Tag Archives: Combined oral contraceptive pill

Viburnum opulus

Botanical Name: Viburnum opulus
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species: V. opulus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: Cramp Bark. Snowball Tree. King’s Crown. High Cranberry. Red Elder. Rose Elder. Water Elder. May Rose. Whitsun Rose. Dog Rowan Tree. Silver Bells. Whitsun Bosses. Gaitre Berries. Black Haw.

Common Name: Guelder-rose, Cramp Bark , Stagbush, sweet viburnum, water elder, arrowwood

Other common names: Water elder, , Snowball tree and European cranberry bush

Part Used: Bark.

Habitat:The ‘Gaitre-Beries’ of which Chaucer makes mention among the plants that ‘shal be for your hele’ to ‘picke hem right as they grow and ete hem in,’ are the deep red clusters of berries of the Wild Guelder Rose (Viburnum Opulus, Linn.), a shrub growing 5 to 10 feet high, belonging to the same family as the Elder, found in copses and hedgerows throughout England, though rare in Scotland, and also indigenous to North America, where it is to be found in low grounds in the eastern United States.
It grows in hedges, scrub and woodland, usually on damp soils.
Description:
Viburnum opulus is a deciduous shrub growing to 4–5 m (13–16 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, three-lobed, 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long and broad, with a rounded base and coarsely serrated margins; they are superficially similar to the leaves of some maples, most easily distinguished by their somewhat wrinkled surface with impressed leaf venation. The leaf buds are green, with valvate bud scales….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The hermaphrodite flowers are white, produced in corymbs 4–11 cm (2–4 in) in diameter at the top of the stems; each corymb comprises a ring of outer sterile flowers 1.5–2 cm in diameter with conspicuous petals, surrounding a center of small (5 mm), fertile flowers; the flowers are produced in early summer, and pollinated by insects. The fruit is a globose bright red drupe 7–10 mm diameter, containing a single seed. The seeds are dispersed by birds.
The bark is collected chiefly in northern Europe and appears in commerce in thin strips, sometimes in quills, 1/20 to 1/12 inch thick, greyish-brown externally, with scattered brownish warts, faintly cracked longitudinally. It has a strong, characteristic odour and its taste is mildly astringent and decidedly bitter.

Constituents: The active principle of Cramp Bark is the bitter glucoside Viburnine; it also contains tannin, resin and valerianic acid.
Edible Uses:
The fruit is edible in small quantities, with a very acidic taste; it can be used to make jelly. It is however very mildly toxic, and may cause vomiting or diarrhea if eaten in large amounts.

Medicinal Uses: The bark, known as Cramp Bark, is employed in herbal medicine. It used formerly to be included in the United States Pharmacopoeia, but is now omitted though it has been introduced into the National Formulary in the form of a Fluid Extract, Compound Tincture and Compound Elixir, for use as a nerve sedative and anti-spasmodic in asthma and hysteria.

In herbal practice in this country, its administration in decoction and infusion, as well as the fluid extract and compound tincture is recommended. It has been employed with benefit in all nervous complaints and debility and used with success in cramps and spasms of all kinds, in convulsions, fits and lockjaw, and also in palpitation, heart disease and rheumatism.

Crampbark is effective at relieving any over-tense muscle, whether smooth muscle in the intestines, airways, or uterus, or striated muscle in the limbs or back. It may be taken internally or applied topically to relieve muscle tension. The herb also treats symptoms arising from excess muscle tension, including breathing difficulties in asthma, and menstrual pain caused by excessive contraction of the uterus.. For night cramps and back pain, lobelia is often mixed with crampbark. The herb also relieves constipation, colic, and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as the physical symptoms of nervous tension. Useful as a protection against threatened miscarriage. Its astringent action gives it a role in the treatment of excessive blood loss in periods and especially bleeding associated with the menopause. In some cases of arthritis, where joint weakness and pain have caused muscles to contract until they are almost rigid, crampbark can bring remarkable relief. As the muscles relax, blood flow to the area improves, waste products such as lactic acid are removed and normal function can return. Crampbark is commonly used in treatments for high blood pressure and other circulatory conditions.

It is a specific remedy for pains in the thighs and back and a bearing-down, expulsive pain in the uterus, whether during pregnancy and childbirth or during menstruation. Crampbark combines well with bearberry for bladder infections with painful cramping and frequent urination with little passed.

For the relief of cramp it may be combined with Prickly Ash and Wild Yam. For uterine and ovarian pains or threatened miscarriage it may be used with Black Haw and Valerian. For bladder infections with painful cramping combine with bearberry.

Other uses:
The term cramp bark is related to the properties of the bark’s ability to reduce smooth muscle tightness. It is called cramp bark as relieving this type of muscle tightness is most often associated with relieving women’s menstrual (period) cramps. However, this can also be used during pregnancy for cramps or pain and general muscle cramping.

Cultural meaning:
Viburnum opulus (Kalyna) is one of the National symbols of Ukraine.   Mentions of the bush can be found throughout the Ukrainian folklore such as songs, picturesque art, Ukrainian embroidery, and others. Chervona Kalyna was the anthem of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Kalyna Country is an ecomuseum in Canada.

This bush’s symbolic roots can be traced to the Slavic paganism of millennia ago. According to a legend Kalyna was associated with the birth of the Universe, the so-called Fire Trinity: the Sun, the Moon, and the Star.  Its berries symbolize blood and the undying trace of family roots. Kalyna is often depicted on the Ukrainian embroidery: towels and shirts. In Slavic paganism kalyna also represents the beauty of a young lady which rhymes well in the Ukrainian language: Ka-ly-na – Div-chy-na. That consistency was reviewed by numerous Ukrainian folklorists such as Nikolay Kostomarov, Oleksandr Potebnia (founder of the Kharkiv Linguistic.
Known Hazards : Large quantities of the fruit can cause vomiting and diarrhoea. The fruit is of very low or zero toxicity, it only causes mild upsets when eaten unripe or in large quantities.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_opulus
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/gueros44.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+opulus

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Not to Get Pregnant

 

I have done something wrong,” said the young woman. No, it was not theft or murder she was confessing to but unprotected sex. An unguarded passionate moment with her boyfriend had made her pregnant. She was terrified of the stigma — the boyfriend was still a student, there was no way they could get married right away.
CLICK & SEE
This is quite a common scenario in urban as well as rural India. Women increasingly face the problems of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies. It’s most important that they know how to take care of themselves, married or single.

First, women need to be in control of their bodies, especially when it comes to sexual intercourse, pregnancy and childbirth. Many safe women-oriented contraceptive methods are available.

Women become pregnant only on certain days of the month. The ovum or egg of a fertile woman is released 14 days before her next period. The egg survives 12 to 24 hours after release and the sperm for up to 72 hours. Couples may refrain from intercourse on these days if they wish to avoid pregnancy. This method, however, is not reliable as many women do not menstruate with clockwork precision.

Women may use contraceptive creams containing nonoxynol-9 in the vagina. These substances increase the effectiveness of the safe period. They are effective for about an hour. But they do not suit everyone and may cause vaginal irritation or allergic reactions. They are available in pharmacies without a prescription.

Diaphragms can be inserted prior to intercourse. These come in various sizes and need to be combined with a spermicide. An initial medical examination is needed to confirm the size. The device has to be left in the vagina for eight to 12 hours after intercourse but should be removed within 24 hours.

Women can also opt for an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), popularly known as a “copper T”. These need to be inserted by a medical professional. They can work for three, five or 10 years, depending on the type and manufacturer’s recommendations. Imported devices can be purchased from the pharmacy. Also, free IUCDs are distributed by the government.

“Depo” injections of long-acting progesterone are available
. A woman needs to have an injection every 12 weeks. They can cause weight gain, irregular cycles, breakthrough bleeding or spotting. The irregular periods can raise the spectre of an unwanted pregnancy.

Oral contraceptive pills (OCP) prevent pregnancy if taken regularly.
There are combination pills containing estrogen and progesterone with different trade names. They are also provided free by the government (Mala D). The active ingredient is given for 21 days. Then there is a pill-free interval of seven days after which the next lot needs to be started. Sometimes placebo pills are administered during the pill-free period. They prevent pregnancy as well as regularise the cycle. They do not increase the risk of cancer.

Breast feeding women can opt for “progesterone only” pills. These are taken without a pill-free interval.

There’s a new contraceptive in the market — a plastic ring impregnated with estrogen and progesterone. The ring needs to be inserted in the vagina and left there for three weeks followed by a one week ring-free interval. A woman can purchase and insert the ring herself. An advantage of this over the pill is that the question of forgetting the latter does not arise.

Condoms can be used by the male partner. These have to be used from the beginning to the end of intercourse, and can be combined with a spermicidal cream.

Casual sex and multiple partners can result in sexually transmitted diseases. Some like Hepatitis B and HIV can eventually be fatal. Only condoms can prevent these diseases.

Even if you have had unplanned and unprotected sex, you can use emergency contraception (morning after) pills. Although theoretically these pills should be dispensed only by prescription, in many places they are available over the counter (OTC). The tablet should be taken after intercourse as soon as possible. It is 80 per cent effective if taken within 72 hours.

The morning after pill contains either progesterone or a combination of estrogen and progesterone in higher doses than in the 21 or 28-day packs of OCPs. An alternative is to take four low-dose or two “standard-dose” OCPs, and then take an equal dose 12 hours later.

If an unwanted pregnancy occurs, do not buy medicine OTC or rush to an unqualified quack out of shame or fear. Medical abortion pills are available and effective. They work up to the 49th day after the last period.

The last two are stopgap emergency measures. They are not to be considered regular methods of contraception. They are detrimental to health if repeatedly used.

Source : The Teleghraph ( Kolkata, India)

Enhanced by Zemanta

Contraception Myths

A UK survey has revealed that myths about contraception may be widespread.

One in five women said they had heard of kitchen items, including bread, cling film and even chicken skin, being used as alternative barrier methods.

Others had heard food items such as kebabs, Coca-cola or crisps could be used as oral contraceptives.

The survey questioned 1,000 women aged 18 to 50 and was carried out by market research company Opinion Health, sponsored by Bayer Schering Pharma.

Contraceptive myths have been around for thousands of years.

Ancient methods have varied from crocodile dung and honey before sex, to sea sponges and beeswax after.

Perhaps the most intoxicating was alcohol made from stewed beaver’s testicles.

However, it seems that a variety of unsafe and unproven methods might still exist in modern Britain.

Dr Annie Evans, Women’s Health Specialist at the Bristol Sexual Health Centre, said: “It is not surprising, given that Britain continues to have the highest unintended pregnancy rate in Europe.”

Alarming
Other myths surround the use of oral contraceptive pills. One in 10 of the women questioned believed that it always takes a number of years to regain fertility after discontinuation of the pill. Others believed that the pill could protect them against HIV.

Professor Steve Field, Chairman of the Royal College of General Practitioners, commented: “This is alarming but not surprising.

“I’ve had complications with patients over the years that have concerned me.

“The more we can put appropriate information to the public about the availability of different methods of contraception, about their advantages and disadvantages, the better.

“It is important that access to advice is made as easily as possible for all ages.”

MYTHS THAT STILL EXIST
*Chicken skin and cling film as barrier methods

*Kebabs, crisps and chocolate as oral contraceptives
The pill as protection against HIV
Source: Bayer Schering Pharma

Yopu may also click to see:-
>’We want real contraceptive choices’
>Survey shows contraception myths
>NHS in contraception switch call
>BBC Health – Contraception

Source: BBC NEWS:5th. Sept.2009

Some Health Quaries & Answers

 
Do antacids
help?………

Q: Whenever I take any antibiotics or painkillers I develop severe gastric irritation, with belching, burning and pain. Can I take antacids to prevent this?

A: Painkillers usually belong to the “aspirin” family, or are paracetamol or are NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents). All of them can cause gastric irritation to varying degrees. The same is true of some antibiotics also. Using an antacid decreases the availability of the medication as many of them interact with the antacid in the stomach. Instead, you can add omeprazole, pantoprazole or ranitidine to the prescription. You can speak to your physician for specific advice and dosage schedules.

Try smiling :-

Q: At 50 years of age I find I have a sad and depressed look as I have bags on the cheek and my whole face sags. It affects my mood when I look in the mirror.

CLICK & SEE

A: Sagging of the skin (jowls) occurs owing to the loss of subcutaneous elastic tissue with age. The skin is not held taut. Gravity then causes the cheeks to sag. You have to be very conscious of this.

Instead of developing a grumpy expression, try smiling. This will pull up your cheek muscles and the skin overlying them.

You can also apply oil every morning and massage your cheeks upwards. This will give you slow improvement. If nothing works, and you are really mentally affected by this, several plastic surgery techniques are available. Alternatively, you can always try Botox.

Grandma’s bladder :-

 

Q: My 82-year-old grandmother suffers from recurrent urinary tract infections. Cultures of the urine repeatedly grow significant numbers of bacteria. The doctors advised an ultrasound (USG) and it indicated significant residual urine — around 190cc. What can we do?

A: Residual urine means that her bladder is not emptying properly. Urine is left behind in significant amounts after she has passed urine. This occurs because of a weakness of the pelvic muscles as a result of previous childbirth, age and the loss of protective female hormones after menopause. Urine is a good culture medium for bacteria to gain a foothold and thrive. As long as this problem persists and urine remains in the bladder, infections will recur. You also need to check if she has any additional risk factors like diabetes.

Appropriate antibiotic treatment has to be given in the correct dosage for the recommended schedule for the infection to clear. Sometimes a small night dose of antibiotic has to be continued prophylactically for a few months. Ask your grandmother to lean backwards instead of forwards while passing urine. That will help to empty the bladder more. In addition, yoga or Keegle’s exercises can be done to strengthen the pelvic muscles.

Exercise, please:-

Q: I have been a naturopath and yoga teacher for 30 years. Many diseases, infirmities, injuries and the effects of ageing can be delayed or prevented by practising this scientific ancient exercise form. Recovery from illness is also faster. I find most of my patients very resistant to the idea of exercise. They have a thousand irrelevant excuses to put off to “tomorrow” a schedule to start being physically active. Needless to say, tomorrow never comes!

A: People are looking for a “quick fix ”, an instant solution or a miracle drug that’ll cure all their ailments with the least effort. Unfortunately the body has to be maintained and nurtured like any other piece of functioning ageing machinery.

Studies show that 60 minutes of aerobic activity and 10 minutes of stretching will go a long way in maintaining health. For those who cannot spare that amount of time at one stretch, it can be split into 10 or 20 minute segments. The eventual benefits are immeasurable.

On the pill for 15 years :-

Q: I am 45 years old and have been on an oral contraceptive pill (OCP) for 15 years. How will I know if I have reached menopause? After all, the pill produces withdrawal bleeding every month.

A: When you actually reach menopause there will be no withdrawal bleeding after the tablets are stopped. If this occurs for three months you have probably reached menopause. It is safer to continue the pills for a year more. If you stop the pill you should use some other form of contraception like condoms for a year.

Excruciating pain :-

Q: I was pregnant a year ago. On scan the baby was found to have Down’s syndrome. I underwent a termination of the pregnancy. Now I have lower abdominal pain all the time. Sometimes it is so severe that I have to double up. What can I do?

A: Since this pain has appeared after the abortion, you could take an ultrasound of the pelvis and do a urine examination. This will help to determine if there is an infection or any other reason for the pain. Armed with these reports you could go to a gynaecologist for specific advice and treatment.

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

How Contraceptive Pill Influences Partner Choice

The contraceptive pill may disrupt women’s natural ability to choose a partner genetically dissimilar to themselves. This could result in difficulties when trying to conceive, an increased risk of miscarriage and long intervals between pregnancies. Passing on a lack of diverse genes to children could also weaken their immune systems.

Humans tend to be attracted to those with a dissimilar genetic make-up to themselves, maintaining genetic diversity, which is signaled by subtle odors. A research team analyzed how the contraceptive pill affects odor preferences, and found that the preferences of women who began using the contraceptive pill shifted towards men with genetically similar odors.

Not only could genetic similarity in couples lead to fertility problems, but it could ultimately lead to the breakdown of relationships when women stop using the contraceptive pill, as odor perception plays a significant role in maintaining attraction to partners, researchers said.
Sources:
Eurekalert August 12, 2008
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences August 12, 2008

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]