Habitat : Epilobium glabellum is native to Australia, New Zealand.It grows on the loamy soils, flats and hillsides in eastern Australia.
Epilobium glabellum is an evergreen Perennialflowering plant, growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES:
Prefers a well-drained but moisture retentive soil in a sunny position or in partial shade. Succeeds in most soils. Possibly hardy to about -15°c. Plants are semi-evergreen.
Seed – sow early spring in situ or as soon as the seed is ripe. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring. Edible Uses: Young leaves and shoots – cooked and eaten.
Medicinal Uses: The herb is used is as a herbal supplement in the treatment of prostate, bladder (incontinence) and hormone disorders.
Other Uses: A useful ground cover plant.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Zanthoxylum limonella is a deciduous, aromatic, medium-sized tree reaching a height of 35 meters . The green young bark is covered with spines while mature bark is grey with straight or ascending prickles of 2 – 3 cm . Small prickles occur on the twigs, and all parts of tree have a characteristic lemon-like smell. The leaves are paripinnate or imparipinnate, 30 – 40 cm long. The leaflets are opposite to sub opposite, ovate to elliptical, 7 – 13 cm long, 3 – 5 cm wide, pellucid dots, the margins entire to glandular crenate. Inflorescense panicles have a terminal or axillary, 8 – 14 cm long. The flowers are white or pale yellow, 2 – 3 mm long, 4 sepals and 4 petals. The male flowers have 4 stamina and 1 rudimentary carpel while female flowers with ovary 1 carpellate. The fruit is a follicle, subglobose, 6 – 7 mm in diameter, with 1 seed per carpel, green turning red when ripe. Seeds are hard and black in colour, 5 mm in diameter.
The different parts of Z. limonella have been used in Thai folk medicine. The bark contains febrifugal, sudorific, and diuretic properties, while the essential oil of fruit is used for treatment of dental caries . In India traditional medicine, the bark has been used to treat cardiac, respiratory diseases, tooth infection, stomach infection and rheumatism . The fruits are used as spice and the essential oil extracted from the fruits is known as “Mullilam oil” used as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anticholera, diarrhoea, hypocholesterolemic, mosquito repellent and soothing agent for dental caries. The Kanikkars tribe prepare a paste of hard spines prepared by rubbing them against rock with water and apply the extract to the breast of a nursing mother to relief pain and also to increase milk supply. In the Phillippines, the pounded bark mixed with oil is a good formula to treat stomach ache. In addition, the bark decoction is also taken to treat chest pain and chewed bark applied as antidote for snake bites .
The bark and fruit are attributed with stomachic properties. Mullilam oil, an orange-scented, steam-distilled extract from the fruits, is reported to have a variety of medical applications. The methanolic extract of the Zanthoxylum rhetsa Roxb. stem bark, given by oral route to mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, significantly reduced the abdominal contraction induced by acetic acid and the diarrheal episodes induced by castor oil in mice.
In a separate study of young Swedish men, cardiovascular fitness has been linked to increased intelligence and higher educational achievement.
Telomeres are relatively short sections of specialised DNA that sit at the ends of all our chromosomes.
They have been compared to the plastic tips at the ends of shoelaces that prevent the laces from unravelling.
Each time a cell divides, its telomeres shorten and the cell becomes more susceptible to dying.
The researchers measured the length of telomeres in blood samples from two groups of professional athletes and two groups of people who were healthy non-smokers, but who did not take regular exercise.
One group of professional athletes included members of the German national track and field athletics team, who had an average age of 20.
The second group was made up of middle-aged athletes who had regularly run long distances – an average of 80km a week – since their youth.
The researchers found evidence that the physical exercise of the professional athletes led to activation of an enzyme called telomerase, which helped to stabilise telomeres.
The most pronounced effect was found in athletes who had been regularly endurance training for several decades.
Potency of training:
Lead researcher Dr Ulrich Laufs said: “This is direct evidence of an anti-ageing effect of physical exercise.
“Our data improves the molecular understanding of the protective effects of exercise and underlines the potency of physical training in reducing the impact of age-related disease.”
Professor Tim Spector, an expert on genetics and ageing at Kings College London, said other studies had suggested more moderate exercise had a beneficial effect on ageing.
He said: “It is still difficult to separate cause and effect from these studies – as longer telomeres may still be a marker of fitness.
“Nevertheless – this is further evidence that regular exercise may retard aging.”
Professor Kay-Tee Khaw, of the University of Cambridge, an expert on ageing, said: “The benefits of physical activity for health are well established from many large long-term population studies.
“Even moderate levels of physical activity are related to lower levels of many heart disease risk factors such as blood pressure and cholesterol and lower risk of many chronic diseases associated with ageing such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers.”
An active lifestyle has been linked to lower rates of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.
However, the latest research suggests that inactivity not only makes people more vulnerable to disease, but may actually speed up the ageing process itself.
The King’s team studied 2,401 white twins, asking them to fill out questionnaires on their level of physical activity, and taking a blood sample from which DNA was extracted.
They particularly focused on telomeres, the repeat sequences of DNA that sit on the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from damage.
As people age, their telomeres become shorter, leaving cells more susceptible to damage and death.
Examining white blood cells from the immune system in particular, the researchers found that, on average, telomeres lost 21 component parts – called nucleotides – every year.
But men and women who were less physically active in their leisure time had shorter leukocyte telomeres compared to those who were more active.
The average telomere length in those who took the least amount of exercise – 16 minutes of physical activity a week – was 200 nucleotides shorter than those who took the most exercise – 199 minutes of physical activity a week, such as running, tennis or aerobics.
The most active people had telomeres of a length comparable to those found in inactive people who were up to 10 years’ younger, on average.
Direct comparison of twins who had different levels of physical activity produced similar results.
Impact of stress
The researchers suggest that physically inactive people may be more vulnerable to the damage caused to cells by exposure to oxygen, and to inflammation.
Stress is also thought to have an impact on telomere length, and the researchers suggest people who exercise regularly may help to reduce their stress levels.
Writing in the journal, the researchers said: “Our results show that adults who partake in regular physical activity are biologically younger than sedentary individuals.
“This conclusion provides a powerful message that could be used by clinicians to promote the potential anti-ageing effect of regular exercise.”
In an accompanying editorial, Dr Jack Guralnik, of the USNational Institute on Aging, said more work was needed to show a direct relationship between ageing and physical activity.
He said: “Persons who exercise are different from sedentary persons in many ways, and although certain variables were adjusted for in this analysis, many additional factors could be responsible for the biological differences between active and sedentary persons.
“Nevertheless, this article serves as one of many pieces of evidence that telomere length might be targeted in studying ageing outcomes.”
“This conclusion provides a powerful message that could be used by clinicians to promote the potential anti-ageing effect of regular exercise” By King’s College London researchers
Many studies have shown telomeres get shorter over time, suggesting the cells are ageing or dying. The study, which extracted a DNA sample from their volunteers, found people who exercised more each week had longer telomeres.
Exercise lowers the risk of a range of problems such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer, the researchers said.
“It is not just walking around the block. It is really working up a sweat,” said Tim Spector, a genetic epidemiologist who led the study, in a telephone interview.
The study found people who exercised vigorously 3 hours each week had longer telomeres and were biologically 9 years younger than people who did under 15 minutes. Spector’s team, who also adjusted for body weight, smoking, economic status and physical activity at work, also said moderate exercise for 1-1/2 hours each week provided a four-year advantage.’