Categories
Herbs & Plants

Mañgoñgot

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Botanical Name :Clerodendrum inerme (Linn.) Gaertn
Family : Verbenaceae

Other Scientific Names:  Clerodendrum commersonii Spreng.,Clerodendrum nerifolium Wall. ,Volkameria commersonii Poir.,Volkameria inermis Linn. ,Volkameria nereifolia Roxb.,Clerodendrum capsulare Blanco,

Common Names: Gaertn. Ang-angri (Ilk.),Baliseng (Bis.),Busel-busel (Ilk.),Mañgoñgot (Tag.),Samin-añga (Sul.),Tabang-oñgong (P. Bis.),Seaside clerodendron (Engl.) ,Garden quinine (Engl.) ,Sorcerer’s bush (Engl.),Wild jasmine (Engl.) ,Ku lang shu (Chin.)

Habitat : Mañgoñgot is found along the seashore and beside tidal streams throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Formosa, and through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

Description:
This plant is an erect or somewhat straggling shrub 1 to 4 meters high. The leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate, or elliptic-ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, shinning, smooth, entire, and pointed at the tip. The inflorescence (cyme) is usually composed of three flowers and is borne in the axils of the leaves. The calyx is green, narrowly funnel-shaped, and furnished with 5 very short teeth. The corolla is about 3 centimeters long and comprises a slender, white tube spreading, purple-tinged lobes which are about 7 millimeters long. The stamens are long-exserted, and purple. The fruit is obovoid, about 1.5 centimeters long, and splitting into 4 pyrenes. The calyx in the fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter.

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Medicinal Uses:
Parts used: Root, leaves.

Constituents:
* Leaves yield a bitter principle that is entirely removed by ether; and treatment with alcohol and water yields extracts free from bitterness. The bitter principle shows a resemblance to Chiretta (Swertia chirata), a gentianaceous plant.
* Leaves also yield a fragrant stearoptin with an apple-like odor; resin; gum; brown coloring matter; and ash containing a large amount of sodium chloride (24.01% of the ash).
* Study of hexane extract of the aerial parts isolated an aliphatic glucoside characterized as pentadecanoic acid-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol extract yielded acacetin and apigenin.

Properties:
*Leaves are mucilaginous and fragrant.
*Considered alterative, febrifuge and resolvent.

Folkloric
*In the Philippines, root decoction is used as febrifuge and alterative.
*Leaves are used in poultices as resolvent.
*Elsewhere, the root, boiled in oil, is applied like a liniment for rheumatism.
*In Guam, the bitter root, leaves and wood are used by natives as a remedy for intermittent fevers.
*Poultices of leaves used for swellings to prevent suppuration.
*Leaves and roots, in tincture and decoction, used as substitute for quinine.
*Juice of leaves and root used as alterative in scrofulous and venereal diseases.
*Poultices of leaves applied to resolve buboes.
*Leaf bath recommended for mani and for itches.
*At one time, sailors of Macassar were reported to take the fruit, seeds and roots to sea, and a decoction or pounded seeds were ingested when taken sick by ingestion of poisonous fish and crabs.
*Leaves, eaten with rice, used to increase the appetite.
*In Java, fruit used as medicine for dysentery.
*In Africa, used to treat hypertension.
*In traditional Indian medicine, leaves used for treating fever, cough, skin rahses, boils; also, for treating umbilical cord infection and cleaning the uterus.

Studies :
• Megastigmane / Iridoid Glucosides: Study of aerial parts of C. inerme yielded two megastimane glucosides (sammangaosides A and B) and an iridoid glucoside (sammangaoside C) with 15 known compounds.
Hepatoprotective: Study of ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in CCl4-induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase, with significant increase in glutathione level.
Hypotensive Activity: Study of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum inerme leaves showed a hypotensive effect attributted to the presence of chemical elements such as alkaloids and polyphenols. Results support its traditional use for its hypotensive effect.
• Antifungal: Study of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of C. inerme and C. phlomidis showed both inhibited inhibition of all plant and human pathogenic fungi. The leaf extract of C. inerme inhibited plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes.
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of C. inerme showed free radical scavenging activity increasing with concentration, with maximum activity at 2500 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity may be due to phenolic compounds.
• Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study of methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition against 15 of 18 bacterial tested. Results clearly showed the leaves were effective in controlling bacterial pathogens, particular gram positive bacteria. Results also confirmed its utility as a wound-healing agent.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the methanol extract of C. inerme in animal models exhibited anti-inflammatory activty. In addition, it showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced-writhing model. The effects were attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

Click to access mangongot.pdf


http://www.stuartxchange.com/Mangongot.html

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Uterine Fibroids

Definition:
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during your childbearing years. Also called fibromyomas, leiomyomas or myomas, uterine fibroids aren’t associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer and almost never develop into cancer.

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As many as three out of four women have uterine fibroids, but most are unaware of them because they often cause no symptoms. Your doctor may discover them incidentally during a pelvic exam or prenatal ultrasound.

In general, uterine fibroids cause no problems and seldom require treatment. Medical therapy and surgical procedures can shrink or remove fibroids if you have discomfort or troublesome symptoms. Rarely, fibroids can require emergency treatment if they cause sudden, sharp pelvic pain.

Uterine fibroids (singular Uterine Fibroma) (leiomyomata, singular leiomyoma) are benign tumors which grow from the muscle layers of the uterus. They are the most common benign neoplasm in females, and may affect about 25% of white and 50% of black women during the reproductive years. Uterine fibroids often do not require treatment, but when they are problematic, they may be treated surgically or with medication — possible interventions include a hysterectomy, hormonal therapy, a myomectomy, or uterine artery embolization. Uterine fibroids shrink dramatically in size after a woman passes through menopause.

Fibroids are named according to where they are found. There are four types: Intramural fibroids are found in the wall of the womb and are the most common type of fibroids. Subserosal fibroids are found growing outside the wall of the womb and can become very large. They can also grow on stalks (called pedunculated fibroids). Submucosal fibroids are found in the muscle beneath the inner lining of the womb wall. Cervical fibroids are found in the wall of the cervix (neck of the womb). In very rare cases, malignant (cancerous) growths on the smooth muscles inside the womb can develop, called leiomyosarcoma of the womb.

Symptoms:

Many women with uterine fibroids have no symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include:

*Heavy or painful periods or bleeding between periods
*Feeling “full” in the lower abdomen
*Pain during sex
*Lower back pain
*Reproductive problems, such as infertility, multiple miscarriages or early labor
*Heavy menstrual bleeding
*Prolonged menstrual periods or bleeding between periods
*Pelvic pressure or pain
*Urinary incontinence or frequent urination
*Constipation
*Backache or leg pains

The names of fibroids reflect their orientation to the uterine wall. Intramural fibroids grow within the muscular uterine wall. Submucosal fibroids bulge into the uterine cavity. Subserosal fibroids project to the outside of the uterus, and pedunculated fibroids hang from a stalk inside or outside the uterus.

.Rarely, a fibroid can cause acute pain when it outgrows its blood supply. Deprived of nutrients, the fibroid begins to die. Byproducts from a degenerating fibroid can seep into surrounding tissue, causing pain and fever. A fibroid that hangs by a stalk inside or outside the uterus (pedunculated fibroid) can trigger pain by twisting on its stalk and cutting off its blood supply.

Fibroid location influences your signs and symptoms:

*Submucosal fibroids. Fibroids that grow into the inner cavity of the uterus (submucosal fibroids) are thought to be primarily responsible for prolonged, heavy menstrual bleeding.

*Subserosal fibroids. Fibroids that project to the outside of the uterus (subserosal fibroids) can sometimes press on your bladder, causing you to experience urinary symptoms. If fibroids bulge from the back of your uterus, they occasionally can press either on your rectum, causing constipation, or on your spinal nerves, causing backache.
Causes:
Uterine fibroids develop from the smooth muscular tissue of the uterus (myometrium). A single cell reproduces repeatedly, eventually creating a pale, firm, rubbery mass distinct from neighboring tissue.

Fibroids range in size from seedlings, undetectable by the human eye, to bulky masses that can distort and enlarge the uterus. They can be single or multiple, in extreme cases expanding the uterus so much that it reaches the rib cage.

Doctors don’t know the cause of uterine fibroids, but research and clinical experience point to several factors:

*Genetic alterations. Many fibroids contain alterations in genes that code for uterine muscle cells.

*Hormones. Estrogen and progesterone, two hormones that stimulate development of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy, appear to promote the growth of fibroids. Fibroids contain more estrogen and estrogen receptors than do normal uterine muscle cells.

Other chemicals. Substances that help the body maintain tissues, such as insulin-like growth factor, may affect fibroid growth.

Location
Fibroids may be single or multiple. Most fibroids start in an intramural location, that is the layer of the muscle of the uterus. With further growth, some lesions may develop towards the outside of the uterus (subserosal or pedunculated), some towards the cavity (submucosal or intracavitary). Lesions affecting the cavity tend to bleed more and interfere with pregnancy. Secondary changes that may develop within fibroids are hemorrhage, necrosis, calcification, and cystic changes. Less frequently, leiomyomas may occur at the lower uterine segment, cervix, or uterine ligaments.

Risk factors
There are few known risk factors for uterine fibroids, other than being a woman of reproductive age. Other factors include:

*Heredity. If your mother or sister had fibroids, you’re at increased risk of also developing them.

*Race. Black women are more likely to have fibroids than are women of other racial groups. In addition, black women have fibroids at younger ages, and they’re also likely to have more or larger fibroids.
Inconclusive research

Research examining other potential risk factors has been inconclusive. Although some studies have suggested that obese women are at higher risk of fibroids, other studies have not shown a link.

In addition, limited studies once suggested that women who take oral contraceptives and athletic women may have a lower risk of fibroids, but later research failed to establish this connection. Researchers have also looked at whether pregnancy and giving birth may have a protective effect, but results remain unclear.

Diagnosis:
Uterine fibroids are frequently found incidentally during a routine pelvic exam. Your doctor may feel irregularities in the shape of your uterus through your abdomen, suggesting the presence of fibroids.

Ultrasound
If confirmation is needed, your doctor may obtain an ultrasound — a painless exam that uses sound waves to obtain a picture of your uterus — to confirm the diagnosis and to map and measure fibroids. A doctor or technician moves the ultrasound device (transducer) over your abdomen (transabdominal) or places it inside your vagina (transvaginal) to obtain images of your uterus.

Transvaginal ultrasound provides more detail because the probe is closer to the uterus. Transabdominal ultrasound visualizes a larger anatomic area. Sometimes, fibroids are discovered during an ultrasound conducted for a different purpose, such as during a prenatal ultrasound.

Other imaging tests
If traditional ultrasound doesn’t provide enough information, your doctor may order other imaging studies, such as:

*Hysterosonography. This ultrasound variation uses sterile saline to expand the uterine cavity, making it easier to obtain interior images of the uterus. This test may be useful if you have heavy menstrual bleeding despite normal results from traditional ultrasound….click to see

*Hysterosalpingography. This technique uses a dye to highlight the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes on X-ray images. Your doctor may recommend it if infertility is a concern. In addition to revealing fibroids, it can help your doctor determine if your fallopian tubes are open.  ...click to see

*Hysteroscopy. Your doctor inserts a small, lighted telescope called a hysteroscope through your cervix into your uterus. The tube releases a gas or liquid to expand your uterus, allowing your doctor to examine the walls of your uterus and the openings of your fallopian tubes. A hysteroscopy can be performed in your doctor’s office.
Imaging techniques that may occasionally be necessary include computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Other tests
If you’re experiencing abnormal vaginal bleeding, your doctor may want to conduct other tests to investigate potential causes. He or she may order a complete blood count (CBC) to determine if you have iron deficiency anemia because of chronic blood loss. Your doctor may also order blood tests to rule out bleeding disorders and to determine the levels of reproductive hormones produced by your ovaries.
Complications
Although uterine fibroids usually aren’t dangerous, they can cause discomfort and may lead to complications such as anemia from heavy blood loss. In rare instances, fibroid tumors can grow out of your uterus on a stalk-like projection. If the fibroid twists on this stalk, you may develop a sudden, sharp, severe pain in your lower abdomen. If so, seek medical care right away. You may need surgery.

Malignancy
Very few lesions are or become malignant. Signs that a fibroid may be malignant are rapid growth or growth after menopause. Such lesions are typically a leiomyosarcoma on histology. There is no consensus among pathologists regarding the transformation of Leiomyoma into a sarcoma. Most pathologists believe that a Leiomyosarcoma is a de novo disease.

Pregnancy and fibroids
Because uterine fibroids typically develop during the childbearing years, women with fibroids are often concerned about their chances of a successful pregnancy.

Fibroids usually don’t interfere with conception and pregnancy, but they can occasionally affect fertility. They may distort or block your fallopian tubes, or interfere with the passage of sperm from your cervix to your fallopian tubes. Submucosal fibroids may prevent implantation and growth of an embryo.

Research indicates that pregnant women with fibroids are at slightly increased risk of miscarriage, premature labor and delivery, abnormal fetal position, and separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. But not all studies confirm these associations. Furthermore, complications vary based on the number, size and location of fibroids. Multiple fibroids and large submucosal fibroids that distort the uterine cavity are the type most likely to cause problems. A more common complication of fibroids in pregnancy is localized pain, typically between the first and second trimesters. This is usually easily treated with pain relievers.

In most cases, fibroids don’t interfere with pregnancy and treatment isn’t necessary. It was once believed that fibroids grew faster during pregnancy, but multiple studies suggest otherwise. Most fibroids remain stable in size, although some increase or decrease slightly, usually in the first trimester.

If you have fibroids and you’ve experienced repeated pregnancy losses, your doctor may recommend removing one or more fibroids to improve your chances of carrying a baby to term, especially if no other causes of miscarriage can be found and your fibroids distort the shape of your uterine cavity.

Doctors usually don’t remove fibroids in conjunction with a Caesarean section because of the high risk of excessive bleeding.

Treatment & Modern Drugs
There’s no single best approach to uterine fibroid treatment. Many treatment options exist. In most cases, the best action to take after discovering fibroids is simply to be aware they are there.

Watchful waiting
If you’re like most women with uterine fibroids, you have no signs or symptoms. In your case, watchful waiting (expectant management) could be the best course. Fibroids aren’t cancerous. They rarely interfere with pregnancy. They usually grow slowly and tend to shrink after menopause when levels of reproductive hormones drop. This is the best treatment option for a large majority of women with uterine fibroids.

Medications
Medications for uterine fibroids target hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle, treating symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pressure. They don’t eliminate fibroids, but may shrink them. Medications include:

*Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists. To trigger a new menstrual cycle, a control center in your brain called the hypothalamus manufactures gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH). The substance travels to your pituitary gland, a tiny gland also located at the base of your brain, and sets in motion events that stimulate your ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.

Medications called Gn-RH agonists (Lupron, Synarel, others) act at the same sites that Gn-RH does. But when taken as therapy, a Gn-RH agonist produces the opposite effect to that of your natural hormone. Estrogen and progesterone levels fall, menstruation stops, fibroids shrink and anemia often improves.

*Androgens. Your ovaries and your adrenal glands, located above your kidneys, produce androgens, the so-called male hormones. Given as medical therapy, androgens can relieve fibroid symptoms.

Danazol, a synthetic drug similar to testosterone, has been shown to shrink fibroid tumors, reduce uterine size, stop menstruation and correct anemia. However, occasional unpleasant side effects such as weight gain, dysphoria (feeling depressed, anxious or uneasy), acne, headaches, unwanted hair growth and a deeper voice, make many women reluctant to take this drug.

Other medications. Oral contraceptives or progestins can help control menstrual bleeding, but they don’t reduce fibroid size. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are not hormonal medications, are effective for heavy vaginal bleeding unrelated to fibroids, but they don’t reduce bleeding caused by fibroids.
Hysterectomy
This operation — the removal of the uterus — remains the only proven permanent solution for uterine fibroids. But hysterectomy is major surgery. It ends your ability to bear children, and if you elect to have your ovaries removed also, it brings on menopause and the question of whether you’ll take hormone replacement therapy.

Myomectomy
In this surgical procedure, your surgeon removes the fibroids, leaving the uterus in place. If you want to bear children, you might choose this option. With myomectomy, as opposed to a hysterectomy, there is a risk of fibroid recurrence. There are several ways a myomectomy can be done:

Abdominal myomectomy. If you have multiple fibroids, very large or very deep fibroids, your doctor may use an open abdominal surgical procedure to remove the fibroids.
Laparoscopic myomectomy. If the fibroids are small and few in number, you and your doctor may opt for a laparoscopic procedure, which uses slender instruments inserted through small incisions in your abdomen to remove the fibroids from your uterus. Your doctor views your abdominal area on a remote monitor via a small camera attached to one of the instruments.
Hysteroscopic myomectomy. This procedure may be an option if the fibroids are contained inside the uterus (submucosal). A long, slender scope (hysteroscope) is passed through your vagina and cervix and into your uterus. Your doctor can see and remove the fibroids through the scope. This procedure is best performed by a doctor experienced in this technique.
Variations of myomectomy — in which uterine fibroids are destroyed without actually removing them — include:

*Myolysis. In this laparoscopic procedure, an electric current destroys the fibroids and shrinks the blood vessels that feed them.
*Cryomyolysis. In a procedure similar to myolysis, cryomyolysis uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the fibroids.

The safety, effectiveness and associated risk of fibroid recurrence of myolysis and cryomyolysis have yet to be determined.

*Endometrial ablation. This treatment, performed with a hysteroscope, uses heat to destroy the lining of your uterus, either ending menstruation or reducing your menstrual flow. Endometrial ablation is effective in stopping abnormal bleeding, but doesn’t affect fibroids outside the interior lining of the uterus.
Uterine artery embolization
Small particles injected into the arteries supplying the uterus cut off blood flow to fibroids, causing them to shrink. This technique is proving effective in shrinking fibroids and relieving the symptoms they can cause. Advantages over surgery include:

*No incision
*Shorter recovery time
Complications may occur if the blood supply to your ovaries or other organs is compromised.

Focused ultrasound surgery.>..click to see

In focused ultrasound surgery, treatment is conducted within a specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. High-frequency, high-energy sound waves are directed through a source (gel pad) to destroy uterine fibroids.
MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 2004, is a newer treatment option for women with fibroids. Unlike other fibroid treatment options, FUS is noninvasive and preserves your uterus.

This procedure is performed while you’re inside of a specially crafted MRI scanner that allows doctors to visualize your anatomy, and then locate and destroy (ablate) fibroids inside your uterus without making an incision. Focused high-frequency, high-energy sound waves are used to target and destroy the fibroids. A single treatment session is done in an on- and off-again fashion, sometimes spanning several hours. Initial results with this technology are promising, but its long-term effectiveness is not yet known.

Before you decide
Because fibroids aren’t cancerous and usually grow slowly, you have time to gather information before making a decision about if and how to proceed with treatment. The option that’s right for you depends on a number of factors, including the severity of your signs and symptoms, your plans for childbearing, how close you are to menopause, and your feelings about surgery.

Before making a decision, consider the pros and cons of all available treatment options in relation to your particular situation. Remember, most women don’t need any treatment for uterine fibroids.
Alternative medicine:
You may have seen on the Internet, or in books focusing on women’s health, alternative treatments, such as certain dietary recommendations or homeopathy, which combines stress reduction techniques and herbal preparations.

More research is necessary to determine whether dietary practices or other methods can help prevent or treat fibroids. So far, there’s no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these techniques.

Herbal Treatment:
YOU can fight benign lumps With these herbs:

Evening primrose, kelp, mullein, pau d’arco, echinacea, red clover.

You may click to see Homeopathic medications for Uterine fibroids>..(1)….(2)….(3)

Prevention
Although researchers continue to study the causes of fibroid tumors, little scientific advice is available on how to prevent them. Preventing uterine fibroids may not be possible, but you can take comfort in the fact that only a small percentage of these tumors require treatment.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/uterine-fibroids/DS00078
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterine_fibroids
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/uterinefibroids.html

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Shikakai (Acacia Concinna)

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Botanical Name :Acacia Concinna
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Genus: Acacia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Species: A. concinna

Synonyms   :  Acacia hooperiana Zipp. ex Miq. Acacia philippinarurn Benth. Acacia poilanei Gagnep. Acacia polyceph

Common Names:  Shikakai, Soap-Pod

Other Names:  Aila, Atouqie, Banritha, Chikaka, Chikakai, Kochi, Lahiur, Ritha, Shikai, Shikakai, Shikaya, Sige, Sikakai, Soap-pod tree, Som poi, Song bai.


Habita
t :Native to Asia, common in the warm, plains of central and south India. It grows in  rain forest, disturbed forest, open grassland, fields, creek sides, in open areas often a sprawling shrub; also recorded from limestone; at elevations from 50 – 1050 metres.
Found in: Asia, China, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pacific, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, SE Asia, Thailand, Vietnam.

Description:
Acacia concinna is an evergreen Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a medium rate. It is a thorny spreading shrub or tree that can either be scandent or climb into other plants. Bark is light grey. Leaves are oblong 4-10mm long forming 7-11 pairs of branches each with 17-37 pairs of leaflets. Flower buds are purple or dark red. The flowers are cream or white. Pods up to 5cm long are flat and thick with 7 seeds. The seedpods are widely used as a soap substitute in India. Plants flower throughout the year. Fruit are on trees from February to March.The tree is food for the larvae of the butterfly Pantoporia hordonia.

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It is frost tender. and are pollinated by Bees, beetles, butterflies, wasps.It can fix Nitrogen.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry soil and can tolerate drought. The plant is not wind tolerant.
Cultivation:
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Acacia concinna can be grown from seeds. The seedlings can be transplanted. The seed of most, if not all, members of this genus has a hard seedcoat and may benefit from scarification before sowing to speed up germination. This can usually be done by pouring a small amount of nearly boiling water on the seeds (being careful not to cook them!) and then soaking them for 12 – 24 hours in warm water. By this time they should have imbibed moisture and swollen – if they have not, then carefully make a nick in the seedcoat (being careful not to damage the embryo) and soak for a further 12 hours before sowing.

Edible Uses:
Edible portion: Seeds, Leaves, Flowers, Vegetable. Leaves are cooked . The acid-flavoured young leaves can be used as a substitute for tamarinds (Tamarindus indica) in chutneys . They are also added to soups to make them hot and sour . They can be curried with salted fish and coconut milk. Flowers – cooked and eaten as a vegetable . Acid fruit are used in Philippine cooking to give a sour flavour. They are roasted and eaten. Seeds are edible after roasting. The young shoots are used to make pickles or cooked as a vegetable.

Constituents:

The bark contains saponin, which on hydrolysis yields lupeol, (-spinasterol and acacic acid lactone. The sugars identified are glucose, arabinose and rhamnose. It also contains hexacosanol and (- spinasterone. The saponin of bark shows spermicidal activity against human semen (Banerji and Nigam, J Indian chem Soc., 1980, 57, 1043; Banerji et al, Indian Drugs, 1979 – 80, 17,6). The tender leaves, which are acidic, are used in chutneys. The leaves contain oxalic, tartaric, citric, succinic and ascorbic acids. They also contain two alkaloids calyctomine (C12H17O3N, m.p. 138-140oC) and nicotine, besides rutin and an enzyme tartaric racimase.A new triterpenoid saponin (C36H48O5, m.p. 295oC) having the basic skeleton of oleanolic acid.

Other constituents present in the leaves are tannins, amino acids and proteins.

Medicainal  Actions and Uses :
An infusion of the leaves is used in malarial fever. A decoction of the pods relieves biliousness and acts as a purgative. It is used to remove dandruff. An ointment, prepared from the ground pods, is good for skin diseases. The pods, known as Shikai or Shikakai, are extensively used as an detergent, and the dry ones are powdered and perfumed, and sold in the market as soapnut powder. The pods are reported to be used in north Bengal for poisoning fish.

Acacia concinna extracts are used in natural shampoos or hair powders and the tree is now grown commercially in India and Far East Asia. The plant parts used for the dry powdered or the extract are the bark, leaves or pods. The bark contains high levels of saponins, which are foaming agents that are found in several other plant species. Saponin-containing plants have a long history of use as mild cleaning agents. Saponins from the plant’s pods have been traditionally used as a detergent, and in Bengal for poisoning fish; they are documented to be potent marine toxins.
Research: Recent research has shown that the tree has an antidermatophytic ability that can fight off fungi responsible for skin diseases. It also has antimicrobial and antibacterial properties and even contains some phytochemicals that may have antioxidant abilities.

Other uses
In commercial extracts, when the plant is hydrolyzed it yields lupeol, spinasterol, acacic acid, lactone, and the natural sugars glucose, arabinose and rhamnose. It also contains hexacosanol and spinasterone. The saponin of the bark has spermicidal activity against human semen. It appears to have a hormonal effect, leading to its use for contraceptive purposes.

The leaves have an acidic taste and are used in chutneys. They contain oxalic, tartaric, citric, succinic and ascorbic acids, as well as two alkaloids, calyctomine and nicotine. An infusion of the leaves has been used in anti-dandruff preparations. Extracts of the ground pods have been used for various skin diseases

. For centuries the people who have had access to this tree have used its pod-like fruit to clean their hair. They collect, dry and grind this pod into a powder which is considered a superior cleanser for lustrous long hair and has been reported as “promoting hair growth and preventing dandruff”. Because of these benefits, this powder was named “shikakai” which literally translates as “fruit for the hair”.

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Typically, shikakai is mixed with water to make a paste which is worked through the hair. It lathers moderately and cleans hair beautifully. It has a natural low pH, is extremely mild, and doesn’t strip hair of natural oils. Usually no rinse or conditioner is used since shikakai also acts as a detangler. This ancient product is probably the world’s original pH balanced shampoo.

Shikakai is a complete tonic for retaining complete softness of hair. It is a unique remedy for natural and beautiful hair.

It also helps in removing dandruff and lice.Shikakai is a nut from a tree. The powder is used to wash hair. It is very effective in removing oil and dirt from hair. The normal practice is to apply oil to hair and scalp and allow it soak for sometime. This will keep the body cool, reducing body heat & also prevent the scalp from getting dry. The powdered shikakai is used as a shampoo to wash off the oil.

Today this fruit is grown commercially in large quantities in India and the Far East. As a result, shikakai powder is readily available and continues to be commonly used as a preferred shampoo.Many popular brands are sold throughout India.

While it does not have the normal amount of foam that a regular shampoo would have it helps in strengthening the hair from its roots.Typically, shikakai is mixed with water to make a paste which is worked through the hair. It lathers moderately and cleans hair beautifully. It has a natural low pH, is extremely mild, and doesn’t strip hair of natural oils. Usually no rinse or conditioner is used since shikakai also acts as a detangler. This ancient product is probably the world’s original pH balanced shampoo.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resource:
http://www.sbepl.com/acacia-concinna-shikakai.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_concinna

http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Acacia+concinna

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