experience a waxing and waning course. In other words it can’t be “cured”. The good news is with proper maintenance, seborrhea can be controlled. Furthermore, most of the treatments can be found over-the-counter.

Proper hygiene plays an important role in treatment. Frequent washing with soap gets rid of the oils in the affected areas and improves symptoms. Sunlight inhibits the growth of the yeast; therefore exposure of affected areas to sun is helpful, although caution should be exercised to avoid sun damage. The main medical treatments are antifungal shampoos and topical.

Cradle Cap:
Cradle cap in infants also gets better with daily shampooing. First try a mild, nonmedicated baby shampoo. If that doesn’t work, try an a dandruff shampoo. If the patch of cradle cap is large and thick, first try softening it by rubbing on warm mineral oil. Next, gently brush with a baby hairbrush. Then use shampoo.

Seborrhea Shampoos
There are several good antifungal shampoos on the market that can be purchased without a prescription. The main shampoos are selenium sulfide found in Selsun, pyrithione zinc found inHead & Shouldersulders and Sebulon, coal tar found in Sebutone and Tegrin, and finally ketoconazole found in Nizoral.

All of these shampoos have a medicated smell. The way to use them is to shampoo and leave on for at least 10 minutes then rinse off. The shampoos can be used on the face and other parts of the body as a lotion with the same instructions as long as precaution is used around the eyes. Do this daily until the redness and flaking is controlled then use 2-3 times a week as needed to keep symptoms from returning.

Topical Steroids For Seborrhea
Topical steroids reduce the inflammatory response and help control itching. You can buy hydrocortisone cream 1% over-the-counter, and it’s safe to use on the face. Apply twice a day to the affected area until the redness resolves. Save the hydrocortisone for flare-ups and use the antifungal shampoo for maintenance because long-term steroid use can cause side effects like acne and thinning of the skin.

Herbal Treatment:The World Health Organization mentions Aloe vera gel as a yet to be scientifically proven traditional medicine treatment for Seborrhoeic dermatitis.

*Arctium lappa (Burdock) oil
*Chelidonium majus (Celandine)
*Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
*Melaleuca (Tea tree) species
*Plantago (Plantain) species
*Symphytum officinale (Comfrey)
*Zingiber officinale (Ginger) root juice
*Ledebouriella Seseloides (Fang Feng)
*Smilax China (Smilax china)
*Trichosanthes Kirilowii (Snakegourd)
*Glycyrrhiza Uralensis
*Coptis Chinensis (Chinese goldthread)
*Phellodendron Amurense (Huang Bai)
*Sophora Flavescens
*Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola)
*Evening primrose,
*dandelion root
*red clover Norwegian kelp
* berberine (from barberry, Oregon grape root or goldenseal).

Quik Tip: Evening primrose – anti-inflammatory herb of the first magnitude; it helps your

body balance itself hormonally, too.

Click to learn more about Seborrheic Dermatitis


Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seborrheic_dermatitis
http://www.herbnews.org/seborrheadone.htm
http://dermatology.about.com/cs/seborrhea/a/sebderm.htm
http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000501/2703.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taraxacum

 

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Baldness

 

Baldness involves the state of lacking hair where it often grows, especially on the head. The most common form of baldness is a progressive hair thinning condition called androgenic alopecia or ‘male pattern baldness’ that occurs in adult male humans and other species. The severity and nature of baldness can vary greatly; it ranges from male and female pattern alopecia (androgenetic alopecia, also called androgenetic alopecia or alopecia androgenetica), alopecia areata, which involves the loss of some of the hair from the head, and alopecia totalis, which involves the loss of all head hair, to the most extreme form, alopecia universalis, which involves the loss of all hair from the head and the body. Treatments for the various forms alopecia have limited success. Some hair loss sufferers make use of so-called “clinically proven treatments” such as finasteride and topically applied minoxidil (in solution) in an attempt to prevent further loss and regrow hair. As a general rule, it is easier to maintain remaining hair than it is to regrow; however, the treatments mentioned will help some of the users suffering from Androgenetic alopecia, and there are new technologies in cosmetic transplant surgery and hair replacement systems that can be completely undetectable. The effectiveness of finasteride and minoxidil is not universally accepted…..CLICK & SEE

Background, cause and incidence:
The average human head has about 100,000 hair follicles. Each follicle can grow about 20 individual hairs in a person’s lifetime. Average hair loss is about 100 strands a day.

Incidence of pattern baldness varies from population to population based on genetic background. Environmental factors do not seem to affect this type of baldness greatly. One large scale study in Maryborough, in central Victoria (Australia) showed the prevalence of mid-frontal hair loss increases with age and affects 57% of women and 73.5% of men aged 80 and over.

Male pattern is characterized by hair receding from the lateral sides of the forehead, known as “receding hairline”. Receding hairlines are usually seen in males above the ages of 25.

An additional bald patch may develop on top (vertex). The trigger for this type of baldness (called androgenetic alopecia) is DHT, a powerful sex hormone, body, and facial hair growth promoter that can adversely affect the hair on the head and prostate.

The mechanism by which DHT accomplishes this is not yet understood. In genetically-prone scalps, DHT initiates a process of follicular miniaturization. Through the process of follicular miniaturization, hair shaft width is progressively decreased until scalp hair resembles fragile vellus hair or “peach fuzz” or else becomes non-existent. Onset of hair loss sometimes begins as early as end of puberty, and is mostly genetically determined. Male pattern baldness is classified on the Hamilton-Norwood scale I-VIII.

It was previously believed that baldness was inherited. While there is some basis for this belief, both parents contribute to their offspring’s likelihood of hair loss. Most likely, inheritance is technically “autosomal dominant with mixed penetrance” (see ‘baldness folklore’ below)

There are several other kinds of baldness:

Traction alopecia is most commonly found in people with ponytails or cornrows who pull on their hair with excessive force.

Trichotillomania is the loss of hair caused by compulsive pulling and bending of the hairs. It tends to occur more in children than in adults. In this condition the hairs are not absent from the scalp but are broken. Where they break near the scalp they cause typical, short, “exclamation mark” hairs.

Traumas such as chemotherapy, childbirth, major surgery, poisoning, and severe stress may cause a hair loss condition known as telogen effluvium.

Worrisome hair loss often follows childbirth without causing actual baldness. In this situation, the hair is actually thicker during pregnancy due to increased circulating oestrogens. After the baby is born, the oestrogen levels fall back to normal pre-pregnancy levels and the additional hair foliage drops out. A similar situation occurs in women taking the fertility-stimulating drug clomiphene.

Iron deficiency is a common cause of thinning of the hair, though frank baldness is not usually seen.
Radiation to the scalp, as happens when radiotherapy is applied to the head for the treatment of certain cancers there, can cause baldness of the irradiated areas.

Some mycotic infections can cause massive hair loss.

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder also known as “spot baldness” that can result in hair loss ranging from just one location (Alopecia areata monolocularis) to every hair on the entire body (Alopecia areata universalis).

Localized or diffuse hair loss may also occur in cicatricial alopecia (lupus erythematosus, lichen plano pilaris, folliculitis decalvans, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia, etc.). Tumours and skin outgrowths also induce localized baldness (sebaceous nevus, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma).

Hypothyroidism can cause hair loss, typically frontal, and is particularly associated with thinning of the outer third of the eyebrows (syphilis also can cause loss of the outer third of the eyebrows)

Hyperthyroidism can also cause hair loss, which is parietal rather than frontal.

Temporary loss of hair can occur in areas where sebaceous cysts are present for considerable duration; normally one to several weeks in length.

Etymology:
The term alopecia (al-oh-PEE-she-uh) is formed from the Greek αλώπηξ (alopex), meaning fox. The origin of this usage is because this animal sheds its coat twice a year.

The term bald likely derives from the English word balde, which means “white, pale”, or Celtic ball, which means “white patch or blaze”, such as on a horse’s head

Evolutionary theories of male pattern baldness:
There is no consensus regarding the details of the evolution of male pattern baldness. Most theories regard it as resulting from sexual selection. A number of other primate species also experience hair loss following puberty, and some primate species clearly use an enlarged forehead, created both anatomically and through strategies such as frontal balding, to convey increased status and maturity. The assertion that MPB is intended to convey a social message is supported by the fact that the distribution of androgen receptors in the scalp differs between men and women, and older women or women with high androgen levels often exhibit diffuse thinning of hair as opposed to male pattern baldness.

One theory, advanced by Muscarella and Cunningham, suggests baldness evolved in males through sexual selection as an enhanced signal of aging and social maturity, whereby aggression and risk-taking decrease and nurturing behaviours increase.(1) This may have conveyed a male with enhanced social status but reduced physical threat, which could enhance ability to secure reproductive partners and raise offspring to adulthood.

In a study by Muscarella and Cunnhingham, males and females viewed 6 male models with different levels of facial hair (beard and moustache or clean) and cranial hair (full head of hair, receding and bald). Participants rated each combination on 32 adjectives related to social perceptions. Males with facial hair and those with bald or receding hair were rated as being older than those who were clean-shaven or had a full head of hair. Beards and a full head of hair were seen as being more aggressive and less socially mature, and baldness was associated with more social maturity.

Latest research

The LIPH gene makes LIPH, a protein that isn’t thoroughly understood but seems to play a role in normal hair formation and growth”

http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/536000.html

http://www.webmd.com/news/20061109/inherited-hair-loss-may-be-upped-by-gene-glitch

http://www.forbes.com/forbeslife/health/feeds/hscout/2006/11/09/hscout536000.html

“The so-called hairless gene works by repressing the production of a protein called wise, which can hinder the process of hair growth if it is left to accumulate.”

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4283302.stm

DSG4 gene

http://www.hairlosstalk.com/newsletter/article209.htm http://www.hairlosstalk.com/download/CELL1132249.pdf

WNT GENE

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6661849.stm

Preventing and reversing hair loss :
In the USA, there are only 2 drug-based treatments that have been approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and one product that has been cleared by the FDA for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, otherwise known as male or female pattern hair loss. The two FDA approved treatments are finasteride (marketed for hair loss as Propecia) and minoxidil.

Finasteride:
A pharmaceutical company reportedly sought to find the smallest effective quantity of finasteride and test its long-term effects on 1,553 men between ages 18 and 41 with mild to moderate thinning hair. Based on their research, 1 mg daily was selected, and after 2 years of daily treatment, over 83% of the 1,553 men experiencing male hair loss had actually maintained or increased their hair count from baseline. Visual assessments concluded that over 80% had improved appearances.

Minoxidil:
Minoxidil was first used in tablet form as a medicine to treat high blood pressure, but it was noticed that some patients being treated with Minoxidil experienced excessive hair growth (hypertrichosis) as a side-effect. Further research showed that by applying topical Minoxidil solution directly to the scalp, it could prove to be beneficial to those experiencing hair loss.

FDA clinical trials showed that 65% of men with androgenetic alopecia maintained or increased their hair count from the use of minoxidil 5% in liquid form. 54% of these men experienced moderate to dense regrowth and 46% experienced hair loss stabilisation and mild regrowth.

In controlled clinical studies of women aged 18-45, 2 out of 3 women with moderate degrees of hereditary hair loss reported re-growth after using 2% minoxidil. Initial results occur at 4 months with maximum results occurring at 8 months.

Low-level laser therapy:
A low level laser is shone directly on the scalp to stimulate hair growth through “Photo-Biostimulation” of the hair follicles. One product of these low level laser therapies is the “Hairmax Lasercomb”. There is no peer-reviewed evidence to support this claim. There is some debate over the FDA’s acknowledgment of the Lasercomb, but it has been accepted by the FDA as effective in the submitted claims.[9] The Lasercomb was cleared by the FDA as being Substantially Equivalent (SE) to predicate devices legally marketed before May 28, 1978. This clearance is not the same as approval because it only applies to the lasercomb and not to any other similar laser based hair devices. The devices that the lasercomb proved itself equivalent to were a variety of FDA approved laser based/non hair growth devices intended for hair removal and pain relief, and 2 non FDA approved non laser based/hair growth devices such as the Raydo & Wonder Brush and the Vacuum Cap. These last two devices were sold in the early 1900’s and are well established as medical quackery, but they were legal to market at the time which does satisfy the FDA’s 510k SE criterea. The 510k number for the Lasercomb is K060305. The Leimo laser was recently approved by the TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration) of Australia as a Class IIa Medical Device that regrows hair. Its ARTG number is 139 456.

Surgery
Surgery is another method of reversing hair loss and baldness, although it may be considered an extreme measure. The surgical methods used include hair transplantation, whereby hair-producing follicles are taken from the back and sides of the head and injected into bald or thinning areas.

Hair multiplication
Looking forward, the prospective treatment of hair multiplication/hair cloning, which extracts self-replenishing follicle stem cells, multiplies them many times over in the lab, and microinjects them into the scalp, has been shown to work in mice, and is currently under development, expected by some scientists to be available to the public in 2009–2015. Subsequent versions of the treatment are expected by some scientists to be able to cause these follicle stem cells to simply signal the surrounding hair follicles to rejuvenate. See Baldness treatments

In October 2006, UK biotechnology firm Intercytex announced they have successfully tested a method of removing hair follicles from the back of the neck, multiplying them and then reimplanting the cells into the scalp (Hair multiplication). The initial testing resulted in 70% of male patients regrowing hair. This treatment method is expected to be available to the public by 2009 .

In January 2007, Italian stem-cell researchers say they’ve come up with a new technique for curing baldness. Pierluigi Santi of a Genoa clinic said stem cells could be used to “multiply” hair roots. He said the clinic would be ready to perform its first hair transplants on priority patients – those who have lost their hair in fires or other accidents – within a few months. After that, he said, “we’ll open our doors to paying customers”. Santi’s approach works by splitting roots and growing new follicles.
Ketoconazole
Topical application of ketoconazole, which is both an anti-fungal and a potent 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, is often used as a supplement to other approaches.1

Unsaturated fatty acids
Particular unsaturated fatty acids such as gamma linolenic acid are 5 alpha reductase inhibitors if taken internally.

Placebos
Interestingly, placebo treatments in studies often have reasonable success rates, though not as high as the products being tested, and even similar side-effects as the products. For example, in Finasteride (Propecia) studies, the percent of patients with any drug-related sexual adverse experience was 3.8% compared with 2.0% in the placebo group.

Exercise
Regular aerobic exercise can help keep androgen levels (particularly free testosterone levels) naturally lower while maintaining overall health, lowering stress and increasing SHBG.

Weight training without aerobic exercise may increase testosterone. One study suggests that both heavy exercise and increased fat intake, in combination, are required for increased free testosterone in strength trainers. Increased total or free testosterone would help them build and repair muscle, but may cause susceptible individuals to lose hair.
However, there is at least one study that indicates a decline in free testosterone combined with an increase in strength due to an (unspecified) strength training regime.

Stress reduction
Stress reduction can be helpful in slowing hair loss. (see Baldness Folklore)


Immunosuppressants

Immunosuppressants applied to the scalp have been shown to temporarily reverse alopecia areata, though the side effects of some of these drugs make such therapy questionable.

Saw palmetto
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) is an herbal DHT inhibitor often claimed to be cheaper and have fewer side effects than finasteride and dutasteride. Unlike other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, Serenoa repens induces its effects without interfering with the cellular capacity to secrete PSA. Saw palmetto extract has been demonstrated to inhibit both isoforms of 5-alpha-reductase unlike finasteride which only inhibits the (predominant) type 2 isoenzyme of 5-alpha-reductase.[13][14][15]

Polygonum multiflorum
Polygonum Multiflorum is a traditional Chinese cure for hair loss. P. multiflorum contains stilbene glycosides similar to resveratrol.


Beta sitosterol

Beta sitosterol, which is a constituent in many seed oils, can help to treat BHP by lowering cholesterol. If used for this purpose, an extract is best. Consuming large amounts of oil to get at small quantities of beta sitosterol is likely to exacerbate male pattern baldness.

Anti-androgens
While drastic, broad spectrum anti-androgens such as flutamide are sometimes used topically. Flutamide is potent enough to have a feminizing effect in men, including growth of the breasts.

Hedgehog agonists
Through 2006, a drug development company spent $1,000,000 on a hair growth program focused on the potential development of a topical hedgehog agonist for hair growth disorders, such as male pattern baldness and female hair loss. The hairloss research program was shut down in May 2007 because the process did not meet the proper safety standards.

WNT gene related
In May 2007, US company Follica Inc, announced they have licensed technology from the University of Pennsylvania which can regenerate hair follicles by reawakening genes which were once active only in the embryo stage of human development.

Concealing hair loss

Head
One method of hiding hair loss is the “comb over”, which involves restyling the remaining hair to cover the balding area. It is usually a temporary solution, useful only while the area of hair loss is small. As the hair loss increases, a comb over becomes less effective. When this reaches a stage of extreme effort with little effect — it can make the person the object of teasing or scorn.

Another method is to wear a hat or a hairpiece — a wig or toupee. The wig is a layer of artificial or natural hair made to resemble a typical hair style. In most cases the hair is artificial. Wigs vary widely in quality and cost. In the United States, the best wigs — those that look like real hair — cost up to tens of thousands of dollars. Organizations such as Wigs for Kids and Locks of Love collect individuals’ donations of their own natural hair to be made into wigs for young cancer patients who have lost their hair due to chemotherapy or other cancer treatment in addition to any type of hair loss.

Eyebrows
Though not as common as the loss of hair on the head, chemotherapy, hormone imbalance, forms of alopecia, and other factors can also cause loss of hair in the eyebrows. Artificial eyebrows are available to replace missing eyebrows or to cover patchy eyebrows.

Embracing baldness
Of course, instead of concealing hair loss, one may embrace it. A shaved head will grow stubble in the same manner and at the same rate as a shaved face. Many celebrities and athletes shave their heads. The general public has become accepting of the shaved head also.

Female baldness is less socially accepted.

Baldness folklore

There are many myths regarding the possible causes of baldness and its relationship with one’s virility (Masculinity) , intelligence, ethnicity, job, social class, wealth etc. While skepticism is warranted due to lack of scientific validation, some of these myths may have a degree of underlying truth.

  • “You inherit baldness from your mother’s father.”
    Previously, early baldness of the androgenic type was thought to be sex linked dominant in males and to be sex linked recessive in females.
    Research suggests that the gene for the androgen receptor, which is significant in determining probability for hair loss, is located on the X chromosome and so is always inherited from the mother’s side.There is a 50% chance that a person shares the same X chromosome as their maternal grandfather. Because women have two X chromosomes, they will have two copies of the androgen receptor gene while men only have one. However, research has also shown that a person with a balding father also has a significantly greater chance of experiencing hair loss.

Another model for the inheritance of baldness is “Autosomal dominant with mixed pentrance”. That is, you can get it from either parent and it presents variably.

  • “Intellectual activity or psychological problems can cause baldness.”
    This notion may be due to the fact that cholesterol is involved in the process of neurogenesis and also the base material from which the body ultimately manufactures DHT. While the notion that bald men are more intelligent may lack credibility in the modern world, in the ancient world if a person was bald it was likely that he had an adequate amount of fat in his diet. Thus, his mental development was probably not stunted by malnutrition during his crucial formative years, he was more likely to be wealthy, and also have had access to a formal education. However, a sedentary lifestyle is less likely to correlate with intelligence in the modern world, and dietary fat content is not linked to economic class in modern developed countries. Of course, aside from all these scientific reasons, baldness could be linked to intellect or wisdom simply due to the fact that people go bald as they age and become more experienced.
  • This is sometimes used as a steriotype in films, where the more intellectual or rather frustrated characters are most usually portrayed as bald and generally unattractive, as opposed to the main characters which are usually portrayed as attractive, fit, mentally stable and generally with no apparent hair problems.
    This same myth normally extends to considering people having intellectual jobs more prone to baldness problems compared to manual laborers, sometimes further extending the myth to male college or university students when compared to workers of the same age.The myth is suspect because counterexamples can be found in any case.
    There is evidence, confirmed by cross cultural studies, for an association between androgen levels and intellectual ability. These findings are controversial due to their implications regarding psychology and gender.
    Total testosterone exhibits a positive relation to tactual-spatial abilities and to the degree of lateralization. Total testosterone is negatively correlated with verbal fluency. Testosterone in the saliva is also significantly positively correlated to tactual-spatial test scores and, in addition, to field independence. DHT and the ratio DHT/total testosterone are positively related to verbal fluency and negatively to the degree of lateralization of tactual-spatial performance.
  • “One’s ethnicity can increase the chances of going bald.”
    This idea has been seen as somewhat descriminative and sensitive in nature, however studies have shown that men of Greek or Macedonian heritage have the highest percentage of bald or balding men. (age group 16-28, typical, non married, non-drug using, males) Studies done between 6 countries in Western Europe, incl. Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Ireland and 4 countries in Eastern Europe including Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Romania show that Greek men of the same age group and study period had the highest percentage of full crown baldness or Alopeciae totalis (front, top and back) Another typical study during the same period showed that Greek men, 1700 out of 2457 total studied males also suffered the highest amount of random alopecia areata among men (aged 16-28, typical, non-drug using males)
  • “Baldness can be caused by emotional stress, sexual frustration etc.”
    Emotional stress has been shown to accelerate baldness in genetically susceptible individuals.
    Stress due to sleep deprivation in military recruits lowered testosterone levels, but is not noted to have effected SHBG.
    Thus, stress due to sleep deprivation in fit males is unlikely to elevate DHT, which causes male pattern baldness. Whether it can cause hair loss by some other mechanism is not clear.
  • “Bald men are more ‘virile’ or sexually active than others.”
    Levels of free testosterone are strongly linked to libido and also DHT levels, but unless free testosterone is virtually non-existent levels have not been shown to affect virility. Men with androgenic alopecia are more likely to have a higher baseline of free androgens. However, sexual activity is multifactoral, and androgenic profile is also not the only determining factor in baldness. Additionally, because hair loss is progressive and free testosterone declines with age, a person’s hairline may be more indicative of their past than present disposition.
  • “Shaving hair makes it grow back stronger”
    Proposed as a popular remedy against baldness, it is very probably just an illusion similar to the one perceived after shaving one’s beard or mustache. Shaving one’s head doesn’t increase the number of healthy hair present on the scalp, and, after the remaining hair has grown a few millimeters, no enhancement in thickness or overall quality can be observed.
  • “Frequent ejaculation causes baldness”
    There are many misconceptions about what can help prevent hair loss, one of these being that frequent ejuculation may have an influence on MPB. Depending on frequency, it can raise or lower plasma testosterone. The claim that frequent ejaculations can cause baldness is often viewed with skepticism.
  • “Standing on one’s head alleviates baldness”
    The “blood-flow” theory, which led men to stand on their heads in the 1980s, can be found in the advertising for many of the fake hairloss treatments for sale on the internet. While Minoxidil is a vasodilator and is speculated to work, in part, by increasing blood flow to hair follicles, there is no evidence that standing on one’s head can alleviate baldness.
  • “Tight hats cause baldness.”
    While this may be a myth, hats do cause hair breakage and, to a lesser degree, split ends. Since hats are not washed as frequently as other clothing, they can also lead to scalp uncleanliness and possible Pityrosporum ovale contamination in men with naturally oily scalps.

Modern Baldness Treatment

Bladness Treatment Simplefied

Ayurvedic treatment for baldness……………………………………..(1)……..(2).…..(3)…….(4)

Homeopathic Treatment of Baldness………………………(1)………...(2).……….(3)

You may click to see:->Hereditary Baldness cannot be Avoided

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldness

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