Tag Archives: Human body

Dehydration

Definition:
Water makes up around 75 per cent of the human body. It’s important for digestion, joint function, healthy skin and removal of waste products.
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Dehydration occurs when more fluid is lost from the body than is taken in. This causes an imbalance in important minerals, such as sodium and potassium, which are required for muscle and nerve function.

If there is a one per cent or greater loss in body weight because of fluid loss, dehydration occurs. This may be mild, moderate or severe, depending on the amount lost.

Infants and children are more susceptible to dehydration than adults because of their smaller body weights and higher turnover of water and electrolytes. The elderly and those with illnesses are also at higher risk.

Dehydration is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on how much of the body’s fluid is lost or not replenished. When severe, dehydration is a life-threatening emergency.

Who are at Risk?
Anyone’s at risk of dehydration, but some people are more at risk than others.

•Babies and young children have relatively low body weights, making them more vulnerable to the effects of fluid loss.
•Older adults tend to eat less and may forget to eat and drink during the day. With increasing age, the body’s ability to conserve water decreases and a person’s sense of thirst becomes less acute. Illness and disability are also more common, which may make it harder to eat and drink enough.
•People with long-term medical conditions, such as kidney disease and alcoholism, are more at risk of dehydration.
•Short-term, acute health problems, such as viral infections, can result in dehydration because fever and increased sweating mean more fluid is lost from the body. Such illnesses may also make you feel less inclined to eat and drink.
•People living or working in hot climates or those who take part in sports or other strenuous physical activities are at greater risk of dehydration.

Symptoms:
The body’s initial responses to dehydration are thirst to increase water intake along with decreased urine output to try to conserve water. The urine will become concentrated and more yellow in color.

As the level of water loss increases, more symptoms can become apparent. The following are further signs and symptoms of dehydration:

•dry mouth,
•the eyes stop making tears,
•sweating may stop,
•muscle cramps,
•nausea and vomiting,
•heart palpitations, and
•lightheadedness (especially when standing).

The body tries to maintain cardiac output (the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart to the body); and if the amount of fluid in the intravascular space is decreased, the body tries to compensate for this decrease by increasing the heart rate and making blood vessels constrict to try to maintain blood pressure and blood flow to the vital organs of the body. This coping mechanism begins to fail as the level of dehydration increases.

With severe dehydration, confusion and weakness will occur as the brain and other body organs receive less blood. Finally, coma and organ failure, and death eventually will occur if the dehydration remains untreated.

Causes:
Around two-thirds of the water we need comes from drinks. Up to one-third comes from food (tomatoes, cucumber, fish and poultry are good sources). Some is also provided as a result of chemical reactions within the body.
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The average adult loses around 2.5 litres of water every day through the normal processes of breathing, sweating and waste removal. If we lose more fluid than usual this tips the balance towards dehydration.

Your body may lose too much fluids from:
•Vomiting or diarrhea
•Excessive urine output, such as with uncontrolled diabetes or diuretic use
•Excessive sweating (for example, from exercise)
•Fever

You might not drink enough fluids because of:
•Nausea
•Loss of appetite due to illness
•Sore throat or mouth sores

Dehydration in sick children is often a combination of both — refusing to eat or drink anything while also losing fluid from vomiting, diarrhea, or fever.

Lifestyle factors such as drinking too much alcohol, exercise, being in a hot environment or being too busy to drink liquid can also lead to dehydration.

Diagnosis:
Dehydration is often a clinical diagnosis. Aside from diagnosing the reason for dehydration, the health care practitioner’s examination of the patient will assess the level of dehydration. Initial evaluations may include:

•Mental status tests to evaluate whether the patient is awake, alert, and oriented. Infants and children may appear listless and have whiny cries and decreased muscle tone.

•Vital signs may include postural readings (blood pressure and pulse rate are taken lying down and standing). With dehydration, the pulse rate may increase and the blood pressure may drop because the intravascular space is depleted of fluid. People taking beta blocker medications for high blood pressure, heart disease, or other indications, occasionally lose the ability to increase their heart rate as a compensation mechanism since these medications block the adrenaline receptors in the body.

•Temperature may be measured to assess fever.

•Skin may be checked to see if sweat is present and to assess the degree of elasticity (turgor). As dehydration progresses, the skin loses its water content and becomes less elastic.

•Infants may have additional evaluations performed, including checking for a soft spot on the skull (sunken fontanelle), assessing the suck mechanism, muscle tone, or loss of sweat in the armpits and groin. All are signs of potential significant dehydration.

•Pediatric patients are often weighed during routine child visits, thus a body weight measurement may be helpful in assessing how much water has been lost with the acute illness.

Laboratory testing:-
The purpose of blood tests is to assess potential electrolyte abnormalities (especially sodium levels) associated with the dehydration. Tests may or may not be done on the patient depending upon the underlying cause of dehydration, the severity of illness, and the health care practitioner’s assessment of their needs.

Urinalysis may be done to determine urine concentration – the more concentrated the urine, the more dehydrated the patient.

Treatment:-
As is often the case in medicine, prevention is the important first step in the treatment of dehydration. (Please see the home treatment and prevention sections.)

Fluid replacement is the treatment for dehydration. This may be attempted by replacing fluid by mouth, but if this fails, intravenous fluid (IV) may be required. Should oral rehydration be attempted, frequent small amounts of clear fluids should be used.

Clear fluids include:
•water,
•clear broths,
•popsicles,
•Jell-O, and
•other replacement fluids that may contain electrolytes (Pedialyte, Gatorade, Powerade, etc.)
Decisions about the use of intravenous fluids depend upon the health care practitioner’s assessment of the extent of dehydration and the ability for the patient to recover from the underlying cause.

The success of the rehydration therapy can be monitored by urine output. When the body is dry, the kidneys try to hold on to as much fluid as possible, urine output is decreased, and the urine itself is concentrated. As treatment occurs, the kidneys sense the increased amount of fluid, and urine output increases.

Medications may be used to treat underlying illnesses and to control fever, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Home Treatment:
Dehydration occurs over time. If it can be recognized in its earliest stages, and if its cause can be addressed, home treatment may be beneficial and adequate.

Steps a person can take at home to prevent severe dehydration include:

•Individuals with vomiting and diarrhea can try to alter their diet and use medications to control symptoms to minimize water loss. Clear fluids often recommended as the diet of choice for the first 24 hours, with gradual progression to a BRAT diet (bananas, rice, apples, toast) and then adding more foods as tolerated.
•Loperamide (Imodium) may be considered to control diarrhea.
•Acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be used to control fever.
•Fluid replacements may be attempted by small, frequent amounts of clear fluids (see clear fluids information in previous section). The amount of fluid required to maintain hydration depends upon the individual’s weight. The average adult needs between 2 and 3 liters of fluid per day.
If the person becomes confused or lethargic; if there is persistent, uncontrolled fever, vomiting, or diarrhea; or if there are any other specific concerns, then medical care should be accessed.

Prevention:-
•Environment: Dehydration due to the weather is a preventable condition. If possible, activities should not be scheduled in the heat of the day. If they are, adequate fluids should be available, and cooler, shaded areas should be used if possible. Of course, people should be monitored to make certain they are safe. Those working in hot environments need to take care to rehydrate often.
•Exercise: People exercising in a hot environment need to drink adequate amounts of water.
•Age: The young and elderly are most at risk. During heat waves, attempts should be made to check on the elderly in their homes. During the Chicago heat wave of 1995, more than 600 people died in their homes from heat exposure.
•Heat related conditions: Know the signs and symptoms of heat cramps, heat rash, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. Preventing dehydration is one step to avoid these conditions.

Carefully monitor someone who is ill, especially an infant, child, or older adult. If you believe that dehydration is developing, consult a doctor before the person becomes moderately or severely dehydrated. Begin fluid replacement as soon as vomiting and diarrhea start — DO NOT wait for signs of dehydration.

Always encourage the person to drink during an illness, and remember that a person’s fluid needs are greater when that person has fever, vomiting, or diarrhea. The easiest signs to monitor are urine output (there should be frequent wet diapers or trips to the bathroom), saliva in the mouth, and tears when crying.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/dehydration1.shtml
http://www.medicinenet.com/dehydration/page4.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000982.htm

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Breasts Like a Woman

Both men and women have breasts. In women they are well developed while in men they are rudimentary. Yet 60 per cent of men, at some point in their life, develop aesthetically unacceptable “gynaecomastia “ , a term which in Greek means “breasts like a woman”.

Male babies may develop enlargement of one or both breasts. Sometimes, the affected breasts may also secrete a watery milk-like secretion. This is normal and occurs because the baby’s breast has been influenced by the mother’s hormones. It disappears if left alone. Pressing it to remove the milk can result in infection and abscess formation.

Thirty to 50 per cent boys in the age group 11 to 14 years suddenly develop breasts. It occurs because during this time the levels of the sex hormones, both estrogen (female hormone) and testosterone (male hormone), start to increase. Testosterone controls male traits such as muscle mass and body hair, while estrogen controls female traits, including the growth of breasts. A perfect ratio has to be maintained, or else it might lead to the development of breasts in boys. In 75 per cent of them, the breasts regress spontaneously within three years.

Breast enlargement in boys may persist because of hypogonadism (inadequate development of the male sex organs). This may be genetic — in people whose genetic profile is XXY instead of XY, owing to the failure of the testes to develop at all, or a result of artificial removal of the testes (castration). It may occur in adults as a result of kidney and thyroid diseases. Liver damage can also result in low testosterone levels and enlarged breasts.

Enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group, found in fat tissue, convert testosterones to estrogens. As the fat tissue increases gynaecomastia can occur. Weight loss and exercises, like the bench press and push-ups, can correct this type of breast enlargement along with overall weight reduction.

These enzymes can be affected by medications for ulcers, anti psychotic drugs, sedatives, diuretics and some antibiotics. Long-term use of medications belonging to these groups can cause gynaecomastia. Several illicit drugs are available on the streets today. Some, such as the amphetamines, are touted as a “safe” adjuvant to long hours of studying as they prevent drowsiness. But long-term use of these not only damages the psyche but also promotes breast development.

“Nutritional supplements” are used by many bodybuilders. Many do not contain all the ingredients listed. Some are sold secretly “under the counter” or via the Internet. Many preparations are not legal or may have expired. They may not conform to safety standards. Moreover, they may contain steroids. Sometimes, they contain creatinine, natural ingredients found in the human body. However, they may be dangerous to health, and cause enlarged and sometimes lumpy breasts.

There is no short cut to a “Mr World” physique. At least two hours of workout is needed with a healthy high-protein, low-fat diet.

Gynaecomastia is not always harmless. It needs to be reviewed with all previous medical documents, and investigated with blood tests and scans. Very rarely, gynaecomastia confined to one side may be due to cancer.

Diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause of gynaecomastia may lead to improvement. Changing the offending medication, avoiding alcohol and exercising regularly may be all that is required. Some medications which are anti estrogen, or testosterone derivatives can sometimes be used on a short-term basis under medical supervision. These medications are for treating other diseases and are not universally approved for the treatment of gynaecomastia.

Medical treatment or “waiting and watching” can be tried for two to three years. After that, the breast tissue tends to harden and then surgery is the only alternative. There are several options — liposuction, gland excision, skin sculpture, reduction mammoplasty or a combination of these techniques. Reduction surgery is a cosmetic procedure and is usually performed by plastic surgeons.

In 25 per cent of men with persistent gynaecomastia, there is no correctable cause, nor is the condition dangerous. If they do not wish to have surgery or try medications and just wish to live with the condition, the breasts can often be compressed. An elastic girdle worn by women around their abdomens can be used and works quite well. Or else, a loose thick shirt may be sufficient to hide the offending bulges.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Coming soon, the Hips and Knees that will Never Wear Out

Replacement body parts that never wear out could become a reality within a few years as the  scientists say.

Dodgy knees and hips will be repaired using tissue engineering, while donor heart valves from animals are being specially treated to last indefinitely.
Longer-lasting artificial joints are already being tested in a bid to ensure people will be able to enjoy another 50 active years.

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X-ray of female pelvix with total hips replacement

Scientists at the University of Leeds Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering have launched a £50million research initiative focused on areas of the body most affected by ageing, including joints, spine, teeth, heart and circulation.

Unlike studies involving stem cells and growing ‘spare parts’ in a lab, the programme uses the body’s own regenerative systems. The Leeds scientists have developed a chemical wash that strips cells away from donated cartilage, heart valves, blood vessels and other tissue before they are put into a human body.
Research shows they become repopulated with cells within about six months. Some 40 patients have already been treated with modified heart valves in a study in Brazil.

Professor John Fisher, director of the institute and one of the world’s leading researchers into artificial joints, said research so far had shown the valves did not deteriorate and were not rejected by the body, because ‘foreign’ donor cells had all been stripped away.
The unique method of removing living cells from human and animal tissue creates a biological ‘scaffold’ that can be regenerated within the body, at the site which needs repairing.

Worn-out ligaments and cartilage in knees can be replaced with a scaffold that will eventually attract cells to make the joint last longer.

Other areas targeted for treatment are the spine  –  where discs can be replaced  –  elbow and shoulder tissues and parts of the knee. Vascular patches are being devised that seal the holes made in arteries when surgeons clear a blockage.

The technique is not suitjointsable for whole organs, however. Professor Fisher has also designed a ceramic-on-metal hip joint that reduces ten-fold the wear and tear on artificial joints.

As a result people should be able to get spare parts at an earlier age, when they are less disabled, and they could last up to 50 years, he said.

The professor added: ‘Hip have been used for nearly 50 years but nowadays people want to cycle, play tennis, even go skiing, so they have to last longer.’
He said a scaffolding transplant would cost only around £1,000 a time. It was much more expensive to grow cells outside the body, and there was a higher infection risk.

Professor Eileen Ingham, deputy director of the Institute, said stem cells were not the answer to structural replacement of wornout bits of the body such as heart valves.

She said: ‘We are working with the NHS National Blood & Transplant Tissue Services to apply it to human donor valves. Once a patient has one, it should last a lifetime.’

Professor Christina Doyle, chief executive of Xeno Medical, predicted that in 20-30 years there would be techniques capable of regenerating human tissue off-the-shelf for use in operations.

She said: ‘It will be a case of the surgeon dialling up for spare parts to be delivered in a sterilised plastic bag.’

Source:Mail Online, 20th. Oct.’09

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Appendix is Also a Valuable Organ

Your appendix is a slimy sac that hangs between your small and large intestines. It has long been thought of as a worthless evolutionary artifact, good for nothing except a potentially lethal case of inflammation. But now researchers suggest that your appendix is a lot more than a useless remnant.
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Not only was it recently proposed to actually possess a critical function, but scientists now find it appears in nature a lot more often than they had thought. And it’s possible some of this organ’s ancient uses could be recruited by physicians to help the human body fight disease more effectively.

Your appendix may serve as a vital safehouse where good bacteria can lie in wait until they are needed to repopulate the gut after a case of diarrhea. Past studies have also found the appendix can help make, direct and train white blood cells.

The appendix appears in nature much more often than previously acknowledged. It appears in Australian marsupials such as the wombat and in rats, lemmings, meadow voles, and other rodents, as well as humans and certain primates.

Resources:
Live Science August 24, 2009
Journal of Evolutionary Biology August 12, 2009 [Epub Ahead of Print]

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Treating Diseases Through Grapho-Yoga

 Ever heard of diseases being cured through ‘grapho-yoga’?

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Grapho-Yoga claims if you learn & practice it,  you can get rid of: sciatica, neurosis, hysteria, neurasthenia irritability, impotency, vertigo, tendency to remain ill, disparate, trembling of hands and feet, violent anger, chronic choryza, depression, sleeplessness, paronia, suicidal tendency, sensuality, forgetfulness, rough voice, anthrophobia, timidity, thyroid problem, resentment etc…...CLICK  & SEE

It is the super technology and it don’t require any other help.

You can destroy the den of enemies inside or outside.

You can approach Dr Sachidanand Pandey in Patna (a town in Bihar in India) who claims to have cured at least 2000 patients through the art of grapho-yoga, a combination of hand-writing and yoga.

Pandey said he had invented the system after putting in 18 long years in research and established his own ‘Grapho Yoga Peeth’ in Bihar‘s capital.

Explaining the method, Pandey said it was based on a combination of yoga and the science of hand-writing analysis i.e. graphology. It is simple, does not cost much and requires nothing except pen, paper and oxygen.

“I got inspiration from western researches which say that letters give an insight into the psyche of persons like why many people are quarrelsome or why many turn into criminals. So I thought that the letters and the way one writes them can also have a positive effect on their personality,” Pandey explained.

There are 26 letters in Roman alphabet and 50 in Devnagri which have been invented as per the need of human being, he said. All these 50 characters were linked to glands in the human body which secrete 50 vital hormones controlling 50 propensities or qualities of a person.
You may click to learn more .


Sources
:

The Times Of India

http://www.microvitumgraphotherapy.swebby.com/

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