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Bladder stones

Alternative Names :Stones – bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi

Definition:
Bladder stones are usually small masses of minerals that form in your bladder. Bladder stones develop when urine in your bladder becomes concentrated, causing minerals in your urine to crystallize. Concentrated, stagnant urine is often the result of not being able to completely empty your bladder. This may be due to an enlarged prostate, nerve damage or recurring urinary tract infections.

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Bladder stones are hard buildups of minerals that form in the urinary bladder. In most cases, these stones are made up of calcium. Stones are usually between 0.2cm and 2cm, but may be smaller or much larger.

Symptoms:

Symptoms occur when the stone irritates the lining of the bladder or obstructs the flow of urine from the bladder. Symptoms can include:

•Abdominal pain, pressure
•Abnormally colored or dark-colored urine
•Blood in the urine
•Difficulty urinating
•Frequent urge to urinate
•Inability to urinate except in certain positions
•Interruption of the urine stream
•Pain, discomfort in the penis
•Urinary tract infection
?Dysuria (painful urination)
?Fever
?Urinary urgency
Incontinence may also be associated with bladder stones.


Causes:

Bladder stones generally begin when your bladder doesn’t empty completely. The urine that’s left in your bladder can form crystals that eventually become bladder stones. In most cases, an underlying condition affects your bladder’s ability to empty completely.


The most common conditions that cause bladder stones include:

*Prostate gland enlargement. An enlarged prostate, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can be a cause of bladder stones in men. As the prostate enlarges, it can compress the urethra and interrupt urine flow, causing urine to remain in your bladder.

*Damaged nerves (neurogenic bladder). Normally, nerves carry messages from your brain to your bladder muscles, directing your bladder muscles to tighten or release. If these nerves are damaged — from a stroke, spinal cord injury or other health problem — your bladder may not empty completely.

*Weakened bladder wall. Bladder diverticula are weakened areas in the bladder wall that bulge outward in pouches, and allow urine to collect.
Other conditions that can cause bladder stones include:

*Inflammation.
Bladder stones can develop if your bladder becomes inflamed. Urinary tract infections and radiation therapy to your pelvic area can both cause bladder inflammation.

*Medical devices.
Occasionally, catheters — slender tubes inserted through the urethra to help urine drain from your bladder — can cause bladder stones. So can objects that accidentally migrate to your bladder, such as a contraceptive device or stent. Mineral crystals, which later become stones, tend to form on the surface of these devices.

*Kidney stones. Stones that form in your kidneys are not the same as bladder stones. They develop in different ways and often for different reasons. But small kidney stones occasionally travel down the ureters into your bladder and if not expelled, can grow into bladder stones.

Diagnosis:
The health care provider will perform a physical exam.  He will likely feel your lower abdomen to see if your bladder is distended and, in some cases, perform a rectal exam to determine whether your prostate is enlarged. You may also discuss any urinary signs or symptoms that you’ve been having.

Tests used to make a diagnosis of bladder stones may include:

*Analysis of your urine (urinalysis). A sample of your urine may be collected and examined for microscopic amounts of blood, bacteria and crystallized minerals. A urinalysis is also helpful for determining whether you have a urinary tract infection, which can cause or be the result of bladder stones.

*Spiral computerized tomography (CT) scan.
A conventional CT scan combines multiple X-rays with computer technology to create cross-sectional images of your body rather than the overlapping images produced by regular X-rays. A spiral CT speeds up this process, scanning more quickly and with greater definition of internal structures. Spiral CTs can detect even very small stones and are considered one of the most sensitive tests for identifying all types of bladder stones.

*Ultrasound. An ultrasound, which bounces sound waves off organs and structures in your body to create pictures, can help your doctor detect bladder stones.

*X-ray. An X-ray of your kidneys, ureters and bladder helps your doctor determine whether stones are present in your urinary system. This is an inexpensive and easy test to obtain, but some types of stones aren’t visible on conventional X-rays.

*Special imaging of your urinary tract (intravenous pyelogram)
. An intravenous pyelogram is a test that uses a contrast material to highlight organs in your urinary tract. The material is injected into a vein in your arm and flows into your kidneys, ureters and bladder, outlining each of these organs. X-ray pictures are taken at specific time points during the procedure to check for stones. More recently, helical CT scans are generally done instead of an intravenous pyelogram.

Treatment:
Sometimes cystoscopy is performed to examine the inside of the bladder. During this process a fibre-optic camera, called a cystoscope, is inserted into the bladder via the urethra. Any bladder stones can usually be broken up during this procedure, and then washed out.

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Stones can also be broken up into pieces small enough to allow them to pass out in the urine using a special type of ultrasound called lithotripsy. If the stones are too large to be removed by these methods, surgical removal becomes necessary.

Since bladder stones can often recur, it’s important to reduce the chances of this happening. This means drinking plenty of fluid every day, and ensuring that any underlying medical conditions, such as gout, are treated appropriately.

Alternative medicine:
For centuries, some people have tried to use herbs to treat and prevent stones that form in the kidneys and bladder. Traditional herbs for bladder stones include gravel root (also called kidney root, queen of the meadow and Joe Pye), stone root (also called citronella and colinsonia) and hydrangea (wild or mountain hydrangea).

These herbs are used alone or in various combinations and drunk as tea or taken in tincture form. Some herbal formulas add marshmallow (the plant, not the confection), which is said to coat the fragments so that they can be eliminated painlessly. No studies, however, have confirmed that herbs can break up bladder stones, which are extremely hard and usually require a laser, ultrasound or other procedure for removal.

For prevention, parsley leaf is reported to have a diuretic effect and may be helpful for preventing bladder stones.

You may click tro see :ABC Homeopathic Forum For Urine Bladder Stone

Always check with yourhealth care provider before taking any alternative medicine therapy to be sure it’s safe, and that it won’t adversely interact with other medications you’re taking.


Prognosis:

Most bladder stones are expelled or can be removed without permanent damage to the bladder. They may come back if the cause is not corrected.

If the stones are left untreated, they may cause repeated urinary tract infections or permanent damage to the bladder or kidneys.

Possible Complications:

•Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy
•Bladder cancer in severe, long-term cases
•Chronic bladder dysfunction (incontinence or urinary retention)
•Obstruction of the urethra
•Recurrence of stones
•Reflux nephropathy
•Urinary tract infection

Prevention:

Bladder stones usually result from an underlying condition that’s hard to prevent, but you can decrease your chance of developing bladder stones by following these tips:

*Ask about unusual urinary symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment of an enlarged prostate or another urological condition may reduce your risk of developing bladder stones.

*Drink plenty of fluids. Drinking more fluids, especially water, may help prevent bladder stones because fluids dilute the concentration of minerals in your bladder. How much water you should drink depends on your age, size, health and level of activity. Ask your doctor what’s an appropriate amount of fluid for you.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001275.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bladder1.shtml
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bladder-stones/DS00904
http://modernmedicalguide.com/bladder-stones/
http://health.stateuniversity.com/pages/447/Cystoscopy.html

How To Recognize The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Problems

It’s embarrassing. It’s annoying. It’s exasperating. And it’s controllable. We’re talking about the distressing inconvenience of the side effects associated with prostate problems. This often means midnight treks to the bathroom to pee, pain when you start and end urination and dribbling when you’re done. It can be frustrating when nothing you do seems to help, no matter how careful you try to be.

The key to controlling these symptoms is understanding what causes them, so you can learn how to cope and prevent them in the future.

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The walnut-sized prostate gland is situated at the base of the bladder. The urethra runs from the bladder through the prostate and through the penis. As the prostate gets bigger, it constricts the flow of fluid through the urethra, contributing to several unpleasant and annoying symptoms:

*A need to urinate frequently during the night
*Urinating more often during the day
*Urinary urgency—a strong and sudden urge to pee
*Slow-to-start urine stream
*Lack of force in the urinary stream
*A slight stinging at the beginning and end of urination
*Urine “dribbling” some time after urination ends
*The sensation that the bladder hasn’t been emptied entirely
*The need to urinate again only a few minutes later
For the most part, these symptoms by themselves don’t require medical attention. They can often be controlled by certain urination management techniques that you can practice on your own. If the symptoms are particularly bothersome to you, consult a healthcare professional for help. In particular, you should seek medical care if you experience these symptoms:

*Inability to urinate
*Painful urination
*Blood in the urine
*Discharges from the penis other than urine
*Continuous or severe urinary incontinence
More often than not, using self-help management techniques and natural supplements such as saw palmetto, pumpkin seed, lycopene, red clover and nettle can help manage your prostate health. It’s important to remember that frequent urination, stinging and dribbling are often not a threat to your health or your life, although they can be awkward and embarrassing.

You may click to see :Prostrate Problems Blog

Non-Cancerous Prostate Problems:-

The following are some of the most common non-cancerous prostate problems, their symptoms, and treatment options:

1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

This problem occurs when the prostate gets enlarged. The prostate then blocks the urethra making it difficult to urinate. It causes a person to have a frequent urge to urinate and may cause urine to dribble. You need to see a doctor who will then conduct a rectal examination to diagnose the problem.

If your condition is not causing any problems, the doctor may advise annual checkups only. Treatment will be prescribed only if your situation gets worse later on. There are medications that can cause you prostate to shrink or can relax the muscles near the prostate. However, these medicines can cause side effects such as sexual problems, headaches, dizziness, or fatigue.

Surgery is usually advised only when the medications are not effective. Radio waves, Microwaves, and Lasers are used to treat BPH-related problems.

2. Acute Prostatitis

This condition is caused due to a bacterial infection of the prostate. It causes fever, chills, pain in the lower back, pain between legs, or pain while urinating. A host of medications are available to treat Prostatitis, but hey will be prescribed by your doctor. Do not take over the counter drugs.

3. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

This is a chronic condition caused by a bacterial infection. You may need to take antibiotics for a long time for the situation to improve. Even then, this infection may recur again and a recurrence is usually quite difficult to treat.

4. Chronic Abacterial Prostatitis

This condition is also known as Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). It causes pain in the lower back, at the tip of the penis, or between the legs. You may also have pain during sex or may need to urinate frequently. This situation is also hard to treat and may require more than one form of treatment.

Reources :

Better Health Research
Posts Tagged ‘Prostate

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New Protein May Benefit Prostate Cancer Patients

Men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer and need to have a gland surgically removed may suffer some temporary nerve damage. Complications of this major nerve could lead to more health concerns, including the killing of healthy cells in the penis, as well as erectile dysfunction.

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However, researchers have discovered a protein that could speed up recovery of this complication. Using rats, the team of investigators administered sonic hedgehog, the beneficial protein, into the animals, using a gel that contains a high amount of nutrient.

The team of investigators discovered that the nerve regenerated twice as fast compared to if it healed on its own. This could lead to further research that may also help in treating peripheral nerves in the face that were damaged from certain types of cancer.

Successful studies may lead to improving male patients’ lives after surgery “because men are being diagnosed at a younger age and live longer due to improved cancer therapies,” said Carol Podlasek, assistant professor of urology at Northwestern University’s Feinburg School of Medicine.

These results may benefit prostate cancer patients for a more effective, natural treatment for the illness, as a recent report states. Other non-surgical procedures for these health complications have not been successful for the majority of experimental trial participants.

How many trips a night do you make to the bathroom?

If you have prostate problems, you understand this question all too well. Can anything improve your frequent, painful urination? These guys found something that works:

“Since taking (this natural remedy), I have gone several nights without getting up to go to the bathroom.” —Walter B., California

“I used to get up eight times a night to pee. So far, I’m down to four times a night. This is a vast improvement.” —Ed B., Oklahoma

“I have reduced the night trips to one in my seven-hour sleep period.” —Robert S., Montana

“I no longer get up four to five times a night to go to the bathroom, and I no longer have a sense of an urge to go.” —Ronald R., Louisiana

You may click to find out What secret do these meThey discovered a breakthrough solution for optimum prostate health. Will it work for you, too? n share?

Source :Better Health Research. July 19.2010

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Acute Bilateral Obstructive Uropathy

Urinary system

Image via Wikipedia

Alternative Names: Urethral obstruction; Acute urethral obstruction; Obstructive uropathy – bilateral – acute

Definition:Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy is a sudden blockage of the flow of urine from both kidneys. The kidneys continue to produce urine in the normal manner, but because urine does not drain properly, the kidneys start to swell. You may click to See also:

*Cronic unilateral obstructive uropathy

*Acute unilateral obstructive uropathy

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Causes: In men, acute bilateral obstructive uropathy is most often a result of an enlarged prostate. Other causes in men include: *Bladder cancer *Kidney stones *Prostate cancer Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy is much less common in women, but may be due to: *Bladder cystocele *Cervical cancer *Injury from surgery involving the reproductive organs *Pregnancy Other causes in men and women include: *Blood clots *Neurogenic bladder *Other rare retroperitoneal processes *Papillary necrosis *Posterior urethral valves in infant boys Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy occurs in about 5 out of 10,000 people. You may click to enlarge the pictures and see:-> *Female Bladder Catheterization..…..>. *Male Bladder catheterization…..……> *Female Urinary Tract…………………………..> *Male Urinary Tract………………………………>

 

Symptoms: *Abnormal urine flow — dribbling at the end of urination *Blood in the urine *Burning or stinging with urination *Decrease in the force of the urinary stream, stream small and weak *Decreased urine output (may be less than 10 mL per day) *Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder *Fever *Frequent strong urge to urinate *Recent increase in blood pressure *Leakage of urine (incontinence) *Nausea and vomiting *Need to urinate at night *Sudden flank pain or pain on both sides *Urinary hesitancy *Urine, abnormal color

 

.Diagnosis: Physical Exams : The doctor will perform a physical exam. The exam may show: *Large and full bladder *Swollen or tender kidneys *Enlarged prostate (men) *There may be signs of chronic kidney failure, high blood pressure, and infection. Fever is common with an infection. Tests that may be done include: *Arterial blood gas and blood chemistries *Basic metabolic panel — will reveal kidney function and electrolyte balance *Blood BUN *Creatinine clearance *Complete blood count *Potassium test *Serum creatinine test *Urinalysis and a urine culture (clean catch) *Ultrasound of the bladder *Uroflowmetry The following tests may show hydronephrosis (swelling of kidneys): *IVP *Renal scan *Ultrasound of the kidneys *Abdominal CT scan This disease may also alter the results of the following tests: *Creatinine – urine *Radionuclide cystogram Treatment: The goal of treatment is to relieve the blockage, which will allow urine to drain from the urinary tract. You may need to stay in a hospital for a short while. Short-term treatment may include: *Antibiotics and other medications to treat symptoms *Catheterization– the placement of a tube into the body to drain urine (See: Urinary catheters) Long-term treatment involves correcting the cause of the blockage and this may involve: *Surgery such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) *Laser or heat therapy to shrink the prostate if the problem is due to an enlarged prostate Surgery may also be needed for other disorders that cause blockage of the urethra or bladder neck.

 

Prognosis: If the acute obstruction is quickly relieved, symptoms usually go away within hours to days. If untreated, the disorder causes progressive damage to the kidneys. It may eventually lead to high blood pressure or kidney failure.

Possible Complications : *Acute kidney failure *Chronic bilateral obstructive uropathy *High blood pressure *Reflux nephropathy *Urinary tract infection *Urinary retention or incontinence

When to Contact a Medical Professional : Call your health care provider if you have decreased urine output, difficulty urinating, flank pain, or other symptoms of acute bilateral obstructive uropathy.

Prevention You may not be able to prevent this condition. Routine annual physicals with a primary care doctor are recommended. If your doctor finds you have acute obstructive uropathy, you should be referred to the nearest emergency room and seen by a urologist.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources: http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000485.htm http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000485.htm

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Prostrate Cancer – Myths And Facts

Your prostate is “the size and shape of a walnut”
Misleading, though constantly trotted out by charities. Actually, an apricot is a far better analogy for this organ that sits in the pelvis below the bladder. Like fruits, the prostate has an indentation at the top, through which passes the tube carrying urine from the bladder. That’s why an enlarged prostate means problems peeing.

Hardly. All that most people know about the prostate is that it gets cancer. We chaps should rejoice in it a little more. Not only does it produce the fluids that carry and nourish our sperm; not only is it a complex chemical factory; it’s also the male G-spot and produces many of our sexual kicks.

Men who get prostate cancer are the unlucky minority:
Fiction. It’s not often said because it sounds frightening, but getting prostate cancer could be said to be the norm rather than the exception as men get older. Over the past 30 years prostate cancer rates in Britain have tripled, but this is because of increased detection through PSA tests and the fact that we are living longer. Knowing that you have prostate cancer in your fifties is certainly bad, but for a man aged 85 it’s largely a reflection of the fact that he has been lucky enough not to die of something else earlier. Of the millions of middle-aged men who are never tested, research suggests that a third may have sluggish, relatively harmless prostate cancer and most will never know it.

You cannot reduce your risk of prostate cancer:

Hogwash. Though it’s your genes, your ethnic background and age that are the main risk factors, eating healthily seems to have a preventive role. The Prostate Cancer Charity says that cutting down on animal fat and eating more fruit and veg may lower your chances of prostate cancer. Recent research has indicated that broccoli, in particular, protects because it changes the way our genes express themselves. The jury remains out on supplements based on extracts of tomato, pomegranate and red clover.

Masturbation prevents prostate cancer:
Probably true, according to credible recent research, which found that men who ejaculated more than five times a week (solo, or with a partner) between the ages of 20 and 50 were a third less likely to develop prostate cancer later in life – probably because their orgasms were flushing out cancer-causing chemicals in their prostate. Sex with a partner, however, may pose a small risk of infection transmission, which could cancel the benefits

Sources:Times On Line

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